Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide GR 1123
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mary Carlos on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GR 1123 at Mississippi State University taught by Sarah Radencic in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Intro World Geography in Geography at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Israel/Palestine o In 1948 the UN created Israel for Holocaust Refugees after WWII A few years before, Britain gave land to the Transjordan(Palestinian) people o 1967 the "Six-day-long War" gained several lands for Israel Golan Heights(Syria), the West Bank(Jordan) and the Gaza Strip(Egypt) Made relationships even worse with displaced people o Made Palestine a stateless nation of 12 million people Diaspora to other surrounding nations (Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia) o Dynamics of Israel and Palestine The West Bank After captured from Jordan, many Palestinians fled here Jerusalem UN made Tel Aviv Israel's capital; Israel said Jerusalem is the capital 6-day war: Palestinians capture Eastern Jerusalem; while Israel occupies the west. Gaza strip Taken from Egypt, abandoned by Israel, claimed by Palestine East Asia o Mongolia, china, North Korea, South Korea and Japan, taiwan o Contains 20% of the world's population >1.5 billion people Majority in china, only country with population in the billions o China's climate controls the population Water and soil in the east Dry and infertile in the west o Massive increase in economic power of the 30-40 years Particularly China o Capital punishment is very common Execute 4x the amount of people than anywhere else in the world o Facebook, twitter, the NYT are blocked in China Autocratic dictatorship Don’t want them to be influenced by the western world o China has 1 time zone o Great wall of china The largest structure ever built by humans Can be seen from space o Gobi Desert Hot in the summer, cold/icy in the winter o Japan as ca. 6800 islands Archipelago o Japan has the oldest population 50,000 people over 100 years old o There are more sheep in Mongolia than people (35 to 1) o North Korea has the 4th largest military in the world. 1.2 million people o Geologic Proceses Japan impacted heavily by the ring of fire 2011 Earthquake and Tsunami; due to colliding plates Tsunami: Japanese for "harbor wave" Caused by lifting/sinking tectonic plates Subduction zone SW China impacted by the Himalayas Continent-continent plate boundary Converging Non-volcanic Mountains grow 1cm per 1 year Ice melt in Major source of water for India, Nepal, China o Rivers in East Asia 4 main river systems Huang He (yellow) Beijing is located along this river Yangzi (Long) Shanghai is located along this river Xi (Pearl) Hong Kong/Macau Shenzhen (fastest growing city in history) Liao (Mother) Gobi Desert is the headwater (big for mining) o Population and Economy China 1.3 billion Japan 127 million Econonly Japan exports mostly technology based equipment Machinery, textiles, automobiles China contains 95% of the rare earth minerals Due to country's size, and recent exploitation o Regions of East Asia China's coastal core Economic center of the country Huge population centers China's interior North = mining Central = oil/coal production South = mountainous and rugged China's wester periphery Very rural Xinjiang Xizang Mongolia Size of alaska but only 3 million people The Korean Peninsula Size of Idaho 72.3 million people Japan Mostly Urban Population Taiwan An island democracy Culture in East Asia o Pinyin The phonetical of the Chinese words. o Sinophone, or widespread "Chinese-speaking" peoples Huge influence in this area. o Language is based on symbols or glyphs not an alphabet Can represent a single word or a whole thought. Logographic language Very complex with many dialects Mandarin is the most widespread o Religion: Confucian, Shinto, Taoism and Buddhism Also complex… many sects, beliefs Tao = "flow of the universe, energy and nature" Taoism is polycentric Shinto does not have a deity or multiple deity. Shinto follows the belief that there are multiple spirits who just want to make sure everyone is happy. Ancient China o Rice was domesticated some ca. 10,000 years ago Neolithic 1st to selectively breed plants (botanical engineers?) o Very complex advanced culture (established before Greece and Rome) Yangshao: the silk worm Hongshan: jade jewelry Liangzhu: Ivory, lacquering, gold inlay, paintings, ornate posts and dishes, etc… o Japan state formation began around 660BCE, borrowed concepts from china. o Confucianism originated in China and spread to Korea/Japan (still exists today) Confucious was a philosopher who lived from 551 BC to 479 BC Human virtues not godly connections should determine a person's place in society Major cultural influence: rudeness is extremely bad in Japan. Dynasties of China o Dynasty: is a line of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchial system. o 26 dynasties over 5000 to 6000 years o Xia dynasty Founded the first advanced civilization o Shang dynasty Established the basis for the current day Chinese language o Zhou dynasty Buddhism came to China during this time Theocracy (priests rule in the name of a god) o Manchu dynasty Greatest extent of Chinese empire Fell to the Japanese (WWI) Great Wall of China and the Silk Road o Great Wall Can be seen from space 13,171 miles long Earth is 24,901 miles long (53% of the earth's circumference) o The largest human construction in history o The wall had many purposes Border control (unwanted immigration) Collection of taxes (tolls) Transport goods via the silk road Defense (Mongol Invasion: Genghis Khan) o Silk Road Major transportation route for goods, cultural transmissions, religions, and even disease Marco Polo traveled this route as the first European to travel east. Colonial China o Many countries involved(fighting over resources) Russia Germany Britain France o Colonial Control Hong Kong: Britain Shandong Peninsula: Germany Vietnam/Cambodia: France Manchuria: Russia Korean Peninsula: Japan o Extraterritoriality: "the state of being exempted from the jurisdiction of local law, usually as the result of diplomatic negotiations" Caused the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 Rebellion against western and Japanese control in China Rebels led by the Society of the Righteous and Harmonious Fists "Diplomatic Immunity" o Special Administrative Regions: located in China, but not under political control Hong Kong ("Fragrant Harbor") 7 million people Cantonese speaking British Colony since 1800s Give back to China in 1997 A global city Huge banking sector Macau ("Mirror Sea") 607,500 people Portuguese controlled since the 1500s Central hub for Slave trade Given back to China in 1999 Now a huge gambling center China (Peoples Republic of China) (PRC) o In 2010 China became the 2nd largest economy in the world (US 1st, Japan 3rd. US only country in the west) Foreign investment is attracted b/c of low wages and high skills market o Complex government structure 22 provinces Small in the east, and large in the west (less people, obviously) Each with own governing body o Population issues: Overpopulation: For most of the 20th century, population grew 3% a year Population control: Government realized in order to grow economically, the population needed to be "controlled" As of 2010, growth is down to 0.5% There is now a majority elder population (people under 30 are the minority) One-child policy- OVERTURNED 2015 (2 children) China's Military o People's Liberation Army (PLA) Ca. 2,285,000 members Almost doubled the US army World's largest standing military Structured very similar to USSR Service is based entirely on volunteers, not conscription Taiwan o Called the "Republic of China" (ROC) o A democracy, not Communistic Supported by the US both economically and militarily 125 miles off coast from the mainland Both PRC and ROC are connected economically Both do business in each other's country Imports raw materials: cotton, oil, aluminum iron Exports finished goods: computers, textiles, telecom equip, GPS, satellites Lots of technology!! Tibet o Complex dynamic with China Independent for years, but "taken over" in the 1950s by China Annexation: the forcible acquisition of a state's territory by another state Tibetan society: Buddhist monasteries and the Dalai Lama Stateless nation of 3 million people led by the Dalai Lama Seeking support for independence o China removed the monks in Tibet and forced the western Chinese to move into Tibet, replacing the Tibetan way of life Assimilation ROC has called for the re-establishment of Tibet PRC won't allow independence o Nepal Earthquake Mongolia o Land-Locked nation dominated by steppe and desert landscapes Mostly 800,000 nomads o Home of Ganges Khan o Considered a buffer state between two large superpower interests Russia and China o Has a huge potential in the mining industry Gold, copper, coal have been found by Chinese and Russian investors Doesn't presently have the infrastructure to exploit o Live in Yorts South Korea o Republic of Korea 50 million people Capital: Seoul Mostly secularized country (>50% don't practice religion) o Split due to the removal of Japan after WWII Soviet freed the north US freed the south o Has a woman president Second highest standard of living in Asia 17 provinces Heavily protected by the US and NATO Dynamic with N. Korea o Exports drive the economy Electronic intergrated circuits make up 8% of exports Cruise ships manufacturing is large here as well 9% Automobile producers: Kia Hyundai Daewoo North Korea o Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) "democratic" is used rather loosely.. Kim family has been in charge for years Really is a single-party autocracy Kim Jong Un (31 years old) took office in 2011 once his father died Cult of Personality: when an individual uses mass media, propaganda or other methods, to create an idealized heroic, and worshipful image. o 7 decades of very strict governance has caused the country many issues Famine, poor population Very isolated internationally Not much is known about North Korea Prison camps: those who do not respect government rule Population is divided upon status and compassion towards the government If so more food and power… if not, bad things happen A nuclear power Japan o 5 main islands(archipelago): Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, and Okinawa Tokyo and Osaka are on Honshu o Known as the "land of the rising sun" (flag) o National symbol: Chrysanthemum o Practiced isolationism for a long time 700 AD to 1900s Foreigners not allowed in…. Japanese were not allowed to travel outside This is why Japan is ethnically and cultural homogenous (>99% ethnic Japanese) o Isolationism was replaced with imperialism Early 1900s, Japan started to expand in the Pacific, China, and Eastern Russia o The Meiji Restoration Modernization Acceptance of Western Culture Relocated the Capitol: From Kyoto to Edo o Fukushima is the home of the nuclear power plant (2011 tsunami) Japan Ancient History o Broke away from the Chinese dynastic influence o Created a ruling class of noble lords, called Shoguns o Shoguns were supported by hereditary warriors, known as Samurai Japanese for "warrior serving a noble" Ronin: "a samurai without a master" o Feudal system o Hara-Kiri Seppuku: ritual suicide in bushido honor code o Boshin War Civil war between Shoguns and Japanese government attempting to modernize Japan Eventually led to Meiji Restoration Japan Today o After WWII US forced Japan to: Adopt a new constitution Drastically reduce spending on its military Accept a permanent US military base on its soil o These acts allowed Japan to focus on its economy Made things better and cheaper than anyone else Electronics Automobiles o Japan is the third largest economy in the world o 4 other nations followed the Japanese model, referred to as "4 asian tigers" Include Hong kong, South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore Japanese Population o 99% literacy o 80% urban population 50% live in Nagoya, Tokyo, and Osaka Tokyo is considered the most expensive city in the world o Greetings Bowing is the traditional Japanese greeting Lower bows = more reverence Business cards o Group Oriented Loyalty to the group and superiors takes precedent over personal feelings o Important tenants: honor, patience, respect, and politeness o Uniformity in appearance is a Japanese Characteristic Businessmen wearing black pants, a white shirt, and a tie is very common In general students wear uniforms to school Outside school, youth wear American clothes o Baseball is huge o Cultural Transmissions Noodles Rice Soup Seafood o Japanese philosophy: food should be enjoyed as close as possible to natural state Overfishing in East Asia o Japan and China biggest offenders o Japan: Bluefin Tuna Tuna very important to Japanese culture As sushi spreads, problem compounded o China Shark fin soup Cultural tension: tradition v. sustainability Very wasteful Inhumane process: "shark finning" India's History o British colonialism in most of South Asia Mid-1800s, East India Trade Company was established by Britain Used to control S. Asia through economy/trade of the region o Colonial rule drastically changed the landscape, both politically and culturally Infrastructure (railroads, electricity, communication) Cultural Transmission between India and Great Britain Democracy and English language in India; Tikka Masala in GB British left India in 1947 o Pakistan and Bangladesh became independent from India in 1947 Religious differences were the main cause for this separation Bangladesh was stateless until the 70's India o Number 1 economic is agriculture o 1.2 billion people in 28 states, 6 territories and 1 capital district o Largest democracy by population in the world o Hindi is the north, English speaking in the south o West India is richer, Eastern India poorer o >70% of the populations is rural; mostly farmers Rice, millet and wheat are the largest crops in India Only 29% of the population lives within an urban area India's Economy o Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi/New Delhi, Bangalore Mumbai is called "East Hollywood" or "Bollywood" Kolkata is the steel manufacturing center Bangalore is the largest IT hub in India (lots of US outsourcing) o Other parts of India are not so productive due to education and poverty Rural/poor areas hamper the overall economy of India Hence India does not have a over-population problem (ie China), but an education/economic problem A large majority of the Indian population is young As the young generations age, the working population will increase Social Issues in South Asia o Male dominated society: Huge wage disparity between men/women Most land-owners are men, who inherit money/businesses o Dowry: "property or money brought by a bride to her husband on their marriage" Dowry deaths: women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws for an increased dowry. o Marriages are often organized when women are teenagers o Malaria Video Scientific-complicated Economic- health v. wealth Cultural political o Clean Water is a very big issue Both for bathing and drinking Indonesia o 247 million 4th largest country in the world (spatially) Largest archipelago in the world 13,466 islands Main Islands Borneo Largely forests (lots of bio-diversity) Komodo Dragon found here Java Large populous island, fertile soil Papua Deforestation issues Sumatra Largest of the Indonesian islands spatially "Indo-China" o Established by France when they invaded SE Asia in the mid- 1800s o Defined culturally by influence from China and India o Main Countries Cambodia - Khmer Rouge Laos Vietnam - War with US Thailand Burma (Britain) Australia o Large part is uninhabitable o Southern hemisphere o Colonized by Dutch, Spanish, Portugal until 1616 Known as New Holland o 1770 - Great Britain claimed ownership o Initially used as a mining outpost and prison colony Essentially where England sent it's riff-raff o Aborigines are the Natives o Very diverse Australia's Geography o 6th largest Nation Capital Canberra o Nearly 20% of land is occupied by deserts o Outback o Situated between the Indian and Pacific Oceans o Is its own Continent, a country and an island Only country in the world to occupy entire continent o Great Barrier Reef Water is warming Increases the acid level in the ocean Coral require warm shallow water, but not as warm as it is becoming Photosynthetic organisms If they leave from the water being too warm then the coral will begin to die. The coral depends on this organism to survive
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