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by: Jazmine Morales
Jazmine Morales
GPA 3.7

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This study guide is cumulative and is the study guide for the final exam
Dr. Powell
Study Guide
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jazmine Morales on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTDT 20403 at Texas Christian University taught by Dr. Powell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Texas Christian University.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
Final Exam Review - Nutrition 1. Nutrients 1. Energy Yielding nutrients/fat storage/Kcals per gram CHO= 4g PRO=4g Fat= 9g 2. Organic/inorganic nutrients- characteristics Organic= carbon containing; CHO, PRO, lipids & vitamins inorganic =minerals, water 3. DRI’s- what they mean AI= not a set amount RDA= meet needs of almost all healthy people (98%) UL= tolerable upper intake EAR= meets about 50% of population 4. Enriched vs fortified foods Enriched= adding nutrients back that were taking out. Putting back what was there to begin with Fortified= putting nutrients that were not there in the first place. Ex: orange juice, milk 5. Labels- % daily value Based on 2000 calorie diet. 6. % of kcals from fat 10g fat x by 9= 90kcals, 100 kcals 90/100=9% 2. Digestion and absorption Digestion begins in mouth for CHO→ salivary amylase Epiglottis= protects airway during swallowing LES= between esophagus and stomach; Close to cardiac sphincter→ helps w/ heartburn Stomach= pyloric sphincter below Ileocecal valve= keeps bacteria into the colon so it doesn't back up into SI separates SI & LI 1. Order of anatomy Mouth esophagusstomachsmall intestinelarge intestinerectumanus  1st part of stomach= duodenum  2nd part= jejunum  3rd part= ileum pyloric sphincter= slows release of digestion movement. Opens in short bursts. Highly acidic. Nutrients are absorbed and neutralized→ opens a little at a time to let chyme into the duodenum ** Biocarbonate sent to neutralize acid 2. Bolus and chyme Bolus= chewed mouthful; amount of food in mouth swallowed at one time Chyme = semiliquid mass of partially digested food mushy HCI 3. Sites –where does most digestion/abs occur SMALL INTESTINE= major nutrient site of absorption!!! CHO digestion= mouth 3 major energy-yielding nutrients digested by pancreas Liver produces bile 4. Function of HCL and bicarbonate HCL= hydrochloric acid; stomach bicarbonate= pancreas; to neutralize acid 5. Secretions and their producers ex bile and liver 6. Digestive secretions/hormones/ juices and their role  Salivary glands= secrete salivary amylase  Endocrine glands= secrete hormones; pancreas secrete insulin into bloodstream  Exocrine glands= secrete materials out of body; enzymes, salivary glands  Gastric juice= PRO digestion; mixture of water, enzymes & HCI mucus protects stomach cell walls  Pancreatic juice/intestinal enzymes= sodium bicarbonate neutralizes acidic chyme *** Bile emulsifies fat; produced by liver, stored in gallbladder  Gastrin, CCK, secretin CCK= gets pancreas to send bicarbonate; goes to gallbladder to release bile; digests fats & proteins Gastrin= hydrochloric acid secreted controls stomach acid pH Secretin= bicarbonate rich juices secreted into duodenum to emulsify fats; responds to acidic chyme in SI 7. Which route are the macronutrients absorbed CHO=50% Fat= 30% PRO= 20% st Macro= carbs, fats, proteins go to liver 1 micros= vitamins and minerals lipids= long chain FAs/monoglycerides go through the lymphatic system 1 , then enter bloodstream through subclavian vein and enter heart Short chain FAs go through liver; long chain FAs cannot go to liver first 3. CHO 1. Monosaccharaides/disaccharides- where are they found-what are they converted to? Monosaccharides= 1 double bond Disaccharides= 2 glucose units→ Maltose glucose & fructose = sucrose **all converted to glucose 2. Sources Starches, fruits, veggies, no meats unless fried complex= whole grains, starches simple= cakes, pies ,cookies 3. Fiber types and sources of each-functions Soluble= good for your heart; oats, beans and some fruits Insoluble= helps going to bathroom; brans, celery, cereals 4. Hydrolysis /condensation reactions hydrolysis= breaking down condensation= building up; taking glucose to form glycogen→ building up to maltose monosaccharide to disaccharide 5. Insulin & glucagon action/maintaining glu levels Insulin= takes glucose out of blood to put it into cells Glucagon= kicks in when sugar is low & takes glucose out of cells to put into cells via pancreas Glycogen= storage form of glucose in animals liver & muscle 6. Types of diabetes and characteristics of each Type 2= insulin resistance, caused by obesity, pancreas don't function too well Type 1= juvenile onset, pancreas don't work at all, no insulin production (insulin shots) **watching starches, fruits, and dairy for ppl with diabetes **watch fats for ppl with Type 2 diabetes 4. Protein 1. Chem structure 1. Compound of C, H, O, Nitrogen 2. Arranged into amino acids→ building blocks of PRO 3. 20 AA; 9 are essential th 4. 4 side chain varies from one AA to another 2. Amount needed 1. 0.8g/kg body weight, elderly 1.8, intense athlete a little more 3. Functions- know all Structural materials= Proteins form integral parts of most body tissues and provide strength and shape to skin, tendons, membranes, muscles, organs, and bones. Enzymes= proteins facilitate chemical reactions Hormones= Proteins regulate body processes **Thyroxin= controls metabolic rate Fluid balance= help to maintain the volume & composition of bodily fluids Acid-base balance= maintains acid-base balance of bodily fluids by acting as buffers ***prevents acidosis & alkalosis Transportation= transport lipids, vitamins, minerals, & oxygen around the body Antibodies= inactivate foreign invaders→ protects against diseases Energy & glucose= provide some fuel & glucose if needed Other= protein fibrin creates blood clots, collagen forms scars; opsin participates in vision 4. Complete/incomplete High quality PRO= easily digestible & complete; all AA in relatively same amounts Animal PRO= complete; except gelatin Plant PRO= variable Egg PRO is reference protein by which we measure quality of other protein **Amount of N2 retained after digested & absorbed 5. How denatured 1. Disruption of stability 2. Uncoil & lose shape 3. Stomach acid 4. Mechanical agitation EX: cooking an egg, curdling of milk, stiffening of egg whites 6. Nitrogen balance N2 consumed vs. N2 excreted (+) N2= growth & pregnancy (-) N2= during sickness, trauma, if beridden; muscle atrophy, starvation→ losing more than taken in Unused AA broken down 1. Vegetarian types Vegan has nothing to do w/ ANY animal product, but we have diff. types of vegetarians Lacto vegetarian 7. NH3 and urea= getting rid of excess PRO 1. N2 released into blood as NH3 (ammonia) 2. Cleared by liver & converted to urea 3. Filtered by kidneys & excreted in urine 8. Need for H20 if you have high protein diet 5. Lipids 1. Structure 1. Glycerol + 3 FAs 2. glycerol= backbone 3. contain mixture acids 4. formed by series of reactions 2. Types of fats- saturated, poly, mono- know sources of each and health consequences of each Saturated= full of hydrogens→ stack together→ solid/firm→ no double bond, clogs arteries; stearic acid 18 carbon 1. Raise LDL, heart disease, obesity EX: coconut oil, butter, lard, palm oils ADVANTAGE= good shelf life Unsaturated= missing hydrogens→ bend at the double bonds→ liquid at room temp Polyunsaturated= 2 or more double bonds→ linoleic & linolenic (omega 6 & 3) **Likely to go rancid, take down HDL w/ them Monounsaturated= 1 double bond; MONO is the best! Oleic acid 18 carbon; found in olive, peanut & canola oil, avocado= take down LDL w/o lowering HDL 3. Number of bonds^ 4. Linoleic and linolenic Linoleic= 18 carbon w/2 double bonds; Omega 6 (everywhere) EX: sunflower, safflower, corn & soybean oil (vegetable oils)→ you don't have to try to get Linolenic= 18 carbon w/3 double bonds; Omega 3 essential to growth & development, may prevent/treat heart disease, HTN, cancer, arthritis EX: fish, flaxseed, soybean oil, walnut oil→ have to seek after Omega 3 FAs= lower cholesterol & heart disease 5. HDL= good cholesterol 60+; high in PRO; protects against heart attack EX: increased by monounsaturated fats, soluble fibers, exercise, weight control, antioxidants LDL= bad cholesterol 130 below; linked to heart disease 6. hydrogenation/saturation: what are advantages and disadvantages, know the chemistry Hydrogenation= Polyunsaturated FA converted to hydrogenated saturated FA→ building up Advantage= shelf life Disadantages= bad for your heart; hydrogen ends up on opposite side are called trans fat 7. cis and trans fats- health consequences Cis fats= hydrogens on same side; bend into U-like shape Trans fat= hydryogens on opposite sides; more linear; raise LDL & lower HDL **Coconut oil has more saturated fat than lard 6. Weight control 1. BMR- ways to increase/decrease 1. having more lean mass & exercising more 2. only what you need to survive; doesn't include food or water 2. Calculate BMI and classify 1. Weight in pounds divided by height squared in inches multiply by 703 2. EX: 180/ 66^2 x 703= 29 3. overweight= 25 4. Obesity=30 3. Leptin/grehlin-controlling appetite 1. leptin= makes you be more active, controls eating 2. grehlin= makes you hungry→ appetite, cravings 4. Calculate wt loss 1. 1 pound= 3500kcals 2. lose 500 kcals each dayto lose 1 pound each week→ 500 X 7=3500 7. Metabolism – all the G words  glucogenic= source of glucose & energy; converted to pyruvate  ketogenic= converted to acetyl CoA  gluconeogenesis= making glucose from non-CHO source  glycemic effect= extent to which a food raises blood glucose concentration & elicits insulin response  glycolysis= 2 pyruvate; glucose to pyruvate (can be converted back to glucose) 1. Fate of the nutrients see exam review for exam 3 -which can form glucose Anaerobic= quick energy; CHO, PRO, lipids; pyruvatelactate use CHO for energy Aerobic= slow energy; pyruvate  acetyl CoA Catabolic= breaking down; pyruvate Anabolism= building up; glucoseglycogen; glycerol FAs to TG 2. Lactic acid 1. when you do intense exercise w/o breathing, feel burning sensation from lactic acid; can convert back to glucose→ too much you start back up 3. Feasting/fasting Need glucose to fuel brain If energy is not available then body switches to waste metabolism  energy is released trough electron transport chain by ATP  Metabolism favors fat formation when eating in excess CHO, fat, & PRO ALL convert to fat 4. Ketosis Ketones= alternate energy source when glucose is not available (low CHO diets)  Insufficient CHO forms ketone bodies, which cause nail polish fruity odor breath 8. Vitamins/minerals/water 1. Major deficiency diseases/consequences- Thiamin= BeriBeri (wet)= damage to cardiovascular system kidneys retain salt & water (edema) BeriBeri (dry)= damage to nervous system muscle weakness in arms & legs Wenicke-Korsakoff syndrome= loss of short-term memory, disorientation, staggering gait Consequences= alcohol abuse increased urine excretion, malnourished & homeless vitamin A= night blindness, xerophthalamia (lack of vit A in cornea), keratinization(rough, dry, scaly skin) symptoms painful joints, cracks in teeth, impaired enamel formation toxicity bone & birth defects Folate= megaloblastic anemia large, immature blood cells Consequence= neural tube defects (spina bifida) B12 deficiency= lack of GIF & HCI; atrophic gastritis inflammation of the stomach (H. pylori infection & Fe deficiency); Pernicious anemia blood disorder caused by atrophic gastritis & lack of GIF Consequence= irreversible neurological brain damage Fe (most common deficiency) = Megaloblastic, macrocytic anemia Hypochromic, microcytic anemia Toxicity= Hemochromatosis & apathy/ liver damage Iodine deficiency= cretinism→ mental & physical retardation in infants→ maternal iodine deficiency Goiter= enlarged thyroid gland 1. Main sources Vitamin A sources= dark, leafy greens, yellow/orange fruits & veggies  Too much liver can reach toxicity Folate sources= legumes (lentils), veggies, leafy greens (asparagus), fortified grain products (tomato juice) B12 sources= bioavailability best from milk & fish, fortified cereals, fortified soy milk **Microwave cooking inactivates B12 Thiamin source= pork chop Iron sources= red meats, fish, poultry, shellfish, eggs, legumes, dried fruits **canned clams Iodine sources= iodized salt, seafood, bakery products, milk 2. RDA for : B12→ 2.4 ug/day Fe→ 18 mg (girls;) 8 mg (boys); UL= 45 mg Vitamin A→ 900 ug men; 700 ug women UL= 3000 ug K+ → 4700 mg/ day folate→ 400 mg/most adults; 600 mg pregnant; 3. UL for folate and B12 and why 1000 UL= folate ***Can mask B12 deficiency 2. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone action Calcitonin= lowers levels when blood Ca is too high Parathyroid= raises levels when blood CA too low→ stimulates vitamin D **Pulls Ca from your bones to maintain blood Ca 3. Fe absorption promoters and inhibitors 1. MFP factor= peptide factor released during digestion of meat, fish, poultry that enhances non-heme Fe absorption 2. Vitamin C= improves non-heme Fe absorption 3. Inhibitors= phytates→ legumes, whole grains, rice 4. Vegetable PRO 5. Fibers 6. Oxalates→ spinach, milk 7. Tannins= coffee, tea, oregano, red wine 4. DASH diet –why used and components Dietary Approaches to Stop HTN 1. Low in Na, high in K, Mg, Ca, moderate amounts in dairy 5. Pica 1. Symptom or Fe deficiency 2. Craving & consumption of nonfood substances 3. Worsens anemia 6. Intracellular/extracellular fluid/Anions/Cations Cations (+)= Na, K, Mg Anions (-)= Cl, P, S Intracellular= inside cells Extracellular= outside cells 7. Control of blood volume and blood pressure Controlled by ADH/ vasopressin Renin 1. If BP too low 2. Kidney cells release renin (enzyme) 3. Cause kidneys to reabsorb sodium, thereby water retained 4. Raises blood volume & BP 5. Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen to angiotensin I 6. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II resulting in increased BP ADH 7. If blood volume or BP too low or extracellular fluid too concentrated 8. Hyptothalamus signals pituitary to release ADH→ triggers thirst 9. Water conserving hormone 10.Kidneys reabsorb NA, excretes K Aldosterone Retains Na, excretes K→ retains water 8. Promoters and inhibitors of Ca excretion Vitamin D= enhances Ca absorption in intestines 1. Stimulates osteoclasts to break down bones 2. Calcitonin= lowers level to raise blood CA 3. PTH Inhibitors→ Ca absorption 1. Lack of stomach acid 2. Vitamin D deficiency 3. High phosphorus intake; high fiber diet 4. Phytates= seeds, nuts, grains 5. Oxalates= beet greens, spinach, sweet potatoes


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