Psych 1000 Final Study Guide
Psych 1000 Final Study Guide PSYC 1010
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This 40 page Study Guide was uploaded by Marie Markoff on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Cannon in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Chapter 1 Psychological Science Psychologist ● Studies and treats troubled people with psychotherapy (PH.D) Psychiatrist ● Are medical professionals who use drugs to treat patients (MD) Critical thinking ● Refers to a more careful style of forming and evaluating knowledge than simply using intuition ● How do we gather psychological evidence in a scientific way? Hindsight bias ● The “knewitallalong” effect ● after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it. Overconfidence error 1 ● We are too certain about our judgements ● We overestimate our performances ● Ie if we’re given the answer to a word scramble, we think we could have solved it faster than we actually would, having not seen the answer. Overconfidence error 2 ● People claim to be more certain than they are accurate ● We are too certain about our judgements ● Ie, perceiving order in random events like a coin toss Critical thinking ● Decide if information makes sense rather than simply accepting it ○ Look for hidden biases ○ Put aside own assumptions ○ How was this information collected? Scientific Methods Theory ● Explains a phenomenon Hypothesis ● A testable prediction Operational definitions ● How are research variables defined? ● Ie, can you measure hyperactivity by the amount of times a child gets out of their seat? Replication (scientific self correction) ● Repeats the original observations with different participants, materials, and circumstances. ● If they get similar results, confidence in the findings reliability grows Strategies for gathering descriptive research ● Case study ○ Examining one individual or group in depth in hopes of revealing something true about us all. ○ It can be unrepresentative information ● Naturalistic observation ○ Watching a subject in their own area without trying to change anything ● The survey ○ Gathering information through self report ○ Many cases, less depth ○ Wording can affect people’s answers ○ Random sampling ■ Every person in a group has a chance at participation ○ Correlation ■ Two factors can go together, but they may or may not cause one another ■ You can find correlations in scatterplots ○ Negative correlation ■ As one goes up, the other goes down ○ Positive correlation ○ If the two variables rise or fall together ○ Far from 0 is a strong correlation ● Experimental group ○ Receive treatment ● Control group ○ Does not ● Random sampling ○ Randomly choosing who participates in the experiment ● Random assignment ○ People already in experiment are randomly assigned into either the control or experimental group ● Placebo effect ○ When you improve because you expect to, even when you’re unknowingly treated with a sugar pill ● Independent variable ○ The variable manipulated (ie drug dosage) ● Dependent variable ○ The outcome, or the effect on the independent variables (such as a person’s weight) Statistics ● To present a more accurate picture of our data than we would see otherwise ● To help us reach valid conclusions ○ Mode ■ Most common score ○ Mean ■ The average (sum of scores divided by number of scores) ○ Median ■ The number in the middle ● Normal curve ○ Describes normal distribution ● Once you find differences between 2 groups ask: ○ Is the difference reliable? Can we generalize? ○ Is the difference significant? Random chance? ● How to achieve reliability: ○ Nonbiased sampling ○ Consistency ○ Many data points Chapter 4 Nature, Nurture, Human Identity Behavior genetics ● how heredity and environment contribute to human differences Genes ● 46 chromosomes ● 23 matched sets ● genes are not blueprints, they are molecules ● they are molecules that direct the assembly of proteins Twins ● fraternal twins from separate eggs are not any more genetically alike than other siblings ● Identical twins are same sex only ● fraternal twins can be same sex or opposite sex ● identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins in personality traits, interests etc ● these things are strongly genetic Biological vs adoptive relatives ● adopted children seem to be more like their biological parents than environmental nurture Parenting does matter ● religious beliefs ● values ● manners ● attitudes ● politics ● habits Why are siblings different? ● siblings only share half of their genes ● siblings are raised in slightly different families, the youngest has more older siblings and has older (wiser and/or more tired) parents ● child can influence parents Temperament is another difference not caused by parenting ● from infancy into adulthood, most people do not seem to change temperament ● 3 types of temperament in infancy: easy, difficult, slow to warm up ● we change less and less as we age Heritability ● the amount of variation in the population that is explained by genetic factors ● this does not tell us the proportion that genes contribute to the trait for any one person ○ example; people with the same upbringing and there are differences in shyness = heritability of this trait for them is close to 100 percent (differences caused by genes) ● some traits are set by genes (ie having 2 eyes) ● other traits such as physical and mental abilities develop in response to experience ○ ie if you’re athletic you continue to develop that trait by doing sports ● Molecular genetics ○ studying the structure and function of genes ● Molecular behavior genetics: ○ how do the structure and function og genes interact with our environment to influence behavior ● Self regulatio: ○ genes turn each other on and off in response to environmental conditions ○ ie: in animals, shortened daylight triggers animals to change fur color or to hibernate ● Epigenetics: ○ the environment acts on the surface of genes to alter their activity (without DNA change) ○ ie in humans, obesity in adults can turn off weight regulation genes in offspring ● epigenetic molecules ○ block receptors to the on switch for developing the brain’s stress hormone receptors ● the trait of being adaptable is built into the human genome ● we can change our environments, behaviors, diets, lifestyles, skills, etc. ● evolutionary psychology ○ is the study of how evolutionary principles help explain the origin and function of the human mind, traits, and behaviors ● Artificial selecti: ○ Russian scientists spent 40 years selecting the most gentle, friendly, and tame foxes from a fox population and having those reproduce ○ they shaped avoidant and aggressive creatures into social ones ● Why does stranger anxiety develop between the ages of 9 and 13 months? ○ theory: humans are learning to walk at this time ○ infants who used their new ability to walk by walking away from their family didn’t survive ● why do people so easily acquire a phobia of snakes? ○ snakes are often poisonous so we have learned to fear them How are males and females different: ● generally, men think more about sex than women, and men are more likely to think that casual sex is acceptable ● An evolutionary psychologist answer: ● men who had the trait of promiscuity were more likely to have their genes continue and even spread in the next generation. and there is little cost to spreading extra genes ● for women, pregnancy was once life threatening. Evolutionary strategies in seeking partners ● are males and females really so different in their mating choices? ● differences are less in cultures that move to gender equality ● much of gender behavior is a function of culture ● homosexuality: guesses such as population control Critiquing evolutionary psych ● “this is hindsight reasoning and unscientific” ● “you’re attributing too much to genes” How Environment/experience affects brain development ● income level, house we live in, place we live in ● Ex: mice in impoverished environment had less brain cells that mice in enriched environment with lots of stimulation Brain development means growth and pruning ● experience activate and strengthen neural connections ● the unused connections are pruned away ● we are given too many neurons at birth and over time we prune the ones we don’t need ● the brain’s development does not end with childhood ● the power of parenting is clearest at the extremes severe neglect and abuse ● non abusive “average” parents should ease off on both the blame and the credit they assume for how their kids turn out ● still, children who feel good about their parents feel better about themselves and the world Parents vs. Peers Parents have more influence on ● education path ● responsibilities ● the way you talk to authority figures ● religion ● values Peers have more influence on ● path to popularity ● choice of music ● recreation ● good and bad habits Culture influences on development ● culture refers to the patterns, ideas, attitudes, values etc shared by a group of people and passed on to future generations ● each culture has norms ● culture shock: feeling lost about what behaviors are appropriate ● Cultural variation: language changes in vocabulary ● pace of life quickness ● gender equality increases ● sleep less, socialize in person less ● people marry more for love ● more divorce, depression ● these changes occur too fast to be rooted in genetic changes Individualist ● cultures value independence. they promote personal ideals, strengths, and goals pursued in competition with others, leading to individual achievement and finding unique identity Collectivist ● cultures value interdependence . They promote group and societal goals and duties, and blending in with group identity, with achievement attributed to mutual support ● People raised in individualist cultures might raise children to be self reliant and independent ● people in collectivist cultures might raise children to be compliant, obedient, and integrated into webs of mutual support ● although there are cultural differences, the differences within a group Gender Development ● gender refers to the physical, social, and behavioral characteristics that are culturally associated with male and female roles and identity Biological differences ● females begin puberty earlier, live longer, and have more fat and less muscle ● females are more likely to have depression, anxiety and eating disorders ● men are more likely to have autism, ADHD, and antisocial personality disorder ● men are more likely to be physically aggressive ● in most societies, men are more socially dominant ● When boys play, they focus on the activity, larger groups, more competitive, not much intimate discussion ● girls focus on connection, conversation, smaller groups, more social, girls tend to invite feedback ● men often talk assertively ● men state their opinions and solutions ● men speak about things and actions ● women seek input and explore relationships ● women speak about people and feelings ● both men and women turn to women when they want someone to talk to, share worries/hurts ● when coping with their own stress, women, often turn to others for support “tend and befriend” Gender role ● the behaviors expected of people related to their identity as men and women Gender Identity ● one’s sense of identity Social learning theory ● gender role behavior is learned through observation, imitation, rewards and punishments Gender schemas ● the cognitive frameworks for organizing boygirl characteristics ● young children are internally motivated to categorize everything, including people and are motivated to conform Chapter 7 Learning ● Learning is the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors Associative learning ● learning associations Classical Conditioning ● after repeated exposure to two stimuli occurring in sequence, we learn to associate those 2 things (ie thunder follows lightning) ● Stimulus: see lightning Response: covers ears Operant Conditioning ● child associates his response (behavior) with consequences ● (ie if you say please, you will get a cookie, if you are rude, you don’t get a cookie) Cognitive learning ● refers to acquiring new behaviors and information mentally, rather than by direct experience 1. by observing events and the behavior others ● ie if your friend cries in front of your friends and gets made fun of, you learn not to do it Behaviorism ● a proponent of classical conditioning Neutral stimulus ● a stimulus which does not trigger a response Unconditioned stimulus and response ● a stimulus which triggers a response naturally before/without any conditioning During conditioning ● associating the neutral with unconditioned After conditioning ● neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus ● ie if you hear “this won’t hurt a bit” before getting a shot and it hurts, every time you hear “this won’t hurt a bit,” you cringe Acquisition ● refers to the initial stage of learning/conditioning What gets acquired? ● the association between a neutral stimulus (NS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) the strength of CR grows with conditioning Extinction ● refers to the diminishing of a conditioned response ● Spontaneous recovery a return of the conditioned response despite a lack of further conditioning Ivan Pavlov conditioned dogs to drool when rubbed; they also drooled when scratched. This is an example of: ● Generalization. refers to tendency to have conditioned responses triggered by related stimuli. He conditioned dogs to drool at bells of a certain pitch; slightly different pitches did not trigger drooling. example of: ● Discrimination. refers to learned ability to only respond to specific stimuli, preventing generalization Pavlov’s legacy insights about conditioning in general ● (it occurs in creatures) insights about science ● learning can be studied insights from specific applications ● substance abuse involves conditioned triggers and they can be avoided John Watson: Playing with fear ● in 1920, 9 month old little albert was not afraid of rats ● he then clanged a steel bar every time a rat was present to albert ● eventually, albert became afraid of rats, generalized to other white fluffy things ● wanted to show that this is how people learn fears Operant conditioning : involves adjusting to the consequences of our behavior ● ex: we may smile more at work after this repeatedly gets us more tips ● any time you train an animal, it is operant conditioning ● Reinforced: anything that makes a behavior more likely to be tried again ● Punished: behavior is less likely to be tried again Thorndike’s Law of Effect ● cats were rewarded with food if they solved his puzzle box ● the cats took less time to escape after repeated trials ● the law of effec behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely. B.F Skinner ● extended Thorndike’s principles ● the operant chamber (Skinner box) allowed detailed tracking of rates of behavior change in response to different rates of reinforcement. (rats) Reinforcement ● anything that makes a behavior more likely to happen ● positive reinforcement (adding) something desireable. ie warmth ● Negative: (taking away) ending something unpleasant. ie the cold Shaping behavior ● when a creature is not likely to random perform exactly the behavior you are trying to teach, you can reward any behavior that comes close to the desired behavior Discrimination ● refers to the ability to become more and more specific in what situations trigger a response ● ie dogs, rat, and even spiders can be trained to search for very specific smells. from drugs to explosives. How often should we reinforce? ● B.F. Skinner experimented with the effects of giving reinforcements in different patterns to determine what worked best to establish and maintain target behavior ● incontinuous reinforcement giving a reward after the target every single time) the subject acquires the desired behavior quickly. ● partial reinforcemenis giving rewards part of the time, the target takes longer to be acquired, bust persists longer without reward Operant effect: punishments have the same opposite effects on reinforcement. these consequences make the target behavior less likely to occur in the future ● Positive does not mean “good” or “desirable” ● negative does not mean “bad” or “undesirable’ ● Positive punishment: you add something unpleasant (ie you spank the child) ● negative punishment: you take away something pleasant desired (ie no TV time) When is punishment effective? ● works best when it approximates the way we naturally encounter immediate consequences (ie reach into a fire) ● Severity of punishments is not as helpful as making the punishment immediate and certain Problems with physical punishment 1. punished behaviors may restart when the punishment is over 2. instead of learning behaviors, the child may learn to discriminate among situations and avoid those in which punishment might occur 3. punishment can teach fear 4. physical punishment models aggression as a method of dealing with problems 5. punishing focuses on what otto do, and it does not guide people oesirebehavior. ● Reinforcement teaches you what to do ● in order to teach desired behavior, reinforce what’s right more often than punishing what’s wrong Applications of Operant Conditioning School and Parenting: ● rewarding small improvements toward desired better than expecting complete success, and also works better than punishing problem behaviors ● ie sticker chart and after 20 stickers you get a prize Sports: ● athletes improve the most in shaping approach in which the reinforced Work ● pay raise, incentive, recognition Self improvement 1. state a realistic goal in measurable terms 2. decide how/when/where you will work toward goal 3. monitor how often you engage in desired behavior 4. reinforce the desired behavior 5. reduce the rewards gradually Role of Biology in conditioning Biological constraints on conditioning: ● can a monkey be trained to peck with it’s nose? no, but a pigeon can ● can a pigeon be trained to dive under water? no, but a dolphin can ● an animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology Classical conditioning ● John Garcia and others found it was easier to learn associations that make sense for survival ● food aversions can be acquired even if nausea does NOT immediately follow the NS. (even several hours later) ● males in one study were more likely to see a pictured woman as attractive if the picture had a red border. (female primates display red when nearing ovulation) Cognitive processes In classical conditioning: ● when the dog salivates at the bell, it may be due to cognition (learning to predict, even expect, the food) ● knowing that our reactions are caused by conditioning gives us the option of mentally breaking the association In operant conditioning ● in fixedinterval reinforcement, animals do more target behaviors around the time that the reward is more likely, as if expecting the reward ● humans can respond to delayed reinforcers such as a paycheck ● humans can set behavioral goals and plan their own reinforcers Learning, rewards and motivation ● Intrinsic motivat the desire to perform a behavior well for its own sake (ie running bc you love how it makes you feel) ● Extrinsic motivati doing a behavior to receive rewards (ie running to get fit) ● intrinsic motivation can be reduced by external rewards, and can be prevented by using continuous reinforcement ● one principle for maintaining behavior is to use as few rewards as possible, and fade the rewards over time Learning by observation ● Observational learning: watching what happens when other people do a behavior and learning from their experiences ● Modeling: the behavior of others serves a sa model, an example of how to respond in a situation ● Vicarious conditioning: experienced indirectly through others Albert Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment (1961) ● kids saw adult punching an inflated doll while narrating their aggressive behaviors ● these kids were then put in a toy deprived situation and acted out the same behaviors they had seen Mirroring the brain ● when we watch others doing or feeling something, mirror neurons fire patterns that would fire if we were doing the action or having the feeling ourselves ● ie if you see someone in pain, you get uncomfortable ● we can grasp others’ states of mind From mirroring to imitation ● from 18 months of age, humans wilverimitat routinely copy adult behaviors that have no function and no reward ● children with autism are less likely to cognitively “mirror” and less likely to follow someone else’s gaze ● we are born imitators that are supposed to understand each other Prosocial behavior ● actions that benefit others, contribute value to groups, and follow moral codes and social norms ● this behavior is taught best through modeling Antisocial behavior ● actions that are harmful to individuals and society ● children who witness violence in their homes may hate violence but still may become more violent than the average child ● under stress, we do what is modeled for us Media Models for Violence ● viewing media violence leads to increased aggression and reduced prosocial behavior this may be explained by: ● Imitation(mirror neurons, modeling) ● desensitizationtoward pain in others ● watching cruelty fosters indifference Chapter 10 Intelligence Overall question ● does each of us have an inborn level of talent, a general mental capacity or set of abilities, and can that level be measured and represented by a score on a test? ● one ability or many? ● the role of creativity and emotional intelligence? Definitions of intelligence ● Intelligence can be defined as “whatever intelligence tests measure” ● generate scores allows us to compare individuals ● you college entrance test measures how good you are at scoring well on that test Beyond the test ● Better definition intelligence: the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations Intelligence: single or multiple Charles Spearman ● performed a factor analysis of different skills and found that people who did well in one area also did well in another ● these people have a high “g” = general intelligence ● we have one general intelligence that is the heart of all our intelligent behavior Thurstone’s seven clusters of abilities 1. verbal comprehension 2. inductive reasoning 3. word fluency 4. spatial ability 5. memory 6. perceptual speed 7. numerical ability Multiple intelligences “savant syndrome” when people can’t take care of themselves alone but have incredible photographic memory and artistic abilities etc Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences ● 8 relatively independent intelligences 1. Naturalist 2. linguistic 3. logical mathematical 4. musical 5. spatial etc Robert Sternberg ● proposed that there are 3 intelligences 1. analytical school smart, finding one right answer 2. Practical street smart, money managing, organization etc 3. Creative high creativity, thinking of multiple answers/solutions Intelligence and success ● “success in life” is more than high intelligence ● Wealth tends to be related to intelligence tests scores plus focused daily effort, social support and connections, hard work and energetic persistence Other types of intelligence ● social intelligence socially aware ● emotional intelligence self aware Components of Emotional Intelligence ● perceiving emotions being able to pick up on other people’s emotions ● understanding emotions being sympathetic to other’s emotions ● managing emotions self control of your emotions ● using emotions Benefits of emotional intelligence ● the ability to delay gratification while pursuing long term goals (not to be driven by immediate impulses) ● contributes to success in career, marriage, and parenting situations Aptitude vs. Achievement ● Achievement tests: measure what you have already learned ● Aptitude: attempts to predict your ability to learn new skills ● the SAT, ACT, and GRE are supposed to predict your ability to do well in future academic work The origins of intelligence testing: ● problem: late 1800’s Paris schools needed to objectively identify children in need of special classes ● Children were not required by law at the time, and this was changed and there was a huge influx of kids at different academic levels. ● Alfred Binet Devised tests to measure each child’s mental age ● Lewis Terman : modified Binet’s test for American children. He came up with the idea of measuring intelligence ● Called the test the StanfordBinet intelligence test ● William Stern: in 1914, he came up with the concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) What do scores mean? ● Lewis Terman began with a different assumption than Binet. He thought that intelligence was inherited ● Later, Terman saw low scores can be affected by people’s level of education and their familiarity with the language and culture used in the test ● Terman told people with low scores to not reproduce David Wechsler’s test: Intelligence PLUS ● The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and one for children ● verbal comprehension ● processing speed ● perceptual organization ● working memory Principles of Test Construction ● In order for tests to generate results that are considered useful must be: ● standardized we need to compare it to other individual’s scores Standardization: defining the meaning of scores based on a comparison with a pretested group Reliability a test is reliable when it gives consistent results Split half reliability testretest reliability A test or measure has validity if it accurately measures what it is supposed to measure content validity questions on the test contain the content it is supposed to. ie a stats test does not contain biology questions predictive validity: does you score predict how you will perform in college etc? Predictive Validity ● at the higher range of weight and success, weight is less of a valid predictor of success of football linemen ● why do the predictive power of aptitude scores diminish as students move up the educational ladder? Genetic and environmental Influences on intelligence (nature and nurture) ● are people successful because of inborn traits? ● or are they successful because of their unequal access to better nurture? ● Identical twins raised together had more similar IQ’s if they were raised apart Adoption studies ● with age, the IQ scores of adopted kids are most similar to those of their birth parents Environmental influences on intelligence ● environment has more influence on intelligence under extreme conditions such as abuse, neglect, or extreme poverty Schooling and Intelligence: ● schooling and intelligence interact, and both boost children’s chances for success what predicts college students’ academic achievement? ● study motivation and study skills ● Fixed mindset: idea that intelligence is set in stone ● Growth mindset: intelligence is changeable ● Ability + Opportunity + Motivation = success ● praise effort, rather than ability ● ie say, “Good job, you must have worked really hard for that grade.” instead of “You’re so smart” give them the message that it is in your hands Group Differences in test scores gender differences: ● male/female difference related to overall intelligence test score ● boys are more likely than girls to be at the high or low end of the intelligence test score spectrum ● girls are better at locating objects, detecting emotions, and tend to be more verbally fluent ● boys tend to perform better on spatial ability tests ● overall math performance between the genders is the same Withingroup vs. Betweengroup ● group differences, including intelligence test score differences between so called “racial groups” can be caused by environmental factors ● racial groups are not distinct genetically Chapter 11 Motivation and Work: Read Appendix A Some strong human drives include: ● hunger ● sex ● belonging ● achievement Motivation ● refers to a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior towards a goal ● Aron Ralston cut off his own arm after getting trapped under a rock. what motivated him? Perspectives on motivation: Instinct theor (weaker theory) ● an instinct is a fixed pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes ● human babies show certain reflexes, but in general, our behavior is less prescribed by genetics ● we may have genetic predispositions for some behaviors Drive reduction theory ● A drive is an aroused or tense state related to a physical need (hunger, thirst) ● humans are motivated to reduce these drives ● this restores homeostasis ● Need (food, water) > Drive (hunger thirst) > Drive reduction behavior (eating, drinking) ● Drives “push” from inside us incentive re external stimuli that can “pull” us in our actions. Seeking Optimum Arousal ● some behavior is not directly linked to a biological need ● human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal ● One spectrum: no arousal is complete boredom. The other end of the spectrum is stressed Hierarchy of Needs/motives ● Abraham Maslow proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied before they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on this higher on this hierarchy ● ie you need to make sure you have food, water, etc before esteem needs/belongingness is met. Hunger ● research studies using semistarvation show that when we are hungry, thoughts about food dominate our consciousness Physiology of hunger ● stomach contracts when hungry The Hypothalamus and hunger: ● receptors throughout the digestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain ● the hypothalamus sends appetite stimulating hormones or appetite suppressing hormones Regulating weight ● most mammals have a stable weight to which they keep returning et point ● when a person’s weight drops or increases, the body adjusts hunger and energy use ● Basal metabolic rate rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when at rest ● if you lose weight dramatically, your body sends you more appetite stimulating hormones to try and get you back to your set point How much do we eat? ● eating depends in part on situational influences ● Unit biaswe may eat only one serving of food, but will eat more if the serving size is larger ● Buffet Effecwe eat more if more options are available Obesity ● as obesity goes up, risk of death is higher ● fat is an ideal (long term) form of stored energy ● glucose short term energy storer ● once we become fat, we require less food to maintain our weight than we did to attain it ● a formerly obese person who lost weight will have to eat less than an average person just to prevent weight gain social psychology of obesity ● weight discrimination stronger than race and gender discrimination ● people who are obese have a harder time getting a job ● people who are obese are more likely to be depressed or isolated Genetics and Obesity ● weight resembles biological parents ● identical twins are more similar than fraternal twins ● many genes involved burning calories, converting calories to fat, when intestines send “full” signal, how much to fidget etc. Lifestyle factors and Obesity ● restlessness, fidgeting ● sleep deprivation affects appetite hormones ● having an obese friend makes you more likely to be obese ● sedentary lifestyle ● fast food ● people living below the poverty line Sex as a motivation ● sexual motivation enables our species’ survival ● sexual desire and response is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals ● increase in sexual arousal = increase in testosterone ● during ovulation, women show a rise in estrogen and testosterone ● as this happen, sexual desire rises in women and also in the men around them whose testosterone level rises The effect of external stimuli ● the brain is our most significant sexual organ ● men and women become aroused when they see, hear, or read erotic material ● psychological and social/cultural factors play a bigger role in sexual motivation ● sexuality in media (TV, internet, etc) ● extremely stereotypical in portrayal of the sexes, especially females ● women as sexual objects ● with repeated exposure to any erotic stimulus, response lessens (habituates) ● perception of peers; permissive attitudes; early sex = linked to greater amount of sexual content Sexual Orientation ● 34% of men and 2% of women report being exclusively homosexual ● having a homosexual orientation puts one at risk for anxiety and mood disorders (because of discrimination, rejection, isolation) Causes of sexuality ● differences appear to begin in the prenatal period > genetic or exposure to hormones in the womb ● fraternal birth order efthe more and more older brothers you have and if you’re right handed,, the more likely you are to be gay. Prenatal hormones : ● in mammals, female fetuses exposed to extra testosterone and male fetuses exposed to low levels of testosterone may develop same sex desires Another motivation: to belong ● we have a need to affiliate with others, even to become strongly attached to certain others in enduring, close relationships ● why do we need to have a belonging: seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Balancing bonding with other needs ● what makes life meaningful? close, satisfying relationships with family, friends, or romantic partners Evolutionary psych perspective: ● seeking bonds with others aids survival in many ways Balancing bonding with other needs ● We also need autonomy and a sense of personal competence/efficacy ● Much of our social behavior seeks to increase our social acceptance and avoid rejection Disrupted bonds, new beginnings ● Life’s worst moments can be when close relationships end ● Being ostracized can lead to real physical pain ● ostracization being excluded by everyone Another area of motivation: work ● We work bc income can satisfy the drive for food and shelter ● For some, work can feel like a calling, a fulfilling and socially useful activity. Some people may seek optimal work experience called “flow” The psych of the workplace: Industrial/organizational psych ● Personnel psychology ● Organizational psychology Selecting, hiring and placing employees ● Strength based selection system ● Match the strengths of people to the tasks of organizations > prosperity and profit ● Focus on accentuating strengths rather than correcting deficiencies The interviewer illusion ● Interviewers overestimate their ability to read people Personnel psych ● Interviewer’s preconceptions, moods ● Situational variables ● The best predictor of the person we will be is the person we have been ● We predict how we will do in future jobs with aptitude tests etc. ● Personnel psychologists can help employers to objectively assess the performance and value ● Goal: employee improvement and retention, and helping determine job shifts, salary, and promotion Organizational psychology ● Worker motivation, satisfaction, engagement, productivity ● Teamwork and leadership ● Achievement motivation ● Grit refers to a combination of desire for achievement and the ability to persist at hard work. ● People with grit are more successful What is the best predictor of school performance, attendance, and graduation honors? ● Selfdiscipline Satisfaction and Engagement ● Employees who are satisfied in an organization are likely to stay longer ● Employees who are more engaged are more productive Organizational psychologists study factors related to employee satisfaction Managing employees well Harnessing talents ● Good managers focus training time on drawing out and developing strengths ● Reinforcement positive behaviors through recognition and reward Human factors: work that fits people The psych of human factors: taking the design of the body and the functioning of the mind into account when designing products and processes Chapter 12 Emotions, Stress, and Health Emotion: Arousal, behavior, and cognition ● Someone cuts you off while driving, you feel amotions are a mix of: ○ Expressive behavior (yelling, accelerating) ○ Bodily arousal (sweat, pounding heart) ○ Conscious experience (thoughts, feelings ie “what a bad driver!”) An emotion is a full body/mind/behavior response to a situation 4 Theories of emotion: the arousal and cognition “chicken and egg debates” James Lange Theory: ● Body arousal happens first ● Then the cognitive awareness and label for the feeling: I’m angry ● Emotion is our conscious awareness of our physiological responses to stimuli ‘ CannonBard Theory ● We have a conscious/cognitive experience of an emotion at the same time as our body is responding SchachterSinger Two Factor theory ● Emotion = body plus a cognitive level ● emotions do not exist until we add a label to whatever body sensations we are feeling ● A label completes an emotion ● Spillover effecemotions are contagious. If you see someone acting happy, you are likely to as well. Robert Zajonc, Joseph LeDoux, Richard Lazarus: Emotions w/o awareness/cognition ● Theory: some emotional reactions especially fears and dislikes develop in a “low road” through the brain, skipping conscious thought. ● In one study, people showed an amygdala response to certain images (fearful eyes) without being aware of the image or their reaction Embodied Emotion ● The role of the autonomic nervous system ● The physiological arousal felt during various emotions is orchestrated by the sympathetic nervous system which triggers activity and changes in various organs ● It is difficult to see differences in emotions from tracking heart rate, breathing, and perspiration. Ie anger and fear look the same. ● Some small differences in brain activity ○ Positiv emotions correlate lef frontal lobe activity ○ Negative emotions correlate rightfrontal lobe activity Emotional Expression ● Are there universal forms of emotional expression seen on human faces across all cultures ● Are there differences person to person? Detecting emotion in others ● People read a great deal of emotional content in the eyes and in the face ● We are primed to quickly detect negative emotions ● Those who have been abused are biased toward seeing fearful faces as angry Gender and Emotional expression and Detection ● Women are more skilled at detecting emotions in others and reading non verbal behavior ● Females are more likely to describe themselves as empathetic and more likely to express empathy ○ Male and female film viewers did not differ much in self reported emotions or physiological responses but the women’s fhowedmuch more emotion Culture and emotional expression: Are there universally recognized emotions ● There are universally understood facial expressions ● People blind from birth show the same facial expressions as sighted people ● Cultures do differ in how much emotion is expressed Emotion detection and context cues ● How can you tell what emotion someone is feeling? ● Context Linking emotions and expressive behaviors ● Facial Feedback Effect ○ Facial position and muscle changes can alter which emotion we feel Behavior feedback effect: ○ behavior can influence our own and others thoughts, feelings, and actions Is experienced emotion as universal as expressed emotion? ● Yes Closer look at anger: ● A flash of anger gives us energy and initiative to take action ● Persistent anger can be harmful to our bodies ● Controlled expressions of anger promote reconciliation rather than retaliation ● A non accusing statement of feeling ○ The catharsis myt: we can reduce anger by “releasing” it (hostile outbursts) ○ In most cases, expressing anger breeds more anger. This myth is false. ○ How to cope: wait ○ Forgiveness calms the body Closer look at happiness: ● Happy people are better decision makers, cooperate more easily, live healthier ● The feel good do good phenomenon ○ when you feel good, you’re more likely to be generous and helpful Positive Psychology ● Study of what leads to happiness and well being External vs. Internal Locus of Control Locus of control ● do you see yourself as controlling or as controlled by your environment? ● Internal Locus of controI control my circumstances ○ Achieve more in school and work ○ Better at coping with stress ○ Less risk for depression ● External locus of contr chance or outside forces determine my fate ○ Less motivation to achieve ○ Anxiety about what might happen A stressor ● Something you decide is overwhelming ● You decide if you can change it or not Self Control Resource, Skill, Trait ● The ability to control impulses and delay gratification ● Uses brain energy ● Individual differences ● The Marshmallow Study: self control of kids Promoting Health: Social Support ● Having close relationships is associated with improved health and longevity ● Social support calms, reduces blood pressure and stress hormones ● Confiding in others helps manage painful feelings Aerobic exercise and Mental Health ● Exercise reduces the risk of heart disease, cognitive decline and dementia and early death ● Aerobic exercise reduces depression and anxiety and improves management of stress Lifestyle Modification ● Survivors of heart attacks lifestyle modification ● Control group diet, medication, and exercise advice ○ Result: modifying lifestyle led to reduced heart attack rates Religious Involvement and Health ● Religiously active people tend to live longer than those who are not ● Healthy lifestyle behaviors ● Social support ● Hope for the future ● Feelings of acceptance ● relaxed meditation of prayer Chapter 14: Social Psychology ● How do individuals think about, influence, and relate to other people? ● How we think about other people ● How they influence our behaviors ● How we treat other people Attribution: identifying causes ● Attribution ○ A conclusion about the cause of an observed behavior/event. Ie “why didn’t she come out tonight?” Or “why did I get a bad grade?” Situational attribution ● Attributing things to a situation. Ie “maybe his alarm didn’t go off” Dispositional Attribution ● Something innate having to do with someone’s personality “He’s late because he is lazy” Attribution theory: ● We explain others’ behaviors Social thinking ● The fundamental attribution error: ● When we think about other people’s behavior, we go too far in assuming that a person’s behavior is caused by their personality ● We think a behavior demonstrates a trait Emotional effects of Attribution ● Someone cuts in front of you how we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it Attitudes and actions ● How you think about people influences your behaviors ● Attitudes affect public policies ● Attitudes affect our actions Do actions affect attitudes?: The foot in the door phenomenon ○ Small compliance turns into a large one ○ Once you start something, you are more likely to keep with it Role playing affects attitudes ● Ie Stanford Prison Experiment participants adopted the roles they were assigned ● In arranged marriages, people often come to have a deep love for their partner ● Actors say they lose themselves in roles Cognitive Dissonance ● When our actions and attitudes are different ● Cognitive Dissonance Theory ○ We try to resolve the dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions Social Influence ● Social situations have many ways of influencing our behavior, attitudes, beliefs, and decisions. ● Conformity ○ Adjusting our behavior or thinking to go along with a group standard Some mimicry is automatic: ● yawning, arm folding, adopting grammar ○ Empathetic shifts in mood ○ Adopting coping style of parents and peers ○ Copycat school shootings and suicides Responding to social norms ● Asch Conformity studies: one third of people will agree with the obvious mistruths to go along with the group What makes you more likely to conform? ● When you are not firmly committed to one set of beliefs or style of behavior ● The group is medium sized and unanimous ● You admire the group’s status ● If you feel insecure or closely watched ● Your culture encourages respect for norms Two types of social influence ● Normative Social Influence ○ We go along with others in pursuit of social approval Informational social influence: ● Going along with others because groups provide information ● Ie deciding which side of the road to drive on Milgram’s Obedience Study ● How would people respond to direct commands? ● More than 60% of participants gave the full amount of shock even though they thought that the participant was hurt because they were told to What factors increase obedience? ● Someone with authority ● Someone associated with a prestigious institution ● Someone standing close by ● When they are in the same room as you ● No role models for defiance ● When under pressure to conform or obey, ordinary, principled people will say and do things they never would have believed they would do Social Facilitation ● Strengthened performance in the presence of others ● Increases motivation for those who are confident Social Loafing ● Do you hate group projects because others free ride on your efforts? ● Social loafing is the tendency of people in a group to show less effort when not held individually accountable ● Deindividuation: loss of self awareness and self restraint ● Group participation makes people both aroused and anonymous Group polarization ● The beliefs/attitudes you bring to a group grow stronger and more polarized as you discuss them with like minded others ● In pursuit of social harmony, groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas The power of individuals ● Committed individuals can sway the majority and make history (ie Ghandi) Social Relations ● Social psychologists also study the psychological components Prejudice ○ An unsatisfied (usually negative) attitude toward a group. ○ Beliefs (stereotypes) ○ Emotions (hostility) ○ Levels of prejudice can change Roots of prejudice ● Social Inequality when some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others ● The Justworld phenomenon ○ Those doing well must have done something right, so those suffering must have done something wrong. Us vs. Them: Ingroups, outgroups ● Even if people are randomly assigned to groups: our natural drive to belong leads to ingroup bias. Cognitive roots of prejudice ● Forming categories ● The power of vivid cases ● “Just world” belief The Other Race effect ● One way we simplify our world is to categorize ● In categorizing people into groups, we often stereotype them ● “They” look and act alike, but “we” are more diverse. ● Other race effect: we have greater recognition for our own race faces Judging based on vivid cases ● We don’t always rely on statistics. ● Vivid cases always come to mind ● Ie: the majority of Muslim people are not terrorists, but we jump to a vivid case (9/11) and think that all Muslims are terrorists. ● The ability Heuristic ○ Stereotypes that are based on vivid cases Confirmation Bias ● We are not likely to look for counterexamples to our stereotypes Hindsight Bias ● “They should have known better” Cognitive dissonance ● Changing your attitude to fit with your actions Aggression ● Any behavior intended to harm another person ● Biological Factors: ○ Genetic factors (heredity) ○ Neural factors (stimulation on amygdala; underactive frontal lobes) ○ Biochemistry: testosterone, alcohol Psychological Factors ● Frustrationaggression principle ○ Averse stimuli can evoke hostility (hot weather, dehydration) ○ Reinforcement (sometimes aggression works) ○ Modeling (when parents scream and hit, they are modeling violence) Aggression in Media ● Aggression portrayed in video, music, TV, and other media follows and teaches us social scripts (how to behave in any social situation) ● When we are in new situations, uncertain how to behave, we rely on social scripts Effects of Social Scripts: ● Studies: exposure to violence and sexual aggression on TV ● Sexual aggression seems less serious ● Believing the rape myth ● Increased acceptance of the use of coercion in sexual relations ● Increased punitive behavior toward women More media effects on aggression ● Active roleplaying in video games ● Playing positive games can increase reallife prosocial behavior ● Violent vi
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