Child Development and Family Relations 2001 Final Study Guide
Child Development and Family Relations 2001 Final Study Guide CDFR 2001
Popular in Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kara Fields on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CDFR 2001 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Carrie Bumgarner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Child Development II: Middle Childhood through Young Adulthood in Child Development at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
CDFR 2001: Exam 4 Study Guide Spring 2016 Mrs. Carrie Bumgarner Chapter 16: Erikson’s theory: Identity vs. Role confusion o ___Identity___________ o Defining who you are, what you value, and your direction in life o Commitments to vocation, personal relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals o Resolution of “identity crisis” or exploration o ___Role Confusion_______ o Lack of direction and definition of self o Restricted exploration in adolescence o Earlier psychosocial conflicts not resolved o Society restricts choices o Unprepared for stages of adulthood How does self-concept develop in adolescence? o Unify separate traits into larger, ___abstract___ ones o May describe contradictory traits; social situations o Gradually combine traits into organized system o More emphasis on social virtues, being viewed positively by others What are the four identity statuses? Be familiar with what happens during each o Identity Achievement- figure it out themselves. High commitment/High exploration. o Identity Moratorium- haven’t reached committed state, continue to explore. Low Commitment/High Exploration. o Identity Foreclosure- Someone says something and very committed but do not explore. High commitment/ Low Exploration. o Identity Diffusion- Do not step out of box or think for themselves. What says happens, does not push anything. Low commitment/Low Exploration. Best parenting style/effective parenting in adolescence o Adolescents strive for autonomy Shift from parents to selves and peers for guidance; de- idealize parents o Parents need to balance connection and separation Authoritative style best (You guys know this by now) Continue consistent monitoring Can be difficult during adolescence How do adolescents family relationships change? o Most spend less time with family Culture is a factor o Family system affects relationships Family structure Parents’ concerns Economic status o Sibling relationships change Sibling relationships often become less intense during adolescence, in both positive and negative feelings. Brothers and sisters who established a positive bond in early childhood continue to display greater affection and caring during the teenage years Friendships in adolescence – how do they change? o Fewer “best friends” o Teenagers stress three characteristics of friendship: intimacy, mutual understanding, and loyalty o Tend to be alike in identity status, educational aspirations, political beliefs, and willingness to try drugs and engage in lawbreaking acts Gender differences in friendships in adolescence o Girls – emotional closeness, communication o Boys – activities, status o Corumination between friends can trigger anxiety and depression o Number of other-sex friends increases with age, but same-sex friends remain more common Emotional closeness and trust are more common in girls’ close friendships than among boys, who are more likely to get together for an activity—usually sports or competitive games. Girls’ friendships typically focus on communal concerns, boys’ on achievement and status. Five benefits of friendships in adolescence o Opportunities to explore self o Form deep understanding of another o Foundation for future intimate relationships o Help deal with life stress o Can improve attitude and school involvement Difference between clique and crowd Clique: Small group (5–8 members) Good friends Identified by background, interests, social status Membership more important to girls Crowd: Larger – several cliques Membership based on reputation, stereotype Ethnicity may play a role o Both cliques and crowds can modify beliefs and behaviors Most common psychological problem Depression. o 15% to 20% experience major episode o Twice as many girls as boys Factors that influence depression in adolescence o Genetics o Child-rearing practices o Learned helplessness o Multiple negative life events Suicide rates in adolescence o Rate jumps sharply in adolescence o The number of boys who kill themselves exceeds the number of girls by a ratio of over 4 to 1 Girls more attempts o Greatest risk: White, African-American males; Native Americans Gay, lesbian, bisexual Highly intelligent and socially withdrawn Antisocial; hostile and destructive behaviors What are three suicide intervention strategies? o Medication o Therapy o Hospitalization o Intervention with depressed and suicidal adolescents includes antidepressant medication, individual, family, and group therapy, and hospitalization when necessary to ensure the teenager’s safety. What are some factors that improve resilience in adolescence? o A balance between family connection and separation o Effective family problem solving that models and encourages rational decision making o Parental monitoring and school involvement o Close, supportive friendships o High-quality vocational education o A culturally sensitive school and community o Affiliation with a religious organization o Opportunities in extracurricular activities, youth organizations, community service Chapter 17: What is emerging adulthood? o ages __18 to 25__, when young people in industrialized nations have left adolescence but have not yet fully taken on adult responsibilities or roles Trends for young adult living situations o Only about __1/2__ of college students have earned a bachelors degree by 25 rd o After graduation, about 1/3 enter graduate school o More young people choose cohabitation as a way of entering into a committed intimate partnership o Nearly __50__% of 18- to 25-year-olds return to their parents’ home Four reasons why emerging adulthood has become evident in developed economies o Longer education needed, so longer emerging adulthood o About __half__ of all early-twenties population in school o Delays in financial independence and career commitment o Dramatic gains in life expectancy Postformal thought o __Postformal__ thought, or development beyond Piaget’s formal operational stage, develops as college students make strides in cognition College students have the opportunity to explore alternative roles, values, and behaviors They tend to develop increasingly ___rational__, flexible, and practical ways of thinking Dualistic vs relativistic thinking o __Dualistic__ thinking o Dividing information, values, and authority into right and wrong or good and bad o __Relativistic__ thinking o Seeing all knowledge as embedded in a framework of thought and accepting the existence of multiple truths o Commitment within relativistic thinking o Importance of peer interaction and reflection o William Perry Love in emerging adulthood (particularly, partner similarity) o Young people generally meet in conventional ways o The Internet has become an increasingly popular way to initiate relationships rd o More than __1/3 __ of single adults go to dating websites o Second most common method of meeting a partner (likely to increase) o Knowing someone who has successfully met someone online likelihood of engaging in online dating yourself o Success rates are much lower than with conventional strategies o Satisfied partners tend to resemble each other in attitudes, ___personality__, and intelligence Sexual activity in emerging adulthood o With age, emerging adults’ romantic ties last longer, involve greater __trust__, support, emotional closeness, and commitment. o For many, however, the college years are marked by an increase in uncommitted sexual encounters o By age __25__, nearly all U.S. young adults report being sexually active Four shared experiences of women who achieve academic/work success o College environment that values the achievement of women o Frequent __interaction__ with faculty and professionals in their field o Opportunity to test abilities in supportive extracurricular, internship, and work environments o __Models__ of accomplished women who have successfully dealt with family–career role conflict Civic and political commitments in emerging adulthood o A record number expected to participate in __community service__ o Fewer U.S. young people than in previous generations vote or engage in political party activities o Many seem to lack faith in the conventional political process Loneliness in emerging adulthood o At risk for loneliness o Frequent moves are common o Spend more time __alone__ than any other age group under 40 o More access to social supports = more likely to develop __resilience__ and make a smooth transition to adulthood o Parental overprotection is linked to poor adjustment, including low self-esteem and increased anxiety and alcohol use Parental Incarceration: Factors associated with decreased probability of rearrests after release from prison o Reduce chances of becoming re-arrested- Marriage, employment, at least 12 years education, having felony as current, longer prison sentence, prior incarcerations, age (older you are more likely for re-arrest), those with post release supervision. Barriers to parent-child relationship while parent is incarcerated that impact youth and families o A stimulating, safe, and responsive family environment can be key protective factor for child’s well-being during a stressful period (Eddy & Chamberlain, 2000; Knutson, DeGarmo, & Reid, 2004) o Effective __parenting__ strategies o Praise, positive motivational strategies, synchrony, and the absence of coercive control associated with fewer child __externalizing__ behaviors (Poehlmann, 2005; Mackintosh,Myers, & Kennon, 2006) o Maintaining healthy parent-child relationships while incarcerated promotes positive youth well-being (Miller, 2006) Dating Violence and RE: What we know about the continuum of abuse o Severity of abuse increases in frequency and intensity over time (without appropriate intervention) Program dynamics associated with increased effectiveness of treatment and intervention programs for abuse o Program dynamics associated with increased effectiveness: o Usually focuses on the individual adult but addresses the needs of entire family o Medical Care, Counseling, Psychotherapy, MFT, Mediation, Support Groups, Parenting Education Programs o Parent education and early intervention o Support groups o Modeled after AA Seven core components identified by the National Extension Relationship and Marriage Education Network (NERMEN) o (a) choose (being intentional in relationships), o (b) know (having knowledge of one’s partner), o (c) care (being kind, affectionate, and supportive in relationships), o (d) care for self (maintaining and enhancing one’s own health and wellness), o (e) share (developing friendship and a sense of togetherness), o (f) connect (engaging social support, ties to the community, and finding personal meaning), and o (g) Manage (using engagement and interaction strategies to handle differences, stresses, and safety issues). Sexuality and Teen Pregnancy: Three factors that heighten the incidence of adolescent pregnancy o Educational attainment: Parenthood before age 18 reduces the likelihood of finishing high school. o Marital patterns: Teenage motherhood reduces the chances of marriage. o Economic circumstances: Many teenage mothers are on welfare, and their employment opportunities are usually restricted to low- paid jobs. Adolescent fathers, too, are unemployed or working at unskilled jobs. o Teenage parents tend to pass on their personal attributes as well as create unfavorable child-rearing conditions. Impact of effective programming on education o -Connecting to resources: housing, child care, financial support o -School programs—child-care offered, child development & parenting taught o -Older female mentor o -Peer education o -Adolescent support groups o -Teens’ participation in programs finishing h.s. diploma Preventing negative sexual outcomes o Factors associated with less risky sexual behaviors: o Parenting o Spirituality o Individual self-regulation o Peers (pro-social norms) o Academic performance o Comprehensive sexual health education Sex education for adolescents (What works?) In general, what works? o 1) Evidence-based & medically accurate o Frequent evaluation to ensure fidelity o Age-appropriate medical information o 2) Focus on positive youth development o Build on youth assets o Focus on their future o 3) Interactive o Monitored peer-instruction o Structured parent-adolescent discussions 93% of adults support sex education in high school, 84% in middle school Comprehensive: o Promotes abstinence as safest choice o *focus on medically accurate, age-appropriate information o Includes: o Sexual development o *contraceptive effectiveness o Decision making/communication skills o HIV/STIs o Evaluation Outcomes: o *Delays and/or reduces sexual activity o *Increase contraceptive use o Reduce pregnancy/ Reduce STIs
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