Midterm 1 Study Guide
Midterm 1 Study Guide ARCH 217
Popular in History of World Architecture: Prehistory - Middle Ages
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miri Taple on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARCH 217 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Phillips, Stephen J. in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see History of World Architecture: Prehistory - Middle Ages in Architecture at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Lecture One Keynotes: i. Early humans and the environment: The Stone Age: a. Fire: used as protection, heat, and light. Can be seen as architecture in the sense that it created a gathering space (a hearth). Also held symbolic meanings. b. An early shelter: prehistoric hut, Terra Amata, France (400,000 BCE) i. Evidence of domestication of fire ii. Floor paved with river stones, and animal skins covered pole structured walls ii. The Paleolithic world a. Ritual objects: Venus of Laussel, France (25,000 BCE) appears deities were women cult religion focused on fertility b. Paleolithic Cave art: Lascaux, France (15,000 BCE) architecture is enclosed and dark game animals, drawn with charcoals and other pigments “Scene of the Dead Man” o rare human figure portrayed there o different interpretations, a failed hunt, shows weakness of humans, etc. iii. Neolithic (Stone) Age and Cities (10,000 BCE): Middle East, transformations in agriculture, technology, society, and culture a. Jericho i. Considered the first city ii. Left bank of Jordan river iii. Cluster of houses, settled by fresh water. No streets, houses were packed side by side b. Catal Huyuk, Turkey i. Largest known Neolithic city w/ complex economy and trade ii. Different than Jericho, no fortified wall iii. Close buildings, no windows/doors, protected settlement from intruders iv. Hearth, mud infill, and plaster c. Mother Goddess i. Continuation of worship to fertility goddess, from stone age societies d. Mural of Redbull i. Interiors highly decorated ii. Shrines with bulls, bulls seen as important animal iii. City is memorialized through images on the walls iv. Neolithic Megalithic Monuments a. Ireland, Carrowmore i. Dolmens placed inside enclosure of stones Newgrange ii. Passage tomb, exposed stones, abstract designs, obviously orchestrated iii. Entry has light during winter solstice b. England, Avebury (2600 BCE) i. Largest stone circle in England, part of larger landscape of Neolithic monuments, comprised of Menhirs (large upright stones) Stonehenge o Part of larger landscape, built over many centuries o Required considerable labor and technology, exact method is unclear o Protrusions on top to hold top stones in place o Unknown usage Lecture Two Keynotes: Early Civilizations: Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley i. Mesopotamia “Between Two Rivers” a. after decline of Neolithic cities, development of cities around Tigris and Euphrates b. The Bronze Age i. Unpredictable yearly floods, attempts to control it created social structure ii. Composed of city-states iii. Ur: Largest city 1. Walled city for protection 2. Narrow streets for garbage, continuously building upward 3. Residential area: courtyard system, collect water, lavatory, no windows to the street 4. Ziggurat- religious architecture a. Plateau at top for sacred activities b. 3 axes arriving at top c. fired mud brick with straw and bitumen mortar, levels represented water, earth, and air. Axis Mundi- center of the city 5. wrote and recorded laws, legal system on clay tablets a. Ur-Nammu’s code rewritten by Babylonian culture, code of Hammurabi b. Map of the city preserved on a clay tablet ii. Ancient Egypt The Nile valley, cyclical flooding Pharoah in power Cultural belief in life, death cycle Mastaba i. Tomb in the form of a flat mound, chapel, false door ii.a The Old Kingdom King Zoser built environment surrounding his religious center o Several doors, only one opened o Colonnade, stone columns, emulated wood construction o Mortuary complex of Zoser Heb Sed court, symbolic coming of age ii.a.2 Pyramids Step pyramid… Snefru made several… Ked Pyramid- 1 “true” st pyramid Pyramids at Giza (2570-2500 BCE) o Organized in relationship to the sun Valley Temple of Chefren o Ritualize entire act of process… from the valley temple to the pyramid o Value of creating a procession: status, power, ritual barges The sphinx, Giza o Carved from rock and cased with limestone Pyramids of Cheops o Internal spaces, hidden entry filled with stone, tomb underground o 51-degree slope ii.b The New Kingdom middle kingdom, less ambitious, drought, famine, etc. pharaohs of the new kingdom expanded political/ commercial reach to southern center of Thebes Temple of Amun Karnak o Amun-Re primary deity o Temples contain: pylon, forecourt, and hypostyle hall o Forest of columns, ornamented, record of history (hypostyle hall) ii.b.2 Temple of Queen Hatshepsut Places herself into relationship with the gods Plateau gathering/festival space Public procession Middle colonnade iii. Indus Valley Civilization (Pakistan) (2500 BCE) a. Bronze age culture i. Network of narrow streets, holes for waste disposal/ drainage, sewage system ii. Engaged in long distance trade iii. Depictions of war and conflict haven’t been found iv. Used fired brick for infrastructure v. Great hall, grainery, and great bath vi. Effort was spent more on infrastructure than previous cities Lecture Three Keynotes: The Emergence of Greece i. A. The Hittites, Turkey 1. Located along trade routes 2. Citadel at Hattusha 3. Lion gate @ Hattusha, cyclopean masonry w/ magical creatures 4. Temple 1: a. Limestone w/ granite sacred statues b. Cult statues for gods c. Rooms grouped around courts d. Cella (cult room/ sanctuary) not central, most of the temple was storage 5. Yazilikaya a. Open air sanctuary b. 12 deities represented in stone i. B. Crete and Minoan Culture: Archeological sites in Crete 1. Large scale palaces, didn’t fortify with city walls… rather with communication towers 2. Palace of Knossos a. Largest palace b. Forum of gatherings, storage for crops, workshop for artists c. Less organized structure d. Rough stones and ceramic bricks e. Central court, grand stairway, frescos with bulls, labyrinthine quality (intricate and winding) f. Megaron, rectangular, center room g. Crete decline 1490 BCE unknown why i. C. Mycenae 1. occupied mainland Greece, precursors to Greek culture traded and influenced by Minoans and Hittites 2. took over Crete, built fortified structures, preparing for defense, on high ground with water supply 3. dominant site built on top of hills 4. massive citadels, cyclopean masonry 5. lion gate (similar to Hittites), symbol of magical power and protection 6. Megaron faces south 7. Frescoed interiors (similar to Minoans) 8. Grave circle: Burial for most important people Shaft graves Weapons, gold, and help buried with them 9. Treasury of Atreus Tomb inspired by Egyptians Half columns, decorated, theoretical power Mummified, procession Corbel vault 10. Decline of Bronze Age (1200 BCE) Dorian invasions, decline of Mycenae Rise and fall of 2 temples in Jerusalem, sacred site, resembled mycenaen megron ii. Iron Age Greece and Early Greek Architecture Change within architecture, refinement Palace at Pylos, Greece i. Megaron may be one source of the Greek temple ii. Used by king not deity Funerary sanctuary i. Hairpin megaron, shows axial organization of later temples Temple (roman models) i. Religious buildings as houses (oikos) for the deities, not for congregational use First heraum (800 BCE) i. Wood, perishable material Lecture Four Keynotes: The Greek World i. Ancient Greece: cultural realm, not unified nation a. Chronology recap: i. Bronze age ii. Archaic period iii. Classic period iv. Hellenistic period ii. Greek Sanctuaries a. Major site devoted to the gods, located on landscape sites not cities b. Contained: temple (statue, cella), altar (for sacrifices), temenos (boundary), propylon (gate) c. Each devoted to a god, oriented to face sunrise d. Zeus and Hera: showed human qualities, different from other cultures e. Sanctuary of Zeus, Olympia i. Holds importance for all Greek city states ii. Altar, boundary, gateway, temple f. Temple of Hera, Sanctuary of Zeus i. Example of archaic Doric temple ii. Originally built of wood, reconstructed in stone w. terracotta iii. The Doric Temple, the Doric order a. Elements: terracotta tile roof, pediment, cornice, frieze, entablature, capital, fluted shaft, no base, etc. b. Some similarity to Egyptian temple of Hatshepsut iii.a Basilica (temple of Hera), Italy Doric, archaic Columns larger at the bottom than top Rounded and skinny at top iii.b Temple of Aphaia, Aegina Column shape is more advanced, simplified, 2 stories Inner wall stucco and painted on iv. Persia Wars (500-479 BCE) a. Rule of king Darius, expanded into mainland Europe, wanted Greece b. Acropolis and Ancient Athens i. Greeks won acropolis and formed the Delian league of Athens iv. A Propylaea, Acropolis Magnificent gateway Doric Colossal bronze statue of Athena iv. B Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis Built to honor Athena nike Parapet scultures by Thideus (in charge of everything, valued over architects) Perikles had the vision for the rebuilding of acropolis Portrayal of amazons iv. C Parthenon, Acropolis Temple left legacy for their culture as being of high importance Thideus in charge More columns, cella, memorable for megaron Statue of Athena Doric refinements Portray battles as allegory of the triumph over barbarians Frieze: o Illustration of the panethenaic procession o Horsemen preparing for procession to acropolis iv. D Erectheion Incorporated ancient cults and traditions with complex form in contrast to perfection of Parthenon Built on uneven ground Athena, Poseidon, etc Caratyid: women as columns, heads holding up building, verticality Lecture Five Keynotes: Greek Followers and Rivals i. Greek temples i.a Ionic temple Temple of artemis, ephesos o Base, curled top, dentils, fluted column, volute capitals, frieze like ornaments on bottom, more columns than doric, 2 rows in the middle, systematic, propotional i.b Corinthian temple Temple of Apollo, Bassae o Few, experimental o One column in the center, 1 row on the outside, wall up against the columns ii. Greek and Hellenistic Urbanism ii. a Athens and the Agora Polis: where democracy was born Procession to temples and acropolis Big public space for arguing, gathering, politics, etc. Agora: o Gathering space o Athenian born property owners could be there to argue o Park like space Great theatre of Dionysus o Built into the landscape o Began as wooden benches, then stone o History of debate embedded in the theatre Priene, Ionia, Turkey o Gridded city, planned ahead of time and then built o Orthogonal o During colonization @ Alexander the Great’s time o Temple at mountain peak o Hippodamus: accredited for creating the gridded city o Public spaces colonnaded o Temple of Athena: paying homage to Athens Greek Oikos, Home o 1-2 stories built around south facing court, cistern, altar o colonnade hall o andron, men’s dining area o gynaikon, women’s place ii.b Hellenistic Pergamon colonization occurred rapidly after Alexander the Great died, the empire split in 4 Altar of Zeus: o Axial entry o Entry gate, ionic frieze o Sculptures o Very active, aggressive, dynamic, expressive of the Greeks having more power than in Classical architecture iii. Greek Rivals- The Persians a. Capital: Persepolis b. Ruled by king Darius and Xerxes c. Ceremonial courts d. Lots of columns reminiscent of hypostyle hall from Egyptians e. Field of columns to create openness w/ loss of hierarchy as opposed to Greek style f. Labyrinthine quality similar to Crete g. Palace of Sargon ii: i. Has a ziggurat ii. Fortress with massive gateway iii. Persepolis gate of all nations *Persian empire ends at the beginning of Hellenistic age Essay Question Examples: 1. What were the basic motives behind the creation of images at Paleolithic sites such as Lascaux? There are many different interpretations of the meaning behind the paintings; however, in essence, they were created to record culture at the time. Throughout history, many cultures have utilized pictorial or visual representations of their society so as to be remembered by the preceding people. Similar to architecture and the built environments created around the world, they stand as a memory engrained in the landscape. If those works are destroyed, the memory of them is utterly erased from history. 2. What were the motives for humans to settle in large permanent communities such as Çatal Hüyük? What changes accompanied the “Neolithic Revolution”? The Neolithic age was accompanied by great advances in agriculture, economy, and organized culture in general. It was the kick start of social structure known to us in the modern day. This included raw infrastructure, housing settlements, and governmental policies. These settlements usually arose close to a source of water and trade, allowing for a better life for humankind; exemplifying why humans would prefer to live in said communities. 3. What were some of the possible meanings and uses of Neolithic monuments such as Newgrange, Avebury, and Stonehenge? The absolute use is unclear to people today, however there have been many inclinations made based off of how humanity controls itself. The orientation of the stones allows for an implication of attention to solar calendars. For example, light shines through an entrance during the winter solstice. It could also imply usage as a burial, or an orchestrated spiritually healing monument. 4. What were the basic elements that made up Mesopotamian cities such as Ur? How did architecture and planning embody political and religious power? The infrastructure included narrow streets that continuously built up due to garbage disposal, clusters of houses around a courtyard system, and a fortified city wall. The center of the city had a ziggurat, the sacred temple with a plateaued top for sacrificial offerings to be made. The configuration of the cities surrounding the ziggurat shows that the people thought highly of the gods and centered their daily lives around religion. Ur-nammu’s code, preserved on clay tablets exemplifies the extent of political direction and law that was certainly in place for the cities. 5. How did Egyptian architecture change from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom? Consider especially changes in function, space, and planning. In the old kingdom of Egypt, tombs were first created as plateaued structures, for the elite. Later, as the pyramid begun, the first phases were that of step pyramids, tested to be perfected. The pharaoh was in power, however, there was more of an emphasis on praise to the gods rather than the human being in charge. Come the new kingdom, and pyramids become what we know of them today “true pyramids”. They became the tombs of the elite. The pharaohs, although always have been in power, now presented themselves in the light of being equal with the gods. Grand palaces were being erected in their honor to engrain their names in the history books. 6. What were some of the main characteristics of Mohenjo Daro in terms of types of buildings, materials, and organization? Mohenjo Daro proved to be an advanced city of its time. The infrastructure was more sophisticated than others, offering things such as sanitation and drains. Their structures were modest and comprised of baked bricks and mud. Unlike other cities, there is less of an emphasis on monuments and praise of a higher power but rather on the planning of the city, infrastructure, and equality amongst the people. 7. Architecture in the Mediterranean during the Bronze Age shows that the various cultures of the area were influenced by each other. What are some examples of these cross-influences? The Hittites, Minoans, Mycenaeans and more were certainly influenced by each other. First, simply within the construction of their buildings they all had a cross cultural reference with the use of cyclopean masonry. They also had some overlap with a labyrinthine quality, or an organized chaos. The Hittites created a lion gate to symbolize power and protection over their people, later on, the Myceneans also created a lion gate to exemplify similar things as a gateway into their territory. The Minoans painted their palaces with frescos of bulls, frescos also decorated the structures of Myceneans. 8. Compare and contrast the architecture of the Mycenaeans with that of the Minoans. Consider materials, ornament, use, and other issues. Minoan culture was centralized around a temple to create public space while the Myceneans organized their space based on military priority for protection. Minoans had tight streets with densely packed and small housing. The Myceneans created hairpin megaron housing, u-shaped with pitched roofs. They both frescoed the walls of their structures so as to record their culture, including animals that were of high importance such as bulls and lions. The Myceneans even created a lion gate to further show their appreciation for the powerful animal. Mycenean architecture was more similar to the Hittites than the Minoans because it was fortified, more axial, and less labyrinthine than the Minoans. 9. What were the origins of the Greek temple? Briefly trace the development of the Greek temple through to the Parthenon. Be as concrete and specific as possible. The creation of the Megaron can be considered part of the beginnings of the Greek temple. The megaron structure came to be in Mycenean culture, which then was utilized by the king as opposed to the later, deity. It shows the axial organization of later temples. The heraums incorporated the usage of columns that became so prevalent in the greek temples. The sanctuaries contained a temple, cella, boundary, and gate and varied orientation. Three different orders arose during the procession of greek culture. First, the doric order which can be seen in the Basilica. Then came the Ionic order which was more refined and had several differences seen in the temple of Athena nike. Last came the Corinthian order which was experimental and rare but even more refined. The Acropolis was a great religious area for the greeks atop a mountain but was destroyed by the Persians. Perikles led the Greek people in the plight of rebuilding to preserve their culture. In this rebuilding of the Acropolis many temples came to be there to symbolize their power and reign over the “barbarians”. The Parthenon is amongst those structures. It is of the doric order and is highly geometrical and proportional. 10. What were the functions of the Greek sanctuaries? Describe major buildings and functions. Greek sanctuaries contained a temple, a cella, a boundary, and a gate. They were religious centers to give honor to the gods and represent, through pictorial representations on the temples, the Greek’s power over other nations. They were not congregational spaces but rather “oikos” or a house for the gods. 11. What political meanings did the rebuilding of the Akropolis have? What political and religious meanings did the individual buildings hold? Perikles led the people in the plight of rebuilding the Acropolis after it was destroyed by their enemies, the Persians. He did this in an attempt to halt their rich culture from perishing along with the physical structures. He wanted to assert the Greek’s dominance and power over cultures that they considered barbaric. 12. How are power structures and social life specifically revealed through the architecture and its planning of the Greek temples and cities – their organization, materiality, and technique of construction. The Greek’s built the acropolis, containing all religious and power references, atop a high mountain amongst beautiful landscape in a symbolic heightening of their importance. They created the Agora, or political and public gathering space at the bottom of that mountain as a separate but also important entity of their culture. Their temples were highly crafted, precise, and proportional giving attention to their immense importance. Their decision to orchestrate specific public areas for argument and politics shows their emphasis of importance put on governmental relations and democracy. They utilized materials such as gold and ivory to give honor to their gods like Athena and built their temples out of stone and cut it so precisely that it showed their attention to detail and power. 13. What was the agora? What functions and buildings did it house? The agora was the political hub of the Greek polis. It is where democracy was born. Located at the base of the mountain holding the religious conglomeration that is the acropolis, it was a center for argumentation and politics. There was a large open space for all Athenian born, property owning men to participate in the democracy. There was also a theatre which housed the history of debate. Markets were also placed in this hub of socialization. 14. Compare and contrast the Parthenon with the Altar of Zeus in Pergamon. Consider basic principles and use specific details as necessary. The Altar of Zeus was erected in the Hellenistic period. This is when Alexander the Great led the Greeks in a large feat of colonization. Therefore, the building reflected that. It did so by capturing images of dynamism, emotion, and power struggle on the friezes. The Parthenon, built in a time earlier than that of colonization housed a different message about the Greeks. While is still had a frieze decorated on it to represent the power of the Greeks, it was over the barbarian societies such as what they considered the Persians to be. It was more classical, serene, and natural, just simply asserting their power stance as opposed to radical takeover and power. 15. Compare and contrast Persepolis with a Greek or Hellenistic religious site or sanctuary. Consider sculpture, ornament, function, layout, and other issues. Hellenistic culture was centered around the attempt to show the Greek’s dominance over other cultures. This was during a time of large colonization and so therefore the Greeks needed to exemplify that they were in charge of the societies they colonized. Persepolis on the other hand was intrigued by ornaments of other cultures and emanated them in their own city. They had hypostyle halls similar to the Egyptians, a ziggurat, similar to Mesopotamia, and more. The field of columns in the hypostyle hall created a lack of hierarchy for one single point, the Greek’s wanted to draw attention to the power of the Gods.
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