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Public Speaking Study Guide

by: Tiara Bond

Public Speaking Study Guide COMM 1000

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This study guide is built to get you through the impossibility that is the Auburn University Public Speaking final. It contains TWENTY-FIVE pages of the entire book literally outlined in a word...
Public Speaking
Dr. Robuck Adams
Study Guide
Public, speaking, auburn, University, COMM1000
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This 27 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tiara Bond on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Robuck Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Public Speaking in Communication at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
Study guide/Chapter review  Chapters 1­ 5  Chapter 1  Key words: 1. Public speaking 2. Audience centered 3. Digital divide 4. Rhetoric 5. Audience centered communication 6. Invention 7. Arrangement 8. Style 9. Memory 10. Delivery 11. Narrative 12. Mass media 13. Mediated personal communication 14. Expressive technology 15. Face­ to ­ face 16. Habituation 17. Chronological 18. Spatial 19. Cause and effect 20. Problem solution 21. Distance Speaking 22. Interpersonal Communication 23. Small Group Communication 24. Organizational Communication 25. Mass Communication 26. Public communication 27. Pervasive communication environment 28. Audience  29. Speaker 30. Message 31. Channel  32. Noise 33. Feedback 34. Contex 35. Environment I. The art of public speaking A. audience centered 1. know, understand and expect expectations and situations B. personal connection 1. use conversational approach 2. Face to face comm still vital 3. visuals II. Evolution of Human Communication A. Classical era (500­100 BCE) ­ Middle ages (1000­ 1500) 1. democratic societies 2. speeches = men only 3. live audiences 4. rhetoric B. Industrial age 1. mass media 2. literacy up 3. mass audiences 4. marketing and advertising C. Information age (1960 ­ present) 1. diversity 2. new media  3. advanced personal communication 4. media/culture globalization II. Influences on public speaking A. Technology II. Foundations of Public Speaking A. Aristotle's rhetoric 1. Logos 2. Ethos 3. Pathos 4. Mythos B. Cicero and the five arts 1. invention 2. arrangement 3. style 4. memory 5. delivery II. Life skills  A. More confidence B. Better listening skills C. Adapting to audience D. Finding/using reliable info E. Organizing ideas 1. Chronological 2. Spatial 3. Cause and effect 4. Problem­ solution F. Presenting ideas and info effectively II. Categories of Human Communication A. Interpersonal B. Small­ group  C. Organizational D. Mass E. Public II. Spheres of communication A. mass media B. speaker C. message D. noise E. channel F. environment G. context H. audience I. feedback II. Key Issues A. Ethics B. Critical thinking C. Transparency D. Cultural Awareness E. Using presentation software Chapter 2  Key terms 1. Speech anxiety 2. .Uncertainty reduction theory 3. Spotlight Effect 4. Relabeling 5. Visualization 6. Illusion of transparency I. What causes speech anxiety  A. temperament B. response to uncertainty II. Uncertainties of Public speaking A. Your role as a speaker B. Your speaking abilities C. Your ideas D. The audiences response E. The setting F. The technology G. How others will evaluate you II. Strategies for building your confidence A. Relaxation 1. Diaphragmatic breathing 2. Meditation breathing B. Relabeling 1. No negative words C. Visualization 1. Envision positive response II. Building your confidence before your speech A. Plan/prep early B. Choose a topic you care about C. Become and expert D. Research your audience E. Practice your speech F. Know intro and conclusion II. Building confidence the day of your speech A. Before presenting 1. Dress for the occasion 2. Keep all materials organized 3. Arrive early 4. Talk with others at the event 5. Take calming breaths 6. Check all technical aspects 7. Concentrate on other speeches 1. Actively listen B. During your speech  a. Display confidence b. Expect to experience anxiety c. Turn anxiety into productive energy d. Avoid overanalyzing anxiety 1. illusion of transparency 2. spotlight effect b. Focus on audience c. Pay attention to audience feedback d. Make no apologies or excuses  B. After the speech a. Listen to questions b. Recognize speech anxiety can occur after a speech too c. Reinforce confidence d. Develop a plan for managing anxiety in the future Chapter 3  Key Terms 1. Communication Climate 2. Copyright 3. Cultural diversity 4. Cultural norms 5. Culture 6. Dialogue 7. Ethical communication 8. Ethnocentrism 9. External noise 10. Fair use 11. Hate speech 12. Informative overload 13. Internal noise 14. Listening anxiety 15. Monologue 16. Oral Citations  17. Plagiarism I. Codes of Ethics A. ON PAGE 44 TABLE 3.1  II. Ethical Communication in the Classroom A. “Enhancing human worth and dignity by fostering truthfulness, fairness,  responsibility, personal integrity, and respect for self and other.” B. Communication Climate  1. ethical speaker and listeners promote supportive climate  I. Public Speaking and dialogue ethics A. Facilitate a supportive communication climate a. give undivided attention b. SILENCE CELL PHONES c. Avoid irrelevant comments/distracting movements d. focus e. avoid derogatory language B. Demonstrate mutual respect a. maintain eye contact b. take notes c. relevant feedback d. listen to questions C. Promote honest communication a. truthful, accurate, honest and logical interaction 1. NO PLAGIARISM B. Convey positive attitude for learning a. use all resources to gather info b. participate in public discussion C. Appreciate individual differences D. Provide Effect feedback II. Recognizing and avoiding plagiarism A. Credit all sources B. Principles of integrity a. If you say you did the work ­ do it b. cite work that’s not yours c. present research fairly C. Take accurate notes D. Paraphrase the right way  E. Cite sources in your speech II. Ethics and Cultural Diversity A. Avoiding Ethnocentrism B. Avoid sexism a. Firefighter vs. Fireman b. Gender neutral II. Listening and public speaking A. Components of Listening a. Hearing b. Understanding c. Remembering d. Interpreting e. Evaluating f. Responding B. Types of listening a. Empathetic b. Sympathetic c. Appreciative d. Content e. Critical II. Listening effectively to speeches A. Set goals B. Block distractions C. Manage listening anxiety  D. Suspend Judgement E. Focus on speakers main points F. Take effective notes G. Use all your senses H. Ask good questions I. Four causes of poor listening a. not concentrating b. jumping to conclusions/being rude c. listening too hard d. Focusing on delivery Chapter 4  Keywords 1. Brainstorming 2. General purpose 3. Internal consistency 4. Specific purpose 5. Thesis 6. Topic 7. Working outline  I. Determining your general purpose A. Inform 1. describe 2. explain 3. demonstrate 4. increase audience knowledge B. Persuade 1. Reinforce 2. Modify 3. Change 4. Prompt to alter beliefs attitudes or values C. Entertain 1. Captivate 2. Enjoy 3. Jokes and stories D. Keep general purpose in mind II. Brainstorming for possible topics A. Brainstorming techniques ­ no evaluating 1. interests 2. experiences 3. passions 4. like to learn about B. Brainstorming sources 1. headlines 2. internet 3. pictures II. Evaluation and selecting topic ideas 1. Interests 2. audience 3. resource availability  4. time limit 5. setting and occasion A. Consider your own interests B. Consider the audience C. Consider resource availabilty D. Consider setting and occasion II. ID your specific purpose  A. To inform 1. Clear concise statement focusing on single goal 1. “To explain why…” B. To persuade a. “To convince my audience that…” C. To entertain a. “To amuse my audience with…” D. Putting it all together II. Phrasing your thesis III. Working outline Chapter 5  Key Terms 1. Audience analysis 2. Audience centered 3. Target audience 4. Audience 5. Demographics 6. Psychographics 7. Standpoint 8. Direct quotes 9. Captive audiences 10. competence 11. Goodwill 12. Sociability  13. Values 14. Attitudes 15. Beliefs 16. Audience research questionnaires 17. close­ended questions 18. Open­ended questions 19. Summary statistics 20. Voluntary 21. Credibility 22. Trustworthiness 23. Dynamism I. What’s an audience A. If you don’t know this I can’t help you  1. [insert Mockingjay whistle] B. The speaker audience connections C. Classroom audiences II. Researching your target audience A. Appeal to target audience B. Meeting the challenges of audience diversity 1. Promote support communication climate 2. Wide pool of knowledge and info 3. Foster positive intergroup relationships 4. Better articulate own cultural identity 5. Acknowledge and respect differences  C. Techniques for speaking to diverse audiences 1. ID commonalities 2. Establish specific credibility  3. Include supporting materials 4. Use appropriate language 5. Continuously attend to all audiences II. Using Demographic information A. Understanding the value of demographic  1. age race gender etc B. Gathering demo. data 1. Personal observation 2. Consulting people familiar with the audience 3. Public resources  II. Using psychographic information A. Determining audience standpoint B. Audience standpoints 1. Values 2. Belief 3. Attitudes II. Developing audience research questions A. Asking open ended q’s B. Asking closed ended q’s  C. Scale the questions D. Combining E. Distribute II. Using Audience­ research data in speech A. Types of audience data 1. Summary statistics 2. Direct quotes B. Referring to audience data in speech 1. make transition 2. get attention 3. support main points 4. conclude your speech II. Adapting to the setting A. The physical location 1. Indoors 2. outdoors 3. online 4. evaluate the setting 5. use the setting B. The occasion 1. voluntary audience 2. captive audience C. Time II. Developing Credibility with Audience A. Competence  B. Trustworthiness C. Dynamism ­ how exited  D. Sociability E. Goodwill Study Guide/ Chapter Review  Chapters 6­11 Chapter 6  Key words 1. Bibliographic information 2. Call number  3. Copyright information 4. Deep web 5. Interview guide 6. Key words 7. Leading questions 8. Metasearch engines 9. Neutral questions 10. Oral citations 11. Primary questions 12. Primary sources 13. Relevance 14. Search engines 15. Secondary sources 16. Surface web 17. Web directories I. Preparing to research your topic A. examining your own experience B. Identifying multiple perspectives and sources 1. who might be knowledgeable 2. what organizations address your topic 3. what events are happening related to your topic 4. how to find the information you need II. Finding research materials A. accessing internet resources 1. relevance 2. metasearch engines 3. search engines 4. specialized meta and search engines max results 5. web directionaries B. exploring library resources 1. books 2. journals, magazines, newspapers, and periodicals 3. gov’t publications 4. reference works 5. non print resources II. Maximizing your searches A. Use a variety of key words B. Use advanced search options C. search for more than text II. Conducting research interviews A. Determine interview’s purpose B. select interviewee C. develop q’s 1. secondary q’s 2. open v. closed  3. neutral v. leading D. Organize your interview guide E. Conduct the interview 1. review interview guide 2. choose an appropriate setting 3. record the interview 4. ask one question at a time 5. monitor your verbal and nonverbal q’s F. Integrate the info 1. in the intro ­ quote 2. body ­ state interviewees name and title and explain credibility 3. conclusion­ closure II. Evaluating your research materials A. Reliability B. Validity C. Currency II. Acknowledge your sources A. oral citations B. bibliographic info and in­text citations II. Research guidelines A. start early B. schedule research time C. ask q’s  D. keep accurate records E. take notes on each source F. revise as needed G. know when to move on H. know when to go back Chapter 7  Keywords 1. analogy 2. anecdotes 3. connotative meanings 4. definitions 5. denotative meanings 6. ethos 7. facts  8. examples 9. logos 10. metaphors 11. mythos 12. narratives 13. pathos 14. similes 15. statistics 16. supporting materials 17. testimony I. Types of supporting materials A. Narratives ­ describe events in a dramatic way  1. own stories 2. other’s stories 3. institutional stories ­ how indiv’s should act in the org.  4. Cultural stories B. Examples 1. General examples ­ Everglades/Grand Canyon 2. Specific examples ­  Ford Motor Company on US culture 3. Hypothetical examples ­ conjecture of supposition C. Definition ­ deno v. conno 1. def. by function ­ what it does/ how it works 2. def by analogy ­ comparison 1. metaphor/simile  B. Testimony a. Expert b. Celebrity c. Lay  C. Facts and statistics Chapter 8  Key words 1. body 2. cause and effect patterns 3. chronological pattern 4. coherence 5. complete sentence outline 6. internal summaries 7. Monroe’s motivated sequence 8. narrative pattern 9. patterns of organization 10. problem solution pattern 11. signpost 12. spatial pattern 13. topical pattern 14. transitions I. Main points A. relevant B. credible C. clarity D. balance II. Transitions A. sign posts B. internal preview C. internal summary  II. Organizing A. Chronological ­ by order/ time  B. Spatial ­ based on how things correlate based on where they are C. Topical ­ by topics D. Narrative ­ storytelling with plot E. Cause and Effect F. Problem ­ solution ­ Persuasion only  G. Monroe’s motivated sequence ­ persuasion only 1. gain attention 2. est. need/problem 3. satisfaction/solution 4. visualization ­ links solution to action 5. call to action  II. Type of outline A. Working/Keyword B. Complete sentence 1. highly detailed description of your ideas and how they’re related C. Presentation   Chapter 9         Key words 1. attention getter 2. conclusion 3. introduction 4. memorable message 5. preview of main points 6. primacy effect 7. recency effect 8. review of main points I. Developing your introduction A. get your audience’s attention 1. attention getter 1. relates topic to the audience 2. connects with audience 3. reduces nervousness b. consider your purpose c. consider your time  d. Use your creativity e. try using common attention getters 1. surprising facts 2. emotional story  3. Joke 4. information about audience 5. question  b. integrate presentation media  B. Indicate your purpose and thesis  C. Establish your credibility  D. Preview your main points a. concisely tell the audience what the main points of the speech will be II. Developing your conclusion  A. Review your main points a. signpost preceding “in conclusion…” B. Reinforce your purpose a. memorable message NOT ENDING STATEMENT C. Provide closure  a. avoid “that’s about it,” etc b. quotations, presentation media, dramatic statement, refer to the intro,  refer to subsequent events, reinforce speaker ­ audience connection, and  thank the audience.   Chapter 10       Key words 1. alliteration 2. antithesis 3. cliches 4. connotative meanings 5. denotative meanings 6. euphemisms 7. hedges 8. idioms 9. inclusive language 10. invitations to imagine 11. jargon 12. language 13. metaphors 14. nonsexists language 15. parallelism 16. rhymes 17. similes 18. slang 19. symbols 20. tag question 21. tone I. language fundamentals A. language is arbitrary  1. each language has a different way of representing an object B. language is ambiguous 1. words have multiple meanings 1. denotative ­ dictionary 2. connotative ­ emotional  B. language is abstract a. open to interpretation C. Language is active a. changes and develops b. meanings change c. dynamism  II. language and culture ­ inseparable a. slang b. jargon c. idioms d. euphemisms e. cliches II. language and gender A. gender based interpretation a. avoid:  1. tag questions ­ “right?” lesson arguments by making a  statement a question 2. hedges: lessons argument “likely” “maybe” etc B. gender­ free terminology  1. USE NONSEXIST LANGUAGE  1. Stewardess vs. flight attendant 2. Fireman vs. firefighter 3. avoid demeaning language ­ “female doctor” II. Spoken vs. written language A. Public speaking a. dynamic b. immediate c. formal and/or informal d. irreversable e. narrative B. Written a. static b. distant c. informal and/or formal d. revisable e. facts II. Audience centered language  A. put your language in context a. mention the location b. refer to the current events c. respond to what happens during the speech  B. Personalize your language a. integrating audience analysis info b. remarking on what other speakers have said c. us we, us, you , and I C. Use inclusive language a. avoid discriminatory or stereotypical language D. Use visual language a. imager b. similes  c. metaphors d. parallelism e. rhymes f. alliteration g. antithesis ­ juxtaposition of two contradictory phrases  E. Spark imagination with your language a. invitations that are imaginative b. humor II. Guidelines for using language in your speech  A. Use spoken language B. choose meaningful words a. avoid jargon, slang, idioms, euphemisms, cliches C. balance clarity and ambiguity D. be concise E. avoid offensive and aggressive language F. build in redundancy  a. preview, review, clear transitions G. don’t get too attached to your words  Study Guide/ Chapter Review Chapter 11­16  Chapter 11       Key word 1. document cameras 2. flip chart 3. handout 4. human assistant 5. interactive whiteboard 6. physical model 7. presentation media 8. presentation software 9. real­time web access 10. traditional whiteboard 11. transparency 12. webidence Type Advantages Limitations Presentation  blends text, images, video,  Overused, boring, speech content  software of digital  sound into speech neglected, speaker tends to talk to  slides screen Document camera projects images with great detail, must manage order of items to be  can zoom in capture images,  projected, speaker tends to talk to  display wide range of items screen Overhead projector  technical simplicity and ease of  out of date technology, speaker  transparencies  use, portable tends to talk to screen Flip chart records spontaneous thought,  best for brainstorming, not  encourages audience  presenting participation Traditional  records spontaneous thoughts unprofessional looking, writing  whiteboard takes time Interactive  encourages audience  best for instructional and  whiteboard participation, enjoyable to use,  professional activities, not  capture and save boards presenting, expensive Video evokes emotion, portrays  interferes with speaking pace and  example focus Handout enhances audience recall after  distracting, wasting speech Physical model provides specific, memorable  can be too small or detailed, not  references good for large audiences Human assistant helps demonstrate two­person  close coordination with assistant  activities, realistic required can appear unprofessional Sound and music set context or mood, trigger  decrease speaking time, distracting, imagination, entertainment value sound quality and volume must be  carefully controlled Real­time web  fresh, current info connection and download speed,  access absense of change of web sites,  access systems can be unreliable Chapter 12 Key word 1. articulation 2. delivery 3. dialect 4. extemporaneous speaking 5. impromptu speaking 6. key word 7. manuscript speaking 8. memorized speaking 9. monotone 10. nonverbal message 11. pitch 12. posture 13. presentation outline 14. pronunciation 15. rate  16. vocalized pauses 17. vocal variety 18. volume I. Selecting a delivery method A. impromptu 1. speaking without presentation 2. flexibility, spontaneity 3. not researched, disorganized 4. situation ­ responding to audience questions B. extemporaneous 1. prepared and rehearsed speech with brief notes 2. organized, practiced 3. research+organizing+practice= time consuming C. manuscript 1. giving a speech written verbatim  2. difficult to modify based on audience feedback  D. memorized 1. giving a speech that has been committed to memory  2. present speech w/out notes II. Understanding factors that influence delivery  A. culture and delivery 1. cultural factors influence speaker behavior 2. culture influence audience perception B. Gender and delivery  1. historical perceptions 1. men = higher status and greater credibility 2. women = based on appearance b. current perceptions 1. gender = little impact on overall evaluation of competence 2. male = more influential and persuasive 3. female = credibility rests on trustworthy sources b. vocal attributes 1. women’s voices = higher and softer 2. volume ­ essential 3. pitch B. Fluency, dialect, delivery a. Fluency  1. stuttering ­ nervous, shy, quiet, w/drawn and fearful 2. acknowledgement 3. goal attainment 4. eye contact b. Dialect 1. no dialect is inferior B. Physical impairments and delivery  a. speakers using mobility aids 1. ID plan of approaching/leaving 2. decide if standing will work for you 3. find best way to manage note cards and presentation  media b. Speakers with visual impairments 1. developing speech using voice recording 2. braille 3. write speech and have person read it to you  b. Speakers with hearing impairments 1. use a sign ­ to ­ voice interpreter 2. ask for q to be loud II. Managing your voice during speech  A. Speak loud enough B. Vary rate, pitch, and volume a. not every point carries same rate/tone b. vocal variety C. Avoid vocalized pauses D. Articulate your words  II. Managing your body during your speech a. Dress for the occasion B. face audience and make eye contact  C. display appropriate facial expression D. maintain good posture E. move with purpose F. avoid physical barriers II. Managing your audience during your speech A. adjust to your speaker space as needed B. involve audience C. respect audiences time D. respond calmly to rude/hostile audience members E. Be prepared for a q and a  II. Preparing your presentations outline A. working a. assisting in initial topic development, guides research B. complete sentence a. clearly IDs all pieces of info, puts ideas in order C. presentations a. assists in practicing and giving your speech D. ID key words E. Transfer presentation outline to note cards II. Practicing delivery of speech  a. give a version of your speech B. practice speech in stages a. practice various parts of presentation  b. practice  parts of speech c. practicing whole speech C. time your speech Chapter 13  Key words 1. event  2. gatewatching 3. informative speaking 4. ideas and concepts 5. objects 6. places 7. process I. characteristics of an informative speech A. personally meaningful B. accurate 1. gatewatching ­ monitoring news sources to analyze and access info C. clear II. Types of info speeches A. objects and places B. people and other living creatures C. processes D. events E. ideas and concepts II. Specific purposes and thesis statements A. “To raise awareness,” “to inform” “increase knowledge” “deepen understanding” II. Organizational pattern A. chronological B. spatial C. topical D. cause and effect E. narrative II. Guidelines A. keep speech informative B. make your speech come alive C. connect your topic to your audience D. inform to educate E. use presentation media to inform  Chapter 14 Key words 1. apathetic audience 2. coercion 3. divided audience 4. hostile audience 5. persuasion 6. persuasive speech  7. positive audience 8. question of fact 9. question of policy 10. question of value 11. uninformed audience I. Defining persuasion ­ relies on language, images, and other means of communication to  influence people’s beliefs, attitudes, values, or actions A. persuasion or coercion 1. coercion = no choice B. Persuasion or manipulation 1. manipulate = dishonest tactics  1. omitting crucial evidence, presenting inaccurate info, or  intentionally misrepping research B. Persuasive or informative speaking  a. info = speakers are experts and want to inform audience b. persuasive =speakers are promotes/proponent and advocate a view II. Questions of fact A. Definition a. whether something is right, wrong, true, or false 1. “Donald Trump’s policies are wrong” b. rest on ability to present sound, credible evidence  B. Specific purposes, thesis statements, and main points a. “To convince” “to persuade”  1. want audience to believe or agree  B. Organizational patterns for speeches on questions of fact  a. chronological  b. spatial c. topical d. cause and effect II. Questions of value A. definition  a. assesses something’s worth, significance, quality, or condition 1. “Donald Trump’s policies are bad,” B. Specific purposes, thesis statements, and main points 1. specific purpose reveals your evaluation of the topic’s quality 2. main points must clearly present and strongly support position B. Organizational patterns a. chronological b. topical II. questions of policy  A. definition a. what specific course of action SHOULD be taken  b. reflect controversies B. Specific purposes, thesis statements, and main points a. include call to action b. specific purpose indicates what you want your audience to do/agree with C. Organizational patterns for speeches on questions of policy  a. problem­ solution b. problem ­ cause ­ solution c. monroe’s motivated sequence II. Persuading different types of audiences  A. negative audience/hostile audience a. informed and holds unfavorable view of your topic 1. est. credibility 2. take common ground approach 3. help audience visualize your topic in a positive way  4. prepare for negative reaction to your position 5. keep persuasive objectives within reason B. Positive audience/sympathetic audience a. informed and holds favorable view 1. incorporate engaging evidence that reinforces the audience’s  commitment to the topic 2. use vivid language images to heighten your audience’s  enthusiasm  3. rely on narratives to elaborate 4. rally audience to action B. Divided audience a. knows topic and holds split views 1. demonstrate you recognize counter argument 2. est. cred. with stats 3. est. common ground  4. integrate strategies for negative and positive audiences  B. The uninformed audience a. unfamiliar with topic and no opinion 1. show the relevance of topic 2. demonstrate expertise and fairness 3. use repetition and redundancy  4. keep persuasion sublte B. The apathetic audience a. know about topic and not interested 1. gather attention, pique interest 2. show how the topic affects them 3. show your audience how much you value the topic 4. take a one sided approach to the topic  5. use presentation media  Chapter 15  Key words 1. ad hominem fallacy  2. ad ignorantiam 3. ad populum  4. analogical reasoning 5. appeals to cultural beliefs  6. appeals to speaker credibility 7. appeal to tradition fallacy  8. argument 9. begging the question 10. causal reasoning 11. claim  12. comparative evidence fallacy 13. conclusion 14. deductive reasoning 15. division fallacy 16. emotional appeals 17. enthymemes 18. evidence 19. inductive reasoning 20. fallacy 21. false dilemma fallacy 22. guilty by association fallacy 23. hasty generalization fallacy  24. loaded words fallacy  25. logical appeals  26. post hoc fallacy 27. premise 28. qualifier 29. reasoning 30. red herring  31. slippery slope fallacy  32. straw man fallacy  33. syllogism 34. weak analogy fallacy  I. what is an argument  ­ makes a claim and backs it up with evidence and reasoning A. claim B. evidence ­ supporting material  C. reasoning ­ links evidence with claim  II. using claim effectively  A. types of claims 1. conclusion ­ primary claim/ assertion THESIS 2. premise ­ dives a reason to support a conclusion, smaller main points  SUPPORTING CLAIMS 3. Enthymemes ­ unstated/implied premise and conclusion B. qualifying claims 1. qualifiers ­ indicate scope of claim 1. How strong is the claim  b. Why use qualifiers? 1. show mindfulness II. Using evidence effectively  A. logos B. ethos C. pathos D. mythos a. keep evidence relevant  b. get evidence from credible sources  c. select evidence from divers sources d. use multiple appeals  II. Using reasoning effectively  A. deductive  a. general ­> specific 1. crime was committed, X had a motive, X has no alibi, X  committed the crime B. Inductive a. specific ­> general 1. my cat is  a mammal ­ > all cats are mammals  B. causal  a. one event ­> another 1. the election of Donald Trump ­ > the collapse of  democracy in US  B. analogical a. similarities b/w two cases  FALLACIES  Fallacy definition fallacies in claims  false dilemmas  choices reduced to two begging the question something is true because it is slippery slope one event leads to another without logic ad ignorantiam a thing is true b/c it isn’t proved false  fallacies in evidence red herring distract with irrelevant point/example ad populum appeal to popular attitude or belief appeal to tradition support status quo comparative evidence  inappropriate use of statistics fallacies in reasoning division  parts of a whole share the same properties hasty generalization insufficient examples  post hoc misrepresent causal relationship  weak analogy key dissimilarities make the comparison misleading Fallacies in responding ad hominem  personal attack guilt by association claim linked to objectionable person straw man misrepresentation of a claim  loaded words emotionally laden, misleading language   Chapter 16       Key word 1. acceptanct speech 2. elevator speech 3. eulogy  4. forum  5. nomination speech 6. oral report  7. panel discussion 8. public testimony 9. roast 10. round table discussion 11. small group 12. speech of introduction 13. speech of tribute 14. symposium 15. toast 16. video conference I. speeches for special occasions A. speeches for introduction 1. prep the audience 2. be accurate and up to date 3. connect with the audience B. acceptance speeches 1. be thankful and humble 2. be succinct 3. contextualize the work C. After dinner speeches 1. entertaining and lighthearted 2. focus on a theme 3. avoid presentation media D. tributes and eulogies 1. appropriate emotions 2. provide inspiration E. speeches of nomination 1. be well informed 2. get the wording right F. public testimony G. roast H. toast I. the elevator speech 1. brief presentation that impressively explains who the person is, what they  do, and what they would like to do professionally J. mediated speaking 1. speaking with media  II. Presenting in small groups A. oral report 1. recognize contributions of all members 2. speaker should be clarified by other members  3. only one speaker B. panel discussion 1. moderator asks questions to direct the groups interactions in front of an  audience 1. ESPN b. round table discussion 1. no audiences B. Symposium  a. group chooses a topic and divides it into different areas  b. each group presents a speech on the subtopic  C. Forum  a. q and a session that follows a group presentation  D. Videoconferencing  a. people at multiple physical locations use video to communicate orally and visually in real time II. Guidelines for effective small group presentations A. preparation as a group  B. coordinated presentations C. effective listening D. clear references to the group  E. goal achievement


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