PSC 234 Midterm Study Guide
PSC 234 Midterm Study Guide 234
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by SamF on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 234 at DePaul University taught by Dr. Arnold in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Freedom and Empowerment in Political Science at DePaul University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Freedom and Empowerment study guide for Exam 1 Prof. K. Arnold Political Science exam: 4/28 (thurs) ~blue book exam, approx 5 short questions and one essay (blue books provided) Nietzsche: critique of utilitarian account of morality (tied to critique of JudeoChristian ethic); critique of notions of punishment (claims that it is enlightened, humane); critique of faith in metaphysics, science, atheism Origin Story: 1. Established values(JC Values) 2. They worked 3. We forgot origin. debtor/creditor relationship (Schuld = guilt) People feel a neverending sense of guild due to feeling of indebtedness to god/jesus, died for our sins. People feel a need for a god whose morality is unattainable, need got to be nailed to a cross for you: religion rooted in violence, paralyzing guilt. will to power versus will to nothingness, nihilism Will to power is a life affirming instinct, courage of convictions, don’t need to put others down to affirm yourself, worry about yourself without judging others. Will to nothingness is suppressing instincts and the self. Conforming to a religion and following religious values of selflessness, selfsacrific, love eithic, paralyzing guilt. Killing the self, weaknesses, people can not handle their own mistakes/violence, everything is a sin. Self denial. The will to power involves always questioning things and not settling on a Truth. Religion leads people to think they found the one unconditional Truth and they stop questioning, thinking: this is dangerous. Values of religion are supposed to be selfevidently good and not questioned. Christianity is both because it requires a large amount of energy to create meaning yet the self is killed in the process slave revolt in morals—herd instinct; ressentiment Asceticism takes a huge amount of energy to constantly conquer the self, doubt self, seek societal validation, creates a her not a community. Conformity becomes the norm. being forced to repress instincts/passions results in emotional explosions =not good, dangerous noble morality—active, triumphant, not petty Morals of Ancient Greece/Homer: passion, creativity people make mistakes which is okay, not supposed to feel guilty forever, no sins, body is not a locust of sin, value of suffering Religion wants you to not feel pain or admit to mistakes but N thinks it is healthy to admit mistakes and work through the suffering, not repress it. asceticism—willed versus imposed/killing all instincts and passions People want structure/meaning in a chaotic world which is why religion is so enticing and seductive. Someone else telling you what to do. Ascetic morality: cannot handle human error. Subjectivity = good: the recognition of one’s own needs and self. Not selfish but subjective. Celebrate the ugly, plain, common; threatened by beauty, talent, intelligence. Morality is not selfevident, destructive, encourages conformity, discourages change, differences, dangerous. People stop questioning and thinking critically about things. Freud: id, ego, superego Id: pleasure principle; the pursuit of pleasure and the avoidance of pain, seeks boundlessness through religion Ego: the reality principle; happiness is temporary but more frequent, mediates the id and super ego, mitigates pleasure and provides boundaries Superego: fear of loss of love, internalization of societal norms, religious precepts, parental messages; guilt’ becomes a threatening and guilt ridden agent. critique of religion Mass delusion. Desire to always have parents there to tell you what to do, allows you to stop thinking, making mother/father an all exalted figure, splitting off the id, infantile and unrealistic, life is too hard so people turn to religion critique of the love ethic It is unrealistic and results in guilt because it is not real. true love and aiminhibited love (particularly the love ethic) True love makes you vulnerable because person van die but is ultimately a good thing. Only happens once or twice in a lifetime. Aim inhibited love advocates for unity, order, respect. A little bit of guilt leads to respect/being civilized. repression versus sublimation Sublimation is better than repression because it allows you to admit that life is painful and lets you use frustration to motivate and do something healthy rather than destructive. BUT it can only be taken advantage of by the privileged. superego and guilt; why superego is not the same as the death drive why civilization makes us unhappy; why it’s necessary Civilization restricts us and limits us, creates a sense of guilt but it also allows to form communities which are stronger than the individual and creates a balance. There is not a natural instinct to be ‘good’ but fear and guilt from civilization. Guilt is good as long as it is balanced. Provides tools for sublimation until we feel hostility and have unresolved tensions. warning at end of book (Nazis—your discussion must derive from the book) The Nazis were elected democratically and promised only good things that would lead to a stronger and thriving Germany but World War II and the Holocaust were goals in service of Eros that turned Thanatic. Events that were destructive and ended in death. Threatened civilization. Humans have a natural inclination towards aggression and it needs to be acknowledged and accepted in order for it to be expressed in healthy, nondestructive ways. High ethical standards may be in the service of eros but have the potential to lead to mass murders and destruction instead of love ie. The god damn holocaust. Fuck you Hitler. Eros (libido: selfpreservation, life affirming) versus Thanatos (aggression, death drive) Eros: binds us, constructing, friendship, love, community, healthy Thanatos: destructive, aims at total destruction and death. The greatest impediment to civilization. Unresolved issues result in violence; must be aware of them to prevent destruction We have both eros (instinct toward community) and the opposing death instinct which threatens civilization. Things are done in service of Eros but turn thanatic; ex. The Nazis. pathology—role in understanding all of society pleasure principle, reality principle primitive emotions—what they are, importance The brain/mind evolves however the old coexists with the new. limits of human mastery (we are all primitive) Oedipus Complex, story from Totem and Taboo—how guilt is passed on, how turns into justice, morals, religious principles, and other forms of ethical norms Paternal power turned into fraternal power with the destruction of the divine right monarchy and the establishment of brotherhood. Cultural guilt for killing the father The guilt is internalized – strict political and religious precepts. Weber: ~rationalization—must be able to define term indepth according to book and class dicussion; To rationalize something is to give it written, explicit rules that apply to everyone, introduce an organized system, definition of capitalism—importance of this definition as it relates to radical Protestant beliefs in predestination and a calling It is not an unlimited pursuit of greed ex. Piracy or gambling. Capitalism is a rationalized economic system in which profits are calculable, there is a division of labor in which the labor is scheduled and systematic, profits are renewed/reinvested. Puritans believed that wealth accumulated from labor was a sign of god’s grace and everyone had a calling to labor. People have a specific job that God wants them to do which introduces specialists and the division of labor. ~how and why did radical Protestantism revolutionize economic practices? How and why did radical Protestants create the very thing that led to their demise? Puritans through their work ethic created capitalism which was a threat to the monarchy. The puritan ethic was overly strict and took a sharp break from any enjoyment out of life so everyone hated them and the monarchy persecuted them. ~What does it mean that we now live in an iron cage, worship money and are “specialists without spirit”? The mechanism that is capitalism continued on after the Puritans except that the spiritual and religious meaning was lost. People are born into the capitalist system and expected to work according to the ethics established by the puritans but they do it without having any religious/spiritual meaning or value. ~method: ideal type; his investigation; elective affinity 1) Nietzsche and Freud both argue that society’s norms hold us back from being truly happy and pursuing what we want. However, each author thinks it is possible to act (somewhat) freely, as an independent thinker. In comparison, Max Weber indicates that economic values have so overtaken our lives and values that it is difficult to escape the “iron cage.” Compare and contrast Nietzsche’s ideas of noble actions and a will to power with Freud’s discussion of true love and sublimation and Weber’s conclusions about the Protestant ethic. Nietzsche o JC ethic Weakness, ugliness, poverty Values: selfsacrifice, selflessness, conquering instincts/passions, love ethic, meek shall inherit the earth, selfdenial—as a result the self is suppressed and killed Encourages conformity Discourages change, differences, beauty, talent, protest Ressentiment: people feel that they need an external hostile stimulus to act or people do not have courage of their convictions and must put others down to make themselves feel superior. Need societal validation Paralyzed with guilt because of the strict good/evil binary. God has an unattainable morality that gives people neverending and paralyzing guilt. o Before the JC ethic was the Noble Morality of Ancient Greeks/Homer Active triumphant affirmation of the self Courage of your convictions Making mistakes is not encouraged but it is okay if you do—learn from them People were selfdisciplined for the sake of their art Gods were not perfect, had human flaws, made mistakes. o The JudeoChristian ethic is ultimately a will to nothingthness and a will to Truth that results in people conforming, becoming a herd not a community, and it allows people to stop thinking and questioning the world. Freud o Civilization limits us to give us security but we are still able to be free, independent thinkers as long as the societal superego is balanced and not too strict. We have a natural instinct toward aggression and destruction so civilization provides us with tools to express this in healthy ways. o True love is the one true source of pleasure but it also leaves us at our most vulnerable. True love is rare but it should be pursued because it is healthy and good and it makes us happy. It is a threat to society because it takes up too much energy which is why we also need aiminhibited love for friends, family, and community in order to have order and respect. ‘ o Humans have a natural inclination for aggression which needs to be accepted in order for it to be expressed in healthy ways. Ex. Capitalism is violent and exploitative which makes it an outlet for our aggressive instincts but it is okay because without capitalism we would replace it with something much worse in order to express our aggression like mass murder. o Even though civilization limits our instincts to some extent, a balance is good because it allows for the formations of community and provides us with outlets for our aggression. Weber o Prior to the strict puritan ethic and the development of modern capitalism we were not trapped in the iron cage, ie. Catholicism Work days were shorter Time for fun and family was encouraged Good works were not systematic Poverty is a virtue Confess sins and then be happy Enjoy life and socialize o Then the Puritans established their strict ethic which lead produced capitalism Any spontaneous enjoyment of life meant you were damned Only the elect were not damned and went to heaven People were a tool of god and god wanted you to work Accumulation of wealth from labor was a sign of grace from god. Money should be saved and reinvested and not spent on luxuries or for enjoyment because it as a sin and meant you were damned. The puritans believed that everyone had a calling to labor since god wanted you to work which resulted in specialization and the division of labor. There was not an emotional connection to religion or god which created an unprecedented innerloneliness and was extremely inhumane. This was all bad but at least the puritans knew why they were doing it It changed the economic system and so everyone was forced to participate in it or they would starve and experience homelessness Even after the puritans capitalism continued except the religious value was lost People were born in to this mechanism where they are forced to work according to puritan ethics with money as their god except there is no meaning or spiritual value. We are forced to do it but do not know why. It is a violent and exploitative system that we participate in yet have no meaning as to why. We are stuck. Nietzsche and Freud see a way out of the conformity and possibilities to once again become independent thinkers but Weber believes that Capitalism is an “iron cage” established by puritan ethic that we are trapped in. Essay #2 Nietzsche and Freud both discuss how the norms of society and civilization restrict us and limit the individual, but they both also introduce the possible means of happiness and freedoms within a restrictive society. Nietzsche discusses the differences between slave morality and noble morality. Slave morality celebrates weakness, ugliness, and poverty. The JudeoChristian ethic forces values of selfsacrifice, selflessness, selfdenial, pity, and the meek shall inherit the earth. These values ultimately kill the self and result in weakness. This ethic results in ressentiment which is what people experience when they feel they need an external hostile stimulus to act. This is reactionary and makes people feel the need to impose their values on others and put others down in order to feel better about themselves. The JudeoChristian ethic is a will to nothingness in which people attempt to find meaning in the pain of life but it only leads to the killing of the self and individualism. People pray to a god with unattainable morals that leads to paralyzing guilt in which people stop questioning and thinking. The JudeoChristian ethic creates a herd of conformity not a community in which change, differences, uniqueness, and intelligence are discouraged. The Noble Morality however, is a triumphant affirmation of the self. People are not necessarily encouraged to make mistakes but when they do it is okay and you are encouraged to learn from then and move on. Noble morality encourages you to have the courage of your convictions without having to put others down or impose your values on others. The Ancient Greek gods had human characteristics and flaws and made mistakes. The will to power is a life affirming instinct in which people hold the values of the noble morality and are free to question and think never seeking or being imposed upon an absolute Truth. Holding the noble morality instead of the slave morality allows people to act as individuals and constantly question and think as individuals without the paralyzing guilt and suicide of the Judeo Christian Ethic. Freud believes that civilization encourages the suppression of instincts and freedom; however, a balance is actually good for us as long as the societal super ego is not too strict. Civilization allows us to form communities which will always be stronger than the individual. If the societal super ego, religious and political precepts and strict ethical codes, is too strict and too much of a burden it can lead to the expression of humanity’s natural inclination toward aggression to be expressed in the service of Thanatos. True love is the one source of true pleasure but it is also threatening to civilization due to the large amount of energy it can take up. When true love is balanced with aiminhibited love it is healthy because it allows for the pleasure from true love but there is also an encouragement of love for friends, family, and community which provides respect and order. Humans have a destructive and aggressive death instinct which needs to be accepted and acknowledged so that it can be expressed in healthy ways through sublimation instead of repressing it which results in mass destruction. Capitalism is a form of sublimation in which the system is a manifestation of violence and exploitation but if it did not exist it would be replaced with something much worse like mass murder. Civilization limits us and restricts us in order to provide us with security but the individual can find pleasure and free thought through true love and the tools that civilization provides us with for sublimation. Weber, unlike Nietzsche and Freud, thinks once were able to be free and independent thinkers but we are now trapped in the “iron cage” which is the system of capitalism developed from the Puritan ethic. Prior to the introduction of puritan ethics, people worked short days and there was time to socialize, enjoy life, and spend time with friends and family. In Catholicism, the Priests and nuns had an ascetic lifestyle so that the followers of Catholicism could enjoy life. The Puritans, or radical protestants established the ideas of predestination and a calling. People were now tools of god and had no emotional connection to religion or God. Jesus did not die for everyone but only the elect. It was predestined whether you were elect and going to heaven or not. The puritans believed that god wanted everyone to work hard and had a calling to a specific labor. The accumulation of wealth was a sign of grace from god and should be reinvested and not spent for enjoyment, personal gain, or on anything without religious value. The puritans damned any enjoyment of life because they believed that everyday should be spent working as a tool of god. The Puritan ethic created an unprecedented inner loneliness. The calling to labor and forced long work days created the division of labor and specialization. While this system was incredibly detrimental at least the Puritans knew why they were doing it. The economic system was changed and people were forced to take part or they would starve. The system of capitalism was established and remained even after all religious meaning was lost. It became a mechanism that people are born into and forced to participate in. People work long, hard days but without any spiritual value or meaning. We are trapped in the “iron cage” of capitalism where we are forced to participate in the exploitative system of capitalism with money as our god but without any meaning or reasoning why. Nietzsche, Freud and Weber all agree that society is restrictive and limiting to the individual, except while Nietzsche and Freud give ways to be free, independent thinkers, Weber believes we are trapped in an “iron cage” by capitalism.
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