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by: Amanda White


Marketplace > Ohio State University > Psychlogy > 3551 > PSYCH 3551 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
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This study guide includes definitions, examples, etc. of all terms from the Final Exam study guide posted by dr. Scott.
Psychology for Adolescence
Dr. Bertrina Scott
Study Guide
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This 18 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amanda White on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3551 at Ohio State University taught by Dr. Bertrina Scott in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Psychology for Adolescence in Psychlogy at Ohio State University.




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Date Created: 04/27/16
PSYC 3551-Final Study Guide Changes in self-understanding  Abstract and ideal: Piaget’s theory (formal operation)  Think about possibilities, potential, what could be, social comparison  Understand self as abstract now vs. concrete  Differentiation and fluctuation: individuals actions vary by situation, does not change core of individual, but just how they act  Adolescents can be “multiple-selves”  Increase in self consciousness: heightened awareness of what others think about them  Constant need to know what others think of them  Awareness in the unconscious: feeling they cannot control, can control reactions but can’t control how you feel  Self integration: piece together all aspects of yourself and results in identity formation Self-concept  Domain specific characterizations of self  Divide self into different categories and grade yourself is those areas (athletics, academics, etc)  Self criticize each realm of their identity  Self esteem: overall gpa, self concept: individual class grades Barometric self-esteem  moment to moment shifst in how you asses yourself (ex. Clothes, weather, on time, happy to sad, fluctuates determined by situation. Baseline Self esteem  self esteem in general, big picture assessment of how you view yourself  does not drastically change, even if have a bad day you are still ok overall  middle school transition effects baseline  in early adolescence base line is effected, but lowest in early adolescence  slight decreases occur during and immediately after major life changes (must restabilize) Ethnic Differences in Self-esteem  African Americans: higher levels of self esteem despite their SES: family structure and high levels of ethnic identification help. Parents very supportive and value what you excel at  Asians: lowest self esteem: most peer rejection, due to scholastic competence, getting good grades does not always make you popular Gender Differences in Self-Esteem  Exist because because girls tend to have lower self esteem than boys  Girls: place more significance on social relationships and are often dissatisfied with how they look after puberty Consequences of low self-esteem  Poor mental and physical health  Psychosocial distress: anxiety, disorders, shared characteristics between disorder and self esteem  Psychosomatic symptoms: physical symptoms with no biological basis, come as a result of major anguish, headache, fatigue  Unwed pregnancy: seek out partners that validate you, unprotected sex, maybe a baby will imporove your relationship, want someone wh needs them  Deviant behavior: seek out antisocial peers to seek approval from them. Think these people will accept them, but then engage in shop lifting, substance use, skipping school  Victimization: victims of bullying are usually shy, anxsious, not self-assured Theoretical perspectives on identity formation: Erikson  1 to propose that finding an identity was the major life task of adolescents  follower of Freud, but thought he overemphasized sex  thought social relationships are more important  identity vs. identity diffusion: 5 developmental stage o each stage of life has a crisis that must be overcome o adolescence is the 5 stage: identity formation is complex and involves cognitive and physical maturation so rapid and individual becomes able to answer these questions and piece together their identity  identity diffusion: confused on who they are, look to peers to clarification, no self definition, withdrawan  characterized by personality and role experimentation o importance of a psychosocial moratorium o break between childhood dependence and adult autonomy o need to experiment and figure out who they want to be o try to find a place by different beliefs and experiments Theoretical perspectives on identity formation: James Marcia  4 identity status categories  Identity diffusion: o No identity crisis and no commitment o Least developmentally sophisticated  Identity foreclosure o Made a commitment, but no crisis o Person has not made a decision for themselves, but committed to something o High conformity to what family wants, parents are major influence, not explored anything else yet  Identity moratorium o In midst of identity crisis, but no clear commitment o Try to figure out major in college, try out a lot of things to figure out what you like  Identity achievement o Had a crisis and made a commitment o Most mature level of identity formation o Gone through many decisions and picked one o Important to successful identity formation: several crises and experiences to really understand what you want to do Different Selves: (actual: who adolescent really is) Ideal Self:  High self esteem, complete self identity and sense of identity  Who adolescent wants to be Possible Self  The various identities an adolescent might imagine for themselves  Future orientation important: think who they will become False-self  Behavior that presents a fals impression to others  Acting in a way people know is inauthentic, fake  Do to try to fit in and raise their self esteem  Experimenting with different personalities Feared self  Who the adolescent most dreads becoming  Balanced by ideal self Ethnic identity  Forms of acculturation o Separation: minority practies their own group ideals and does not engage with majority culture o Assimilation: minority identify solely with culture of dominant society, opposite of separation, reject their original culture, see it as “different” not in a good way, lower self esteem, reminded of past o Marginality: isolation of both identifying with majority and minority cultures. Don’t identify with either culture, on the edge, just see self as an individual o Biculturalism/integration: strong identification with both minority and majority cultures. Able to go back and forth and fit into each group easily. Strong feelings and no animosity toward either culture… most mentally healthy! More accepting of differences and diversity  Effects of discrimination o Stereotypes, victimizations, negative portaysls of different types of people o Their history is ignored o Psychological suffering: conduct problems, depression, lower grades, feel loss of control, alienation, antisocial and risky behavior, isolated, violent tendencies  Multidimensional model of racial identity o Seller’s perspective on ethnic identity, which emphasizes three different phenomena o Racial centrality: how important race is to defining individuals identity o Private regard: how individuals feel about being a member of their race o Public regard: how individuals think others feel about their race Ethnic/racial socialization  Child is told how to live in a society where they may not be the majority, differences may not be appreciated  Learn how to deal with differential treatment  Associated with positive adjustment of ethnic minority adolescents  Does not mean you hate group you belong to, just realize how you feel about your group and have pride and sense of value Theoretical perspectives on intimacy: Sullivan vs. Erikson  Sullivan o Emphasize importance of intimacy in adolescence o First to stress importance of “chumships” in adolescence o Adolescents want to seek out relationships with peers o Need for intimacy intensifies in adolescence o Friends need to be honest o Not much research but had a huge following o Developmental differences in disclosure  Adolescents want to self disclose and tell what they think o Emphasis on intimacy as basis for friendship  Most valued features in friendships  Violation of intimacy ends friendships: breaking trust  Erikson o Said identity formation was key developmental taks of adolescence, not intimacy o Intimacy is not important until early adulthood o Intimacy shoud not be centhal taks unless they already know who they are o Intimacy vs. isolation: 6 developmental stage (isolated without intimacy) o Each person contributes equally to relationship but you remain an individual  Both are right: boys use identity as a precursor to intimacy (Erikson)  Girls want intimacy first (Sulivan) Determinants of dating ADOLESCENTS AND DATING 1. characteristics desired in a romantic partner change for boys a. spend more time with romantic partners than ever before b. as adolescents become comfortable with pubertal changes, become more comfortable being ok around a romantic partner c. as comfort increases with body, comfort increases with actually being with someone vs. just thinking about them d. boys don’t focus on intimacy, but rather focus on looks e. boys admit at beginning of adolescents they look for physical features f. as they get older, they seek out more intimacy g. girls: don’t always admit they seek physical attractiveness, but they do seek physical attraction too 2. dating scripts are highly influenced by gender a. onset of adolescents: girls think who they want to date (intimacy is important) b. dating script: cognitive model that guides dating interaction, mental prototype i. carry around expectations of what a date is and what should happen c. Males: proactive-boy will be the one who asks girl out, brings up ideas for dates, arranges transportation d. Females: reactive-being asked out, respond to requests/date, respond to initiatives during date, girls still want to be the ones asked out-even if really like someone, reluctant to initiate the date 3. Moderate dating generally associated with positive development a. How often you date, opportunity to date presents itself, date every now and then b. Not intensely over-involved with one person or not having tons of different dates with different people c. Girls: most negatively affected by serious early dating i. Disadvantage to date serious and date early (before age 15, 1 singular relationship) ii. High level of admiration/love for partner, see a future, overly invested in relationship iii.May focus so much on being desirable to partner only, exclude everything and everyone else iv. Always ask what their partner would want them to do: social relationships suffer, academics may suffer v. Any hobbies/interests may be abandoned to spend time with partner vi. Girls become less socially adept with same gender peers, less socially mature. Less interested in achievement vii. Potential for sexual relationships they may not be ready for 1. Younger than 15 engaging in sex as a means to show their love d. Late/no daters may experience delayed social development i. At a disadvantage? ii. May have difficulty “catching up” on dating experience iii. Need to begin to figure out the dating norms iv. Delayed social development in context of dating (behind the curve) v. May be subject to ridicule and harassment FUNCTIONS OF DATING * Recreation: source of fun, enjoyment *status and achievement: date because it increases peer group status, enhances popularity *Choice of dating partner: date only to improve status, or date for closer connection -date someone desirable, popular, others like them *Learning and Socialization -learn social skills, get along with others, have a conversation, be a good listener, how to respond and behave in certain contexts, meaningful relationships *Context for sexual experimentation -dating not prerequisite for sex, but can serve as a context for it *Companionship -someone to talk to, share activities with -friendships allow us to celebrate certain occasions with partners *Identity formation -a way for someone to form an identity outside context of the family -what they like about dating: experience things on their own *Mate sorting/selection -13 year olds don’t think about if someone is a potential spouse -but, dating allows you to figure out who you find desirable, or not -ex. Want to date someone really smart, older, younger, etc. -a filter and lets you narrow down what you want in a partner Consequences of early and serious dating BREAKING UP IS HARD TO DO  Can be devastating because adolescent coping skills not fully developed o Commitment not normative in adolescent relationships like breaking up is o Experiencing break up: depression, suicide, murder!! o Devastating because adolescent can’t deal with a break up, don’t know how to deal with emotions (had intense passion, arousal come to an abrupt stop)  Egocentrism may contribute to intensity of unhappiness following a break up o Think no one will understand them or what they are going through o Don’t reach out to those who could possibly help you o Think parents don’t understand them—don’t laugh at them or tell them they shouldn’t be feeling this…. tell them they will be ok o Don’t want to listen to others who have been through it…makes devastation last longer  Intense grief related to: o Reduced academic performance o Health problems: physical and mental o Carelessness: believe they are the one who did something wrong, don’t see themselves as having value, feel worth nothing o Self-medication: take away negative issues/feelings, numb yourself o Romantic harassment:  Not like “stalking”  Goal not to threaten or make fearful, but to see how to get the victim to see how much they love you---will follow the person everywhere…creepy!  Think they are helping show victim that someone cares about them, but can be too intense and possibly unwanted  Harassers: believe showing victim how available they are will make the victim see they are missing out  Most adolescents see through this and find it creepy and weird, stay away from person trying to get back with them  Longer the grief: more intense o Usually grief is fairly brief for adolescents  More likely to occur during o May/June: school ends, vacation, work, may not see each other, summer love o September: school starts, meet someone new or leave your summer love o December/January: winter break, apart for 2 weeks, busy with family, if adolescent is in a committed relationship—sexual relationship, “best gift is you”  Home while parents still at work, left unsupervised  3-6 o’clock problem: most sexual activity, substance use because parents are still gone at work o Tentativeness of commitment: coincide with school calendar o End of January/February: Valentines day  Adolescents break up, too much commitment, feels too serious Adolescent couples: love, staying together, breaking up, marriage ADOLESCENT ROMANCE: EXCITING AND NEW  In most adolescent love relationships, commitment is missing o Just want to see what happens o Not looking at long run o Increase in ability to make commitments as adolescents age o Superficial before hand: no real commitment  2 types of adolescent love o Infatuation: intense, thought it was real love, physical arousal o Romantic Love: passion and intimacy combined  Adolescents may experience consummate love but it is rare  Rare: have a commitment that lasts a year Let’s STAY TOGETHER *couples who remained together -high intimacy, love early on -equally committed-both feel same level of commitment -similarity In age, education plans, SAT scores, attractiveness -both want to make relationship last -there is “opposites attract”-but “opposites” sometimes superficial (types of music) -similar on central values, but not on small things *Consensual Validation -explains why adolescents have relationships with people similar to them -they support your way of looking at the world, validates you -ex: think you are fluent in Spanish because all you do is add “o” to every word and your friend agrees with you _someone who’s had your similar though or experience validates you *majority of adolescent relationships don’t last ADOLESCENT MARRIAGE  Younger people are when they get married, the greater chance of divorce, unhappy  Usual processes and complications of marriage are aggravated by adolescent immaturity  Limited experiences  Identity formation is still in process, partner and you may not “click” later on after identity is formed for the most part  Don’t always become what you want to be in life  Don’t know if you are really compatible with someone  Think passion is love  May have nothing in common later in life  Major reasons for adolescent marriage o Pregnancy o Escape from unhappy home o Personal security-uncertainties are accepted by partner o Want to get a “fresh start” o Not same reasons adults get married o Adolescents are trying to solve a problem, not always waiting to start a life together o Have children to try and fix problems or think it will bring them together  More likely to last if o Adequate financial resources o Long standing relationship before marriage o Both completed high school o Pregnancy delayed for at least a year (get to know each other as a married couple) o Marriage not a knee-jerk reaction o Start a new stage in commitment for couple Attachment, internal working model, Adult Attachment Interview, rejection sensitivity 1. Attachment: strong affectional bond that developes between infant and caregiver 2. Internal Working Model: The implicit model of interpersonal relationships that an individual employs throughout life, believed to be shaped by early attachement experiences 3. Adult Attachment Interiview: a structured interview used to access an individuals past attachment history and internal working model 4. Rejection sensititivey: heightenend vulnerability to being rejected by others Phases of romance DEVELOPMENTAL SEQUENCE OF DATING (who you date first) 1. Same gender groups a. First people you date: groups go to location where opposite gender groups is likely to be (group of girls go to mall to see groups of guys) –not an official date, but potential to find people you like 2. Adult-arranged social gatherings a. School dances, parties b. Locations where there are potential interactions with potential partners 3. Mix-gender groups a. Group of friends go together, may be coupling or not b. May be mixed gender people who sort of like each other, want to get to know each other (couples or potential couples) 4. Coupling (late adolescence-16, early adulthood) a. Dating no longer a group affair b. 2 people go together without others around Trends in and stages of sexual activity  Auto erotic behavior: sexual behavior experienced alone: fantasies, masturbation  In high school: males transition to sexual activity involving another person  Non-coital activity with another person  Less intimate to more intimate  Hand holding, kissing, making out, touching, feeling each other, intercourse, oral sex  Talk of contraception after sex is a trend instead of before, Gender intensification hypothesis; androgyny  the idea that pressures to behave in sex appropriate ways intensify during adolescence  androgyny: ability to “pass” for either sex, gonads of both sexes Sexual socialization  the process by which adolescents are exposed to and educated about sexuality GENDER DIFFERENCES IN INTIMACY 1. Requirements for forming intimate relationships a. Boys: boys mention intimacy later, mention common characteristics shared first, someone they can do the same things with b. Girls: more likely to mention intimate features, trust, supportive 2. Expressions of intimacy a. Boys: less open, avoid personal topics, not less intimate just different i. Ex. One boy in group is sad because his girlfriend broke up. Friends will be likely to say move on, use more impersonal ways to address situation, don’t worry about it, other fish in the sea, find someone else—concern, but less open about it b. Girls: more open with feelings, more self-disclosure i. Ex. One girl in group is upset because of a break up. Friends will be likely to say that he was a jerk, care about her emotions, ask if they want to talk about it, everything will be ok, just cry it out—concern is how you are feeling 3. Ease of forming intimate relationships a. Boys: easier to find intimate relationships because they have a larger pool to choose from. Easy to make new friends b. Girls: find it harder to form intimate relationships because trust is essential, hard to find people they can really trust. Watch and listen to people, not easy to find people they can trust, but once relationship is formed it is difficult to include other people, more reluctant to let others in 4. Conflict resolution a. Boys: conflicts are very brief, over power and control, leadership, physical aggression, but then its over. Not explicit effort to resolve issue, once something is said, let it slide, don’t dwell on things b. Girls: longer, deeper conflicts, only resolved when someone apologizes. Hold longer “grudges”, if all parties are looking for the apology the conflict is prolonged. Girls overly invest themselves in intimate relationships so when something goes wrong, it hurts a lot more, depression occurs. Once conflict is resolved, girls become closer to each other 5. Comfort with intimacy in late adolescence a. Boys: seems that by late adult hood they become uncomfortable to express desire for intimacy with friends i. 2013 study: address the stereotype that boys are not intimate 1. comfort, but in late adult hood even though they desire intimacy, they are reluctant to be open with saying the want intimacy. Don’t want to appear “homosexual” or weird— cultural expectations and socialization influences development b. Girls: intimacy is very desirable for girls, easy for them to express what they want Predictors of sexual activity o Age at maturation  Early maturers: have sex earlier than late maturers  When girls have sex at early age (prior to 13) more likely to reported it was forced or coerced  Felt they had to have sex to keep their partner o Extent of involvement in risky behavior  “problem kids” have all the sex  more likely to have risky sex  but problem behavior by itself does not predict sexual activity  predictor: substance use (20% of adolescents who had sex said they drank before) o family factors  intuitive if a parent talks to child about sex and gives accurate info—then sexual activity will be delayed: not what research finds!!  Open communication: makes it more likely to have safe sex when they do have sex  Doesn’t determine if they will have sex or not, but does determine if sex will be risky or not  Quality of attachment relationships with parents (no warmth, kids seek out warmth sexually)  Father absent homes: girls want social approval through sex  Not just parents: but older siblings influence too (especially for older girl)  Rejecting or harsh to kids: earlier sex to escape chaos o Peer influence  Establish the sexual “norms” and norms for appropriate behavior  if common to be risky: your child will be at a greater risk to do this too  if adolescents believe “everyone” does it, then they are more likely  belief in myths o academic performance  high grades: less likely to have sex, more time studying  disengaged: more likely to have early sex, before age 15  even if someone has good grades does not always mean they are not having sex…but they most likely will engage in safer sex o religious activity a deterrent from sexual behavior, especially if friends attend to GENDER AND THE MEANING OF SEX  Significant differences between males/females about the meaning of sex and its appropriateness  “sexual scripts” o cognitive representations of how sex should be o guides our interactions with sexual partners o who has sex under what conditions o Gender difference:  Males: “conquest script”: intimate relationship not a prerequisite to have sex. If they are sexually attracted to someone they can have sex. Males often initiate sex  Females: “romantic script”: should be in love to have sex, will make them closer, have a future with their partner, stricter guidelines  Both: expect boys will make moves, girls set limits on how far it will go  Helps make decision on who they will have sex with or even if they will have sex at all o Problems: when people have very different expectations due to scripts  Ex. Guy has a conquest script, gets with a girl with romantic script-after they have sex: guy might be casual about it, girl may think they are in love now and are committed…. confusion! o Scripts come from multiple sources: parents, peers, culture, pressure, etc.  Double standards with scripts  Guy who has multiple sex partners: player, good connotation, looked at as cool  Girl who has multiple partners: slut, whore, tramp, negative connotation, “slore” (hybrid term)-what does it mean??  Leads to confusion of what sex means to us  Feelings after sexual intercourse o Males:  Really happy, accomplished something, want to tell people o Females:  More reluctant to tell, concern of pregnancy or intimacy of relationship  Excited, but also very concerned  Don’t want to damage their reputation or to be talked about  Arousal response o Girls:  Intimacy important prior to sex, a prerequisite  Intimacy enhancer o Boys:  Don’t always need intimacy before  Sex can be casual, source of recreation Females and early sexual relationships  sexual scripts” o cognitive representations of how sex should be o guides our interactions with sexual partners o who has sex under what conditions o Gender difference:  Males: “conquest script”: intimate relationship not a prerequisite to have sex. If they are sexually attracted to someone they can have sex. Males often initiate sex  Females: “romantic script”: should be in love to have sex, will make them closer, have a future with their partner, stricter guidelines  Both: expect boys will make moves, girls set limits on how far it will go  Helps make decision on who they will have sex with or even if they will have sex at all o Problems: when people have very different expectations due to scripts  Ex. Guy has a conquest script, gets with a girl with romantic script-after they have sex: guy might be casual about it, girl may think they are in love now and are committed…. confusion! o Scripts come from multiple sources: parents, peers, culture, pressure, etc.  Double standards with scripts  Guy who has multiple sex partners: player, good connotation, looked at as cool  Girl who has multiple partners: slut, whore, tramp, negative connotation, “slore” (hybrid term)-what does it mean??  Leads to confusion of what sex means to us Adolescent pregnancy: correlates and consequences  Between 750,000-1M american adolescent girls get pregnant each year  Us has hightest rate of adolescent pregnancy in industrialized world  Infant effects  Maternal education/economics  School aged child effects  fathers Reasons for adolescent misuse/non-use of contraception, predictors of non-use of contraception  lack of planning, lack of knowledge, lack of access, predictors of non-use of contraception: age, low SES, embarrassment, low academic achievement, low formal operational thought, no future orientation, negative attitudes about using protection, disruption of mood/romantic feelings STDs:  viral: cannot be cured (herpes and Human Papillomavirus “HPV”) ,  bacterial:can be cured (Chlamydia and Gonorrhea), and parasitic infections  Trichomoniasis; AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) caused by HIV. Strips body’s ability of fighting infections. Unusually long latency (5-10 years) with half of new HIV cases being people under 25 Cultural differences in sexual activity  Black males: start sex at average of 15 years old  Whites start at 16  Asians start at 18  Females slightly older than males  High sexual activity among black males: more grew up in single parent households, poor areas,  Latino: multiple sex partners and more become pregnant and get std  Asians less sexually actie  Many girls first sexual experience is forced Reasons why US has high rate of adolescent pregnancy  Percentage of sexually active youth has increased o More adolescents having sex than previous generations o Cause for concern:  Increase due to oral sex increasing? Belief that it is not really sex, can’t get pregnant---but still dangerous and can still get STD  Oral sex is seen as a compromise to intercourse  Sometimes oral sex for adolescents does not need to occur in the context of a relationship, more casual attitude about oral sex (Higher in suburban areas)  Adolescent girls more the “givers” of oral sex, males “receivers” o President Bill Clinton: accused of inappropriate relationship  Claims he didn’t, but he really did…Lewinski saved a dress with his sperm on it and it was confirmed  Said he didn’t have “sex” with her…just oral sex  Message from the president that oral sex was not that serious and wasn’t really sex  childbearing is not seen as an adult activity, there are no clear messages about sex (semi-restrictive, permissive, restrictive), minimal talk about family planning during doctor visits, economic and educational variables Developmental psychopathology  focuses on describing and exploring the developmental pathways of problems RISK FACTORS  characteristics that elevate the probability of a problematic outcome in groups of people who have that factor and protective factors: characteristics that promote healthy development in individuals ABORTION  assumptions behind legislation: banning abortions are in place based on the assumptions that there is a risk of harm from abortion  adolescents are unable to make informed decisions, benefits of parental involvement, who is most likely to have one: socioeconomic status is the biggest predictor of abortion SEX EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS  abstinence only: focus is deterring sexual behavior outside of marriage.  Only effective in delaying the age in which teens engage in sexual behavior. Does not educate youth on contraceptives and provides misleading information/statistics about them. vs. comprehensive and their effectiveness: educates both biological and emotional/relationship aspects of sexuality.  Age & Culturally appropriate. Developed in cooperation with the community. Effective in changing adolescents’ cognitions: communication, motivation, and perceptions. Also provides medically accurate information and relies on participatory teaching methods. (take home fake baby) Sexual minority youth: sexual identity, vulnerabilities, coming out  Sexual orientation: individuals preference for physical and emothional relationships toward another person  Not willfully chosen or changed: experience differences  Many become aware of their sexuality during childhood and adolescence  Overall adjustment in behavior and personality is same to heterosexual kids  Self esteem may be lower  Identity may not be comfortable  Hesitant to intimacy at first  Coming out: o Realization of sexual identity and disclosing the truth to family and others o A long process, not a single situation, multiple steps o Before: acknoowldge how you feel o Prepare for discrimination o Have pride and comfort o Very stressful experience  Vulnerabilities: o Not a mental illness o Higher suicide rate, increased substance use, more threatened at school, higher dropout rate, more likely to experience violence o Knowledge of society iskey: need to be more tolerant Problem behavior syndrome  The covariation among various types of externalizing disorders believed to result from and underlying trait of unconventionality General principles about problems in adolescence Internalizing vs. externalizing problems  Internalizing : individuals turn their problems inwards (more mental and emotional); girls more likely to display  Externalizing: o -any issue of maladjustment where individual turns outward, “acting out”, disruptive, violate rules overtly. Tend to be more characteristic to boys (like internal to girls)  Conduct Disorder o Psychiatric disorder, a mental illness o Significant violation of social norms and rules o Difficult behaving in appropriate, socially acceptable ways o Curfew violate, skip school, lie a lot, sneak out, etc. o Con others and take advantage of others o Adults cannot have conduct disorder o If goes untreated in adolescence=turns to antisocial disorder (psychopaths)  Aggression o Any type of behavior used with the intent to harm someone o Mistake aggression for assertion o Aggressive: means you are hurting others intentionally (physical or emotional) o Assertive: stand up for yourself  Juvenile offending o Adolescents with conduct disorder are diagnosed because they have done something illegal that puts them into the justice system (shop lift, cons, ran away, etc.) ---had to undergo psychiatric evaluation Gateway drugs  Alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana  Pass trough the gates of beer, wine, cigarettes  Rare to start cocaine without having ever drunk alcohol or smoked first  Height of substance use is in COLLEGE!! Transracial adoption and adolescents’ adjustment  Occurs when parents of one ethnic group adopt child from different one  Provide a stable, loving, nurturing environment  Child needs regular social experiences with people from their own culture  Parents must accept child’s differences  Child goes through an ethnic socialization  “colorblind” not always helpful Types of juvenile offending  Broad range of behaviors including socially unacceptable behavior o Can be for underage kids o Delinquency: violates juvenile justice system o Criminal behavior  Steal, shop lift, burglarizing, assault: always a crime despite age o Status offenses: acts that are crimes because the individual is under age  Truancy, skip class in high school  10% of adolescents have been arrested (higher for individuals who have actually committed offenses)  most likely people to be arrested are males (80%)  girls not committing the crimes that boys do: girls shoplift, vandalize Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder  Conduct disorder: a repetitive and persistent pattern of antisocial behavior that results in problems at school, work or in relationships  Oppositional defiant disorder: a disorder of childhood and adolescence characterized by excessive anger, spite, stubbornness Offender types  Life course persistent offenders o Show a pattern of problems from birth onward o Individual has had problems their whole life  Born with neuropsychological deficient (impulsive, temper, low serotonin)  Born into environment with problems-inept parents, hostility, neglected o Neurological symptoms are made worse because of environmental factors o Chronic stress, psychiatric problems, unemployed parents o Life in high risk environment—engage in problem behaviors early  Adolescent limited offenders o Show no signs of problems during childhood o Offending behaviors only seen during adolescence o Come from “good “family can be effected o High degree of sensation seeking o Want to get access to resources of adulthood, but they may steal them, shoplift o When become an adult: they have access to things they want so they don’t offend anymore Predictors of juvenile delinquency  Familial Influence o Neglectful parents, engage in criminal behavior o Antisocial behavior can be genetic (especially aggression) o Parents who are substance users/abusers o Siblings are delinquent  Low self-control o Lower than average o Limited impulse control due to brain developing o Act now, don’t think of consequences  Delinquent peer influence o Burglary, shop lift o Many adolescents don’t commit crimes alone, do with a group  Neighborhood quality o Not a lot to do, boring, so become delinquent just to have something to do o Most acts are committed in hours right after school (3pm-6pm) o Increased police presence in summer to monitor adolescents o Crime is the norm where you live=more likely to engage o Way to survive in an area involves burglary  Cognitive distortions o Adolescents minimize victimization-don’t feel bad for those they hurt o Self-centered, “hostile attribution bias”---infer hostility on others who you believe are out to get you o Think people always mean to hurt them even if it is an accident  Low school achievement o Disengagement-not committed to learning, not interested o Starts very early in life, especially if they have a history of failure o Feel school is no value, only way to improve life is criminal behavior  Early involvement with substance use o Start before age 15: higher risk for juvenile offending If substance becomes addictive=feel that is the only way they can live Depression: treatment, diathesis stress theory, gender differences, correlates DEPRESSION 1. Criteria for diagnosis includes the following—DSM 5—involves clinical or major depression, not temporary 2. Must meet 5 of the 9 symptoms for at least 2 weeks 3. Sometimes it is underdiagnosed in adolescence because they attribute symptoms to puberty, changes in adolescence, common changes for all---but they are not! The longer it goes untreated, the more difficult to treat later on 4. Not caused by changes in adolescence 5. Most problems are transitory and in place before adolescence began, now they become more pervasive a. Depressed mood for most of the day b. Reduced interest in all or most activities c. Weight loss/gain d. Sleep problems e. Psychomotor agitation or retardation f. Fatigue g. Feelings of worthlessness/hopelessness h. Problems thinking, concentrating, making decisions i. Recurrent thoughts of suicide GENDER DIFFERENCES IN DEPRESSION 1. Female have 2x rate of depression as males—not in all cultures though! a. Coping strategies i. Girls use strategies like “rumination”/ruminate ii. Term used in farming for cows when they regurgitate food multiple times iii. Girls go over and over problems in their head and can’t stop thinking about your problems— doesn’t go away, distressing, troubles iv. Girls more likely to ruminate, boys more likely to distract themselves and not focus on the problem v. Dwell on things to the point where we can’t let go of problems vi. Need to focus on solution vii. Co-rumination: girls do this with friends 1. Not only ruminate ourselves, but when get together with friends share miseries with each others, speculate on negative feelings 2. Self-disclosing to friends is good, but we have our own issues and also friends issues to deal with 3. **leads to depression (problem focused vs. solution focused) b. Increase in estrogen—only in certain cultures c. Negative self image i. Girls is more negative because the invest a great deal on body image ii. Gain more weight---effects image d. Value placed on interpersonal relationships i. Girls invest more time in friendships and romantic relationships ii. If relationship goes sour, it impacts how they feel they are valued iii. Invest too much in relationships that won’t last long iv. Inconsistent friendships, fickleness of friendships e. Stress level i. Girls experience more levels of stress when asked about stress ii. Overinvestment in relationships, rumination, body dysmorphic, school transitions iii. Adults don’t notice these things as problems, but just attribute symptoms to typical adolescence iv. WHAT CONTRIBUTES TO DEPRESSION?  Diatheses stress model: internalizing problems are result of combination of a predisposition and exposure to stressful conditions o We all have genetic vulnerabilities to disorders (psychological) o But, here we say individuals are born with this ability, but weather or not it manifests itself is due to how much exposure to high stress they have o Biological predisposition: not a “depression gene”, but a combo of biological and genetic factors that its presence increases the chance of the disorder manifesting itself o Cant regulate emotions well, more reactive to stress, neuro-deficiencies, o Can also inherit a cognitive predisposition---inherit likelihood of thinking a certain way (always blame self, feel helpless, feel undervalued) o Combine predispositions with environment stress—family, peers, conflicts within relationships, parents emotionally unavailable, feel out of touch and that others are not concerned about them, no family cohesion, o Peer problems contribute to depression: being unpopular, feeling rejected, no close relationships to anyone else/not part of any clique or group o Difficult life changes contribute to depression  Divorce, death, romantic relationships ending TREATMENT FOR DEPRESSION  It is treatable!!  Very effective options o Antidepressant medication (Prozac, Paxil, Zoloft) ---but not a magic pill that helps everyone regardless o Psychotherapy along with pills is important…don’t get just one or the other  Used together  Issues: not all medications/treatments work for everyone!  SSRI: drugs that act on serotonin to regulate your mood  70% feel relief from medications  not immediate relief! Can take 10-14 days to feel better  must be careful in prescribing medications to children  2004: Black box warning (FDA)  taking this drug carries a significant risk, can be harmful for individuals under 18  prescribe with extreme caution—increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviors  analyzed 100,000 people who were given the meds or a placebo:  control group (placebo) only 2% had suicidal thoughts  experimental group: 4% felt suicide thoughts (doubled!)  needs to be ongoing monitoring by parent, physician, teacher  black box warning used with extreme caution because people would sensationalize their symptoms  meds can be prescribed by doctor or psychiatrist---must monitor closely and also must get talk therapy o cognitive behavior therapy (cbt)  always part of depression treatment strategy o interpersonal therapy  teach people how to develop healthier relationships for people who have difficulty getting along with others  be able to detect unhealthy relationships o family therapy  family can be source of a lot of stress  entire family gets therapy to address all issues  still have individuals who may decide they are not worth living SOCIAL CONTROL THEORY  A THEORY of delinquency that links deviance with the absence of bonds to society’s main institutions ADOLESCENT SUICIDE  depression is a huge risk factor for suicide  3 leading cause of death for 10-19 year olds  an attempt at suicide may occur right after it seems the person is experiencing relief from symptoms--- change in behavior/coming out of the dark, but they were experiencing enough motivation to complete the suicide  trying to get up enough courage to kill self  if we can identify and treat depression early enough we can reduce suicides  rate of suicide increases in adolescence o suicide in childhood is very rare o compared to adolescence: increase in attempts  ethnic differences o native Americans higher rate of all other groups  higher depression and alcohol use  gender differences o girls: attempt suicide more than boys—choose methods that may not be fatal (pills, slit wrist)— takes a long time to end life, more superficial slits—don’t really want to end life, but just want help —od on aspirin, nothing too lethal o boys: more adept to complete suicides—use methods that are more immediate and lethal (guns, hanging), boys don’t want to be saved Patterns of substance use  Experimental o Individual uses substance just to see what its like, curiosity  Social o Use substance during social activities, “social drinker”/” social user” o Don’t use it alone, but use it always when others do  Medicinal o Most dangerous usage!! o Use to relieve an unpleasant emotional state, self medicate for anxiety, stress, depression, a coping mechanism for unpleasant emotional feelings  Addictive o Most dangerous and most addictive o Use substance to depend on it to get through the day o Feel they cannot function unless they use something first o Only a small amount of adolescents falls into this category Predictors of adolescent substance use  Seems to be a normative part of adolescence, peaks interest, want to know what things are like---- normative, not ok to do, but it is almost expected  Familial influences o Genetic contribution and family environmental factors o Early adolescent: family tends to be most important o Parents use substance, how they use it (medicinally, addictive) o Are parents supervising what adolescents are doing? o Perception of adolescents have about weather or not their parents will approve of their use---if they think parents won’t mind, then they are more inclined to use o Parents will throw parties with substance---justify that if they use it then they should do it at home---irresponsible and illegal!!!! o “if they drink I’d rather they do it at home” o impaired judgment already but will be more clouded by substance use  Peer influence o Older peers=more at risk o Peers who tolerate substance use or use as well o Feel to belong in a peer group must use  Individual characteristics o Feel use will increase social standing o Do it to fit in, for approval o Think its ok when you are underage despite the law o Think that because they have other adult privileges (driving, etc.) then they should be able to drink o Sensation seeking  Contextual influences o Availability of substances and whether or not it is the norm in school, neighborhood, among peers  Many campaigns to dissuade adolescents from trying substance at all o DARE—not effective o Just say No---least effective!! Too basic, too simplistic (despite the fact that First Lady was in charge of it) o Best campaigns: use variety of strategies  Must start early with intervention  Adolescents have a lot of the time already tried—start in elementary  Tell dangers and tell what adolescents will lose if they use  Ex. What the “costs” of smoking, drinking, etc. are  Increase academic skills---they have more to lose if they use  Gets parents involved!! Instruct them on how to talk to kids (kids listen to parents more than school) Risk factors for suicide  Depression, ethnic and gender differences  family disruption o chaotic family environment, reaches the worst point  Psychiatric problems o Substance use o Depression  Worsening of relationships outside the family o Romantic relationships-betrayal  Stress o Stress related to academics o Also related to sexuality and sexual identity (homosexual=higher suicide rate) o Fear of being ridiculed  Family history of suicide o Not a suicide gene, but related to genetic vulnerability related to depression o Ex: Hemingway’s-so many generations committed suicide  Closer in genetic relatedness=higher your risk Resilience the ability to adapt well despite the presence of adverse conditions. Primary and secondary control strategies  Primary: coping strategies in which an individual attempst to change the stressor o Ex: worried about an exam: form a study group o Secondary: go to a movie or run to relax yourself.  Secondary: coping strategies that involve attempts by the individual to adapt to the stressor Adopted adolescents and identity  Identity questions in adolescence are more complex for adopted adolescents. Search for identity compounded with other feelings, risk for maladaption  Most adolescents can understand what adoption means  No difference in overall adjustment  Early placement: adopted early: consistent family life, low risk  Disclosure about adopted status: parents must tell child first  Attachment important in relationship Adolescent brain development/vulnerabilities and consequences of substance use  Neuro-maturational processes may account for substance use in adolescence o Under developed nucleus accumbens/reward system  Brain matures back to front  Nucleus is close to front—still developing in adolescence  Main job is a reward system: what makes us want to do things to experience pleasures/sensations (our motivation)  Want to experience pleasure, but don’t want to exert a lot of effort  Play video games, surf internet, use substances o Immature frontal lobes/responsible for higher-order thinking  Last part of brain to develop  Used to foresee consequences, impulse control, risk taking  Group pressure-don’t always make best decisions  Adolescence propensity to use substance can be biological  Can originate within the adolescent THE ADOLESCENT BRAIN AND ALCOHOL USE  Diminish sensitivity to intoxication o Adolescents Don’t think it is dangerous o But alcohol is clearly toxic to adolescent brain o Adolescent can “drink an adult amount” without feeling intoxicated o Higher metabolic rate so they can drink more without feeling drunk o Want to drink until they feel something which can be twice as much as an adult!  Brain damage o More you drink, more damage o Impaired dopamine function  Longer alcohol use=more damage  Dopamine is a neuro transmitter that influences our feelings of pleasure  More we use drugs, the lower the production of dopamine  More alcohol: dopamine decreases, not feeling pleasure so drink more to feel pleasure  Dopamine reduction may not be reversed---won’t be able to drink enough to feel something o Prefrontal cortex  Judgment, planning, impulse control is all immature still  Expose it to something that damages it  More alcohol=more damages o Neuronal loss in basal forebrain and cerebellum  Cerebellum: voluntary motor movement, where spine enters brain, equilibrium  Drink=loose balance (cerebellum first thing effected by alcohol)  Basil forebrain: contains neurotransmitters responsible for memory  Helps us to remember info and impacts learning o Smaller hippocampus  Drink for long period of time  Primary structure for memory formation  Reduced ability to form new memories and ability to retrieve new memories when formed Autonomy and different types  Strongly connected with identity  Includes self governance, responsibility and independence  Want to be incharge of self and make ecisions  A gradual process  Less dependent on parents  Emotional autonomy o Feeling independent, personal feelings on how they relate to environment o Change in relationshop with parents o De-idealization of parents o Effected by: family relationships, aurhoritative parenting, levels of psychological control, less overprotectiveness o Increase in depression when emotional autonomy is delayed  Behavior autonomy o Acting independently o Ability to make up your mind in decisions o Evidenced through decision making, decreased susceptibility, feel self reliant  Cognitive Autonomy o Last to develop o Thinking independently o Indepent attitude on values, spirituality, morals, politics, etc. o Become aware of different ideals, perspectives Prevention and intervention for juvenile delinquents  For life course persistent offenders o Family support and preschool intervention o Individual therapy—most effective o Our country throws people right in jail—tendency to punish vs. rehabilitate o Prisons are often over-crowded and understaffed o Need to put in smaller group rehab o If no rehab---will most likely offend again o Still need to be punished, but also need to figure out why they did this and how to intervene/educate to help them o Need to learn interpersonal skills o Best to take preventative approach as early as possible  Adolescent limited offenders o Resist peer pressure o Teach parents better monitoring skills o Encourage prosocial behavior in multiple contexts o Teach consequences of misbehavior o Encourage pro-social behavior o Consequences must be immediate, consistent, and sure o Can’t punish too late otherwise will not take effect o Violate a rule: world should come crashing down  Psychosocial problems are really rarities o Majorit


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