Potential Study Guide
Potential Study Guide HIST 2020-016
Popular in Survey of United States History II
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This 21 page Study Guide was uploaded by DeAngelica Rose on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2020-016 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Clay Cooper in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Survey of United States History II in History at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Mid T erm Study Guide 03/03/2016 ▯ Share cropping: dominant form of agricultural work for African Americans ▯ ▯ Memphis Riot: May 1866, started by a small wreck between a white (Irish) and black (former soldier who apologized btw) man. The Irish man was butt hurt since he was insecurity about his spot in the work force even though he wasn’t actually considered white, he was fighting for his own status. He felt that African Americans were lowering their (Irish) status. The Irish do most of the rioting and targeted churches and schools. A total of 48 African Americans died and 2 whites died. The destruction of the churches and schools were symbolic. ▯ ▯ 13 Amendment: abolished slavery ▯ th ▯ 14 Amendment (1867) clarifies who’s a citizen (solidifies citizenship for both AA and women <who still can’t vote> and enforces due process (fair trials for all; equal protection) punishment for voting restrictions ▯ Seneca Falls Convention (1848) Start of women’s rights movement st Hiram Revels (1 black senator, 1870 MS) ▯ Andrew Johnson Was impeached for violating because he fired someone without consulting congress, after the hearing it turns out he was only once vote away from being kicked out of office ▯ KKK Founded in Pulaski Originally a social structure/social group (changed in 1867) Goal: to keep AA from voting William Brownlow (R) and gov of TN declared martial law (1867) and ends up sending a spy (Seymour Barmore) to infiltrate it he found out the members/leaders identities, but ended up getting killed before he could tell anyone ▯ Ulysses S Grant (R) Ohio 1868 National war hero Pledged to work with congress st During 1 term o 15 Amendment (1870) clarification of the 14 amendment; th voting rights regardless of race o 1871 2 KKK trials (SC) habeas corpus was suspended, this dissolves klan o Congress starts to lose control of the public ▯ Social Darwinism: “science” suggests that different races had different intelligence levels and capabilities (some races are superior) ▯ ▯ Election 1876 Rutherford B Hayes (R) runs against Samuel Tildan (D) (democrats wanted to end republican rule) only 3 states were under R rule, went on for months before the winner was found (FL, SC, GA’s votes were unclear) Congress Compromise 1877 o Hayes wins o R gets presidential votes o Ends reconstruction (to pacify democrats) o Congress allowed the states to monitor themselves ▯ Transcontinental RR (1869) Cowboys had tight schedules, dangerous job (outlaws, stampedes, physical exhaustion from riding, slept w/boots on in case something happens while they slept) weren’t all white (at least half were Latino or aa), not a super exciting life; built w (primarily Chinese laborers; Sierra Nevada mts) -> e (primary laborers AA) and e -> w ▯ Gold Rush Myth: “spend 5 minutes you’re set for life” Originally started in Cali Boom towns: deserts -> lots of people in a short time (almost all male towns; women were prostitutes) Store owners really cashed in (tools, food, clothes, etc) Fresh start o appeal of wanting something new/better o come with purpose in mind seeking freedom from: o authority (very lax until sheriff came) “law and order” o city/jobs (cities were really polluted, fires spread easily, unhealthy) o Mormons could practice freely (BYU Utah) o Going for adventure ▯ Chinese Exclusion Act (May 6 1882) Any Chinese person couldn’t enter us and anyone who managed to st come in had to leave (lasted 10 years) (1 immigration act) (threats because: economic competition, lot of them, different culture) ▯ Manifest Destiny US had right/duty to move across continent to make everyone “civilized” o This meant: Conversion Attempted to be interested in native Americans to “turn” them white to “save” them contained them on reservations (most of this land was worthless; general response: NA protested/rebelled) ▯ Battle of Little Big Horn 1876 King A-Hole Custer (he + all his flunkies were killed) ▯ ▯ White west settlers killed bison to hurt natives, easy to kill bison since they heard thunder (which sounds like guns) so they didn’t run when guns go off ▯ ▯ “Kill the Indian, Save the man” started by Pratt by killing the “savage” part of them they can save the “person” beneath: assimilation done via boarding schools Carlisle Institute 1877 ▯ Dawes Act (1887) Forced NA to adopt private property (prior to this the natives believed human’s couldn’t own land) Did this by assigning plots to individuals (if they stayed 25 yrs they’d own the deed, but the land was awful so most people couldn’t survive on it) ▯ “Ghost Dance”/Wounded Knee seen by Wovoka (Paiute) in a vision concerns whites/army since all natives are coming together to do a dance they don’t understand huge number of NA in SD for ghost dance us arm demands men surrender weapons a gunshot was fired 200 NA women and children were killed 100 NA men were killed (12/1890) soldiers received medals of honor (they were later stripped from them) ▯ Industrial Development American system of government provided stability, commitment to private property, and, initially at least, a reluctance to regulate industry Main domestic rivals were southern planters, who lost power in the Civil War Entrepreneurs flourished o Organized, managed, and assumed the financial risks of the new enterprises By end of 19 century railroads, telegraph, telephone and the steamship had brought great changes ▯ Railroad Advantages More direct routes Greater speed Safety Comfort Dependable schedules Larger volume of traffic Year round service American ones differed from European ones o Europe usually built between cities/towns that already existed carried mostly the same goods that earlier forms of transportation did o American Often created towns they then served Carried cattle from Texas, fruit from Florida, and goods that had never been carried before Tied people together, brought in outside projects, fostered interdependence, encouraged economic specialization pointed towards mass production/consumptions (two hallmarks of the 20 century) almost 90 of federal land grants lay in 20 states west of MS fed. Gov. loaned about $65 mill to half a dozen western railroads and millions of acres of the public domain grants stimulated railroad building across unsettled west farmers, ranchers and merchants poured into the newly opened areas boosting the value of government owned and private lands ▯ Problems of Growth Overbuilding in 1870s - 80s caused issues o Competition was severe o Managers fought desperately for traffic o Offered special rates/favors (free passes for large shippers, low rates on bulk freight/carload loads/long hauls, and rebates (secret discounts below published rates) ▯ Carnegie and Steel 1880 only 9 companies could produce more than 100000 tons a year Andrew Carnegie o Born in Scotland o Came to us at age 12 (1848) o Settled near Pittsburg, worked in a cotton mill as a bobbin boy earing $1.20 a week o Soon worked in a telegraph office where his skill/hard work caught the eye of Thomas A scoot of the Pennsylvania RR o Started as Scott’s personal telegrapher o Spent 12 years with the Pennsylvania (a training ground for managers) o By ’59 became a divisional superintendent at age 24 o Riche from investments (shrewd) he went into the steel industry in ‘72 o Wrote articles to defend the rights of workers, but kept the wages of his laborers low and disliked unions o He crushed a violent strike at his Homestead works near Pittsburgh with the help of Frick o Won the steel contract for Brooklyn Bridge 1878 o Morgan bout Carnegie out in mid 1900 ▯ Rockefeller and Oil John D Rockefeller o young merchant from Cleveland o beginning in 1863 (at age 24) he built the Standard Oil Company (a corporate titan) o Considered competition wasteful, small scale enterprise inefficient o He absorbed or destroyed competitors o Was as ruthless as Carnegie but lacked his charm o Marketed high quality products at the lowest unit cost o Threatened rivals and bribed politicians o Used spies to harass competitors’ customers o Extorted railroad rebates that lowered his transportation costs and undercut competitors o Controlled 90 percent of the country’s oil refining capacity by ‘79 o Organized first major trust in ’82 (Standard Oil Trust) Trust: allowed stockholders to exchange stock certificates for trust certificates o Retired in ’97 o Stupid rich ▯ Knights of Labor Founded in 1869 by Uriah S Stephens and Philadelphia garment workers Originally known as the Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor Secret order that grew slowly until Terence V Powderly (the new grand master workman of ’79) ended it and started to recruit aggressively Welcomed anyone regardless of skill, creed, sex, or color Organized women workers and had 60,000 black members at its peak Set the producers against monopoly and special privilege Excluded only ‘non-producers’ (bankers, lawyers, liquor dealers, gamblers), employers could join since they had common interests and maintained that workers shouldn’t strike Order’s platform included 8 hour day and abolition of child labor Mainly focused on uplifting utopian reform March 1885 Knights in St Louis, Kansas City and other cities won a victory against the Missouri Pacific railroad and membership increased In 186 Gould crushed the Knights on the Texas Pacific rr o Punctured the growth of the union and revealed the ineffectiveness of its leaders o Unskilled laborers deserted their ranks o Haymarket Riot Turned public sympathy against unions o By 1890 the order shrank to 100,000 members ▯ American Federation of Labor Loose alliance of nation craft unions Organized only skilled workers along craft lines, avoided politics, and worked for specific practical objectives Founder: Samuel Gompers o Long time AFL president o Worked as a cigar maker o Participated in union activities o Experimented with socialism and working class politics o Adopted a pragmatic approach to labor’s needs o Accepted capitalism o simply wanted a recognized place within the system and more of the rewards (For labor) o assumed most workers would remain workers throughout their lives o goal: improve lives in “practical ways” high wages, shorter hours and better working conditions o use strikes and boycotts only for limited gains o if treated fairly: they’d provide a stable labor force and would not oppose monopolies/trusts o most important labor group by 1890s o ignored/opposed women workers o discouraged black membership via high initiation fees, technical exams, and other means o only by restricting membership could the union succeed (Gomper) Homestead Strike o July 1892 o Wage cutting at Carnegie’s Homestead Steel Plant in Pittsburg provoked a violent strike in which tree company hired detectives and ten workers died o Company officials used brute force and strikebreakers to break the streak and destroy the union ▯ Tenements and Problems of Overcrowding In 1890 nearly half of the living quarters in NYC were tenements More than 1.4 mill people lived on Manhattan Island Many lived in basements and allies Cities stank in 1870s - 80s due to horse manure, the outdoor toilet, waste was dumped into the nearest body of water (which is where drinking water came from) Angry small farmers in 1880s - 90s In south who saw an issue with crops Surplus of crops drove the price down Faced ridicule from general public (because they were farmers) Banks wouldn’t give them loans and instead gave mortgages Railroad companies and grain silos gave breaks to big farmers not small farmers Formed Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange) o Wanted to change economic status o Decided to go through gov o Went to state gov first, lobbied and tired to get state reforms passed (granger laws: made price ceiling on railroads and storage) passed in MW states Farmers saw the gov responded Corporations started fighting this (1870s - 80s) Granger Laws Overturned via Wabash v Illinois Viewed as unconstitutional due to regulating state matters being a federal government matter (interstate commerce) o Farmers’ Alliance Next went to fed gov Started in TX 5 Reforms women’s suffrage: western sates legalized it first; wanted this so their vote was increased; women had free reign to move about (generally) and speak out in cities/societies (less so on farms due to the amount of work they have to do) wanted U.S. Senators to be elected directly: originally couldn’t because the state leg. Gave them their positions (constitutionally) (founding fathers didn’t trust the majority of “normal people” to make the “right” choice) wanted national income tax: graduated one that taxed wealthier people more than everyone else; wanted this to restore balance (not to level the playing field) inflated currency (i.e. make more) (things seem more expensive): value goes down; done by printing paper money (instead of continuing to use silver and gold); wanted this because what they’d owe the bank was less than the original price; believed it’d help them get out of debt sub treasury system (doesn’t pass): crops could be collateral to pay federal government instead of losing their land; fed. Gov also managed crop output so surplus doesn’t happen and can be sold when needed (basically the fed. Gov’s a regulator in farming, this does come to pass later on) created a political party “The Populist (People) Party” 1892 ▯ “The Populist (People) Party” made to help pass FA reforms 1892 James Weaver (war hero) wins 1mil+ votes fusion tickets: different parties reach out to black voters (this worries white southerners), sets a dangerous precedent, fear blacks voting Economy tanks after this ▯ Election of 1896 Landmark election Showed where society was headed New campaign tactics William Jennings Bryant (D) o Represented farmer’s spirit/ideals o 1800s like o very traditional religious beliefs o viewed as old fashioned o started whistle stop campaigns (hopping from city to city to give speeches) William McKinley (R) o War hero o Modern age o Man of the future o Religion wasn’t part of his campaign o Stayed home and raised tons of money (campaign finance) o Wins ▯ Jim Crow Wasn’t a real dude; it was a white guy in black face portraying a very stereotypical black person Voter Disfranchisement (SC green light in 1896 via Williams V. Mississippi) o One part of Jim Crow o Took away the right to vote o Started to see this some in radical reconstruction o Literacy tests: started in 1870s gave really hard documents o Written secret ballots (1880s) o Grandfather clause o Poll tax o Doesn’t happen over night (1970s - 90s) o Challenged literacy tests, lost since it didn’t explicitly state they were being discriminated against based on race Segregation (SC green light via Plessey v. Ferguson) o Second part of Jim Crow o Used to mark blacks as inferior o Homer Plessey (activist) was arrested for buying a first class ticket (walks on a train and announces he’s black) (1/8 to beth precise) (was angry trains were segregated in Louisiana o SC upheld the law in PvF on “separate but equal” grounds though none of them planned on enforcing the equal part ▯ Booker T Washington Born 1858 Virginia Didn’t do hard labor long Secured admission to Hampton institute (all black vocational school) So inspired he made Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881 Envisioned and made an all black school Philosophy: his view on society (in south was <1880s - 1920s> whites carried out public mass torture/executions to intimidate AA; he wanted to keep this number down by keeping out whites) Blanks shouldn’t openly advocate for civil rights Learn a trade, keep head down and whites will eventually acknowledge them Whites loved him since he was full of it Promoted no protests Atlanta Compromise (1895) o Addressed a crowd of white business men and accepted segregation (thought he was speaking for all AA) thinking that he was keeping AA’s safe o This agitated Du Bois Bought into social Darwinism Fit into what white law makers wanted to hear ▯ W.E.B. Du Bois Born after Civil War in Massachusetts Attended Harvard (PhD Sociology) Academic Wanted to dismiss scientific racism Taught at liberal arts colleges (Fisk) teaches you to write, think and speak Liberal arts should be taught to top 10 of brightest AA students (talented tenth) With these schools they could fight Jim Crow internally Leadership class would one day overturn Jim Crow One of the NAACP founders You have to win little victories Focused on most elite ▯ Both meant the best for AA ▯ “Progressive (Reformers)” Urban Middle class (significant: used this to their benefit to blame both upper and lower classes; teachers, lawyers, doctor, banker; this implied you work hard but are refined and respectable <not spoiled>) Mostly women Protestant People who wanted to curb excess of capitalism and productivity efficiency Thought Upper class was greedy/immoral Thought lower class was lazy, rude, uncouth, drank and danced too much Proposed reforms (took first 3 from FA) o National income tax o Women’s suffrage o Direct election of senators o Business/banking reform (anti trust legislation) o Basic work place reform (max hours, end child labor, safety) o Advocated birth control (for population control; wanted it legal for lower class) o Controlled by social Darwinism o some advocated Eugenics (+) encouraged the best people to have kinds together; the good genes will get passed on (-) forced sterilization to keep undesirables from procreating improve public health, housing, education environmental conservation (taking care of but still using the land) ▯ Empire Country that’s expanded and conquered others America becomes one (technically in 1600s) o Becomes an overseas empire because of resources, trade and coaling stations (to get to China and Japan) plus it brings status and respect ▯ 1867 American purchased Alaska from Russia a.k.a. Seward’s Folly bought it to get Russia out of the West possibly a foothold in Canada ▯ Annexation of Hawaii 1893 congress strolls in and says Hawaii belongs to them now (via some law they passed) even though Hawaii already has a Queen ▯ Especially interested in Cuba (1880s) Wanted to be free from Spain Cuban rebellion Spain started “reconcentro” : forced people into holding pens, women were raped and there was lots of violence (Thanks to Valeriano Weyler “Butcher” being the douche to carry this out) ▯ US out via newspapers NY took the lead Joseph Politzer (NY Journal) William Randolph Hurst (NY World) o Both heard what was happening and were getting rich off of reporting the stories o Mainly wanted to make money o So they spiced up the details (the essence was true though): yellow journalism People felt sympathy for Cubans US started being nosey and moved in to protect business interests Congress had Navy send USS Maine (Jan 1898 it arrived) to float on the harbor This startled Spanish Asked US Ambassador (De Lome) what to do, he said not to worry that it’s in the harbor since the current pres (McKinley) didn’t have the stones to do anything: De Lome letter o This was published (by Hearst) o People where outraged (since they were concerned with masculinity) and wanted war o Week later USS Maine explodes (no one really knows why but they blamed the Spanish) o Congress wanted war Spanish American War (1898) o Very short (3 or 4 month war) o Spain was very weakened at this time o Buffalo soldiers: black soldiers, lots of them experienced Jim crow for the first time, most shipped out from Tampa o Spain surrenders Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines) o US mostly gave Cube independence o Guantanimo Bay (military base) o Platt Amendment: Cuba can rule itself but when someone the US doesn’t like comes into power it can intervene and kick them out o Philippines refused to enter the US Empire Philippine - American War (1898 - 1902) 4500 died (US) 50 - 200,000 Filipinos were killed ▯ Panic of 1893 Investors dumped one million shares of the Philadelphia and Reading RR and it went bankrupt Investment dropped in the RR and construction industries People started selling stocks and other assets to buy goal 4/22 the Treasury’s gold reserve fell bell $100 mill stock market broke RR/constructions plummeted Major firms went bankrupt Stocks plunged to record lows and there was chaos everywhere Banks cut back on loans Businesses failed (since they were broke) Erie Railroad failed in July August was the worst month; the Northern Pacific RR went bankrupt which was soon followed by the Union Pacific and Santa Fe 2mil people were unemployed people were restless and angry ▯ Pullman Strike One of the largest strikes in history (May 1894) at Pullman Palace Car Company near Chicago Workers struck to protest wage cuts, high rent for company housing and layoffs American Railway Union lead by Eugene V Debs joined in June refused to handle trains that carried Pullman sleeping cares Extended to 27 states and territories Paralyzed the western half of nation within hours President Cleveland (who’d just been re-elected in ’92) secured an injunction to break the strike on the rounds that it obstructed the mail and sent federal troops to enforce it Violence soon broke out Mobs, made of mostly nonstrikers, overturned freight cars, looted and burned Debs was jailed for violating the injunction In In re Debs (1895) SC endorsed the use of the injunction in labor disputes (giving business and gov. an effective antilabor weapon that hindered union grow) ▯ Muckrackers Coined by Teddy R in 1906 Describes writers who made a practice of exposing the corruption of public and prominent figures Were the journalistic voice of a larger movement called progressivism ▯ Election of 1912 Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party o Roosevelt helped found it after being salty he wasn’t selected as the R candidate so he can kick Taft out o Taft (R), Roosevelt (BM), Woodrow Wilson (D) and Eugene V. Debs (Socialist) o Outlined differing views of the nation’s future o R v W brought current progressive reforms to the front Builds on the rise of a new professional class, cure problems in cities/states, and the activist achievement- oriented administrations of R and W; they both produced the age of progressivism ▯ Progressivism Acted out of concern about the effects of industrialization and the conditions of industrial life o Views varied but their goals were to humanize and regulate big businesses (not harm them) Fundamental optimism about human nature o The possibilities of progress and people’s capacity to recognize problems and take action to solve them They can “investigate, educate, and legislate (learn about the problem, and with the help of an informed public, find and enforce the solution) Confident that they ad the right to intervene n people’s lives They knew best and their ideas had an element of coercion Tended to turn to the authority of the state and government at all levels to effect the reform they wanted Drew on a combination of evangelical Protestantism and the natural and social sciences (a mix of desire to purge the world of sins like prostitution and drunks and theories that made them confident they could understand/control the environment where people lived_ Viewed the environment as a key to reform: if they could change the environment, they could change the individual Touched virtually the whole nation ▯ Hepburn Act 1906 law that strengthened the power if interstate commerce to regulate RR ▯ The Jungle 1906 Upton Sinclair Initially a novel about the packing house workers (the “Wage slaves of the beef trust”) Readers ignored the story about workers and focused on what went into their meat Roosevelt ordered investigation into the meat houses Meat sales plummeted in US and Europe Meat packers themselves supported a reform lay ▯ President Taft Tariffs, business regulation and other issues split conservatives and progressives Often wavered between sides ▯ Clayton Antitrust Act 1914 completed Wilson’s initial legislative program prohibited unfair trade practices forbade pricing policies that created monopoly made corporate officers personally responsible for antitrust violations declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes (except to protect property) approved lawful strikes and picketing ▯ Sherman Antitrust Act First federal attempt to deal with the issue of trusts/industrial growth Shaped all later antitrust policies Declared “every contract, combo in the form of trust or otherwise or conspiracy in restraint of trade or commerce” illegal Made the US virtually the only industrial nation to regulate business combos Tried to harness big businesses without harming them ▯ Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire NY focused attention on unsafe working conditions When it started 500 men and women (most Italians and Jews) were just finishing their work day Firefighters arrived within minutes but were too late Seamstresses raced to the exists to escape but the company locked most exit doors to prevent theft and shut out union organizers Many died in the stampede down the narrow stairways or single fire escape Others trapped on the top stories above the fire department’s ladder’s jumped to their deaths 146 people died 80,000 people marched silently in the rain a few days later in a funeral procession a quarter million people watched Rose Schneiderman (Women’s Trade Union league org.) told NYC’s civic and religious leaders they had not done/cared enough That impelled NY’s gov to appoint a state factory investigating commission that recommended laws to shorten the work week and improve safety in factories and stories
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