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Part II: Short Answer IDs
1. William Jennings Bryan: William Jennings Bryan was a young five brand congressman from Nebraska. He barnstormed the county to rally support instead of using surrogates and won over many Populists at the Democratic convention by speaking out against the gold standard. Bryant’s loss to William McKinley ended the Populist Movement’s national presence.
2. First New Deal: The First New Deal was a series of programs crafted by multiple authors with various objectives and enacted by President Franklin Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression and aimed for relief for the unemployed and poor, recovery of the economy and reform of the financial system. It shifted the balance of American party politics and brought the government into American lives more than ever before. It also set long lasting political and economic transformations in motion. 3. Bonus Army: The Bonus Army was the popular name of the marchers on Washington. In 1932, 20,000 of which were unemployed World War I veterans protesting Hoover’s response to the worsening economy crisis. They remained as squatters in public lands and buildings. President Hoover used the army to drive them out and burn their camps. This caused a lot of public outrage and proved Hoover’s re election chances as very slim.
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4. Presidential Reconstruction: Presidential Reconstruction occurred between 1865 and 1867 when President Andrew Johnson seized control. He prioritized reunion and pardoned white southerners. He granted individual pardons and streamlined readmission. It led to troubling outcomes as Confederate leaders were reelected and ‘black codes’ were established to limit the rights of African Americans. 5. Welfare Capitalism: Welfare Capitalism sprung up after World War I, which disillusioned Progressives. The economy was booming and the presidency was back to a weaker position. Big businesses thus provided new benefits to workers like pensions, insurance plans, job security and leisure activities. It served to prevent government regulation and unionization. Also, it helped in encouraging discipline and building company loyalty.
6. Fourteenth Amendment: The 14th amendment in 1868 to the constitution confers citizenship on all people born in the U.S. and guarantees them equal protection under the law. It was adopted under the Grant Administration and left African Americans with newfound freedom, which they were to define it for themselves through a variety of
7. Red Scare: The Red Scare was the promotion of the fear of rising communism and hardcore leftism in American society. Although before the 1930s, communism was a fringe presence, the Communist party started to grow during the depression. The red scare rejected capitalism and was increasingly visible, although it was a small movement. It profoundly altered the temper of American society and was contributory to the popularity of anti-communist espionage/science fiction films. We also discuss several other topics like bsc 2011 exam 3 usf
8. Compromise of 1877: The Compromise of 1877 was a deal which put an end to federal military occupation in the South and installed R. B. Hayes as President of the U.S after the intensely disputed election if 1876. It effectively ended the Reconstruction Era.
9. Sixteenth Amendment: The 16th Amendment was proposed in 1909 by Congress under the presidency of William Howard Taft. It gave the federal government the power to impose income taxes directly on individuals during peacetime. It gained broad popular support and was ratified in 1913. It signified the growing power of the Progressives and expanded the government’s power over the people. 10. Ida B. Wells-Barnett: Ida B. Wells-Barnett was an African American who was the early leader of the Civil Rights Movement and a very important figure in the women’s suffrage movement. She campaigned against lynching and established many women’s organizations and settlement houses, such as the Alpha Suffrage Club. She was one of the most famous black activists in the US during her time. Don't forget about the age old question of world history map quiz
11. Treaty of Paris: The treaty of Paris was signed in 1898. It involved Spain relinquishing the territories of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines in exchange for $20 million. It officially ended the Spanish American war. It marked the end of the Spanish Empire and marked the beginning of America as a world power. 12. Lend-Lease: Lend-Lease was a program initiated by Present Roosevelt in 1941, which allowed Britain to borrow military supplies from the US. It tied the U.S to Britain during WWI and set up an inevitable entry of the U.S. into the war. It marked the end of post-WWI isolationism in American foreign policy.
13. Busing: Busing was a practice of overcoming the effects of racial segregation after Brown v. Board of Education (1954) overturned racial segregation in schools. Buses were a frequent site of violence and humiliation in the South. Busing signified he growing support (both federal and public) for the Civil Rights Movement and the recent gains it made.
14. “Reaganomics”: President Ronald Reagan’s economic policy which had three key pillars, which were to curtail the power of organized labor, deregulation and tax cuts. Each of these pillars was a challenge to New Deal policies. It assumed that lower taxes will increase spending, charitable giving, and work output. It transformed U.S. economic policy, a changing view about the proper federal role in the economy. 15. The Korean War: In the Summer of 1950, North Korean troops invaded the South. The US and USSR occupied the Korean peninsula during this war. The US persuaded the UN to support South Korea and occupied most of North Korea. China intervened on North Korea’s behalf, and the war came to a stalemate in 1951. It was a key test of US containment policy and highlighted the country’s global standing. If you want to learn more check out acg 2021
16. Paul Weyrich: Paul Weyrich was a conservative political activist who tried to attempted to mobilize evangelicals since 1964. He founded the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank which promoted free enterprise. It has grown into one of the world's largest public policy research institutes and has been hugely influential in advancing conservative policies. We also discuss several other topics like biol 1103
17. 1968 Democratic National Convention: The 1968 Democratic National Convention inc Chicago led to the victory of pro-war Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Antiwar activists converged on the city to stage massive protests which led to demonstrations and clashes with police in a series of violent, televised outbursts. This left the Democratic Party in political shambles.
18. The Great Society: A set of domestic programs launched by President Lyndon Johnson in 1964 with the goal of eliminating poverty and racial injustice, and improving health care and education. A lot of reforms of the Great Society continue to this day,
although anti-war democrats suggested that the cost of the Vietnam war greatly effected these programs.
19. Bracero Program: It was a series of agreements in 1942 which granted basic human rights and minimum wage to Mexican workers as part of the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement. It allowed the importation of Mexican supply workers during the early phases of WWII. It also expanded opportunities for Chicano men and women and strengthened protest organizations to fight for greater citizenship rights. 20. The Lavender Scare: The Lavender Scare refers to the crackdown on many movements under the guise of anticommunism and the harassment and firings of gay and lesbian federal employees in the 1950s. This scare contributed to the pervasion of fear in American society and was part of the drastic change in domestic and military policies during the Cold War. Don't forget about the age old question of 190 in spanish
21. A. Philip Randolph: He was the leader of the African-American Civil Rights Movement and the American Labor Movement. He led the March on Washington Movement and played a huge role in putting an end to discrimination in the defense industries during WWII. The movement also succeeded in ending segregation in the armed services in 1948.
22. The TV: The TV provided an outlet for Americans to remain connected and informed in the tumultuous times of the Cold War; Comedies, sitcoms and variety shows provided families a temporal distraction from the daily threats of the Cold War, while the nightly news kept them informed of the political situation. After the second World War during the era of consumption, TV was available in 90% of American households and delivered most of American news & advertisements.
23. Earth Day: An event that demonstrated support for environmental protection. The first event in 1970 was observed by 20 million people and was the largest public demonstration in America of the era. It showed the growing support for the environmental movement amid concerns of pollution and environmental disintegration. 24. Voting Rights Act (1965): The Voting Rights Act was passed by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1965. It abolished literacy tests, poll taxes and authorized federal intervention in voter registration. It also initiated a lawsuit against 4 states still using the poll tax. The Voting Rights Act significantly increased the proportion of registered black adults between 1964 and 1969.
25. Phyllis Schlafly: Phyllis Schlafly is a conservative American activist. She is an outspoken opponent of Women’s Liberation movement and advocates traditional gender roles as America’s bedrock. She opposed the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment, which was a constitutional ban on sex discrimination. Her opposition to the amendment stalled the ERA and blocked its ratification in 1972.
26. The “Four P’s”: The “Four P’s” were what President Nixon campaigned against in order to introduce law and order and to return American conservative societal values, which were associated with changing social, legal and political conditions. They were “pot,” “pornography,” “protest,” and “permissiveness.” This was one of Nixon’s strategies to stroke public fears of social chaos and radicalism during the election to gain support, which he won in 1968.
27. Federal Highway Act: The Federal Highway Act of 1956 was enacted under President Dwight Eisenhower. It allocated $25 billion for construction of interstate highways over 10 years with 41,000 miles of roads. It helped the suburban shift,
transformed daily life, consumption and the physical landscape of the country. It was also the largest public works program in American history to that point. 28. Containment: Containment was a new US Foreign policy. It’s objective was to stop Soviet expansion and the spread of communism. It was crystallized in the Truman Doctrine in 1947. It requested military and economic aid for Turkey and Greece. It was the basis of the next 30 years of policy. It also marked the change of Us global priorities. 29. “D-Day”: June 6, 1944, the day when 3 million Allied troops launched invasion on the beaches of Normandy to reclaim France. In August, Allied forces liberated Paris after 4 years of Nazi control. It ended serious military resistance in Western Europe and contributed to Allied victory in the Western Front.
30. Executive Order 9981: The Executive Order 9981 was an order signed by President Harry Truman in 1948. It abolished racial discrimination and established equality of treatment and opportunity in the US armed forces. It eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
31. Executive Order 9066: The Executive Order 9066 was an order signed by President F.D.Roosevelt in 1942 during the Second World War. It allowed the Secretary of War and designated commanders to establish military areas and exclude anyone they wish from the region. This resulted in the exclusion of people of Japanese descent from the west coast to “relocation centers” where they were treated poorly. 32. "Domino Theory”: The “domino theory” was a theory prominent in the 1950s to the 1980s and was popularized by President Dwight Eisenhower in 1954 when he urged that the US must support weaker nations neighboring communist power to prevent a “domino effect” of communism. He asserted that the collapse of weaker nations would lead to the potential collapse of the U.S, and took Southeast Asia as a major example. 33. Levittown: Levittown was a suburban development built by William Levtt on 1200 acres in Long Island. It consisted of 10,000 nearly identical homes priced under $10,000 each. It was soon home to 400,000 people which signified the era of consumption after the second World War and the rise in popularity of the suburbs. It remained racial segregated until the 1960s.
34. G.I. Bill: The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act (The G.I. Bill) was proposed by President FDR in 1944. It gave benefits to returning WWII veterans, offering education scholarships, pensions, job training programs, health care, business loans. It was one of the most far reaching pieces of social legislation in the history of the US. It was also a major contribution to America's stock of human capital that sped long-term economic growth after the war.
35. Watergate: Watergate was a political scandal involving President Nixon’s administration and it’s cover-up of the scandal. It started with the arrest of 5 men affiliated with the administration while breaking into the Democratic Party HQ at the Watergate Hotel. It also involved investigations of Oval Office conversations which were recorded by Nixon. It led to the eventual resignation of President Nixon. Watergate destroyed public trust in the presidency and the federal government and heightened cynicism.
36. Brown v. Board of Education: Brown v. Board of Education was a 1954 Supreme Court case which led to the overturn of the state sponsored segregation laws in schools in Plessy v. Ferguson. It declared the “separate but equal” unconstitutional. It was hailed
as a new birth of freedom for black communities but inspired widespread resistance and was slow to be implemented.