Popular in Fundamentals of Public Communication
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Department
This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassandra Miller on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to comm 201 at Ball State University taught by Denker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views.
Reviews for Final Exam
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/27/16
Comm. 210 Second Exam Review Guide Chapters 8 to 15, Appendix D, and all Lecture and Lab material th th December 7 at 2pm to December 15 at the close of labs 75 questions, hour and a half to complete the exam, same format as the midterm. Chapter 8 Planning and Researching Your Presentations Citing Sources can be either Verbally In the Bibliography Types of Sources Newspaper – distributed daily or weekly Credible because it goes through peer review or editing process Relevant based on how updated the article is Biased based on the ownership of the newspaper Scholarly articles – publish articles quarterly Most credible of sources Contain a large amount of information Magazine articles – similar to newspapers but are more specialized Specialty can offer more credibility Not experts so it is not as credible as scholarly articles Professional and/or trade publications – good source for professional topics Relevant and valid information for given fields Uptodate information from an expert – still not as good as a scholarly article Government publications – cover a wealth of knowledge from executive, legislative, judicial branches Considered extremely credible Federal gvrnt publishes more than any other source Difficult to decipher – legal jargon Web sources – anything on the internet Credibility of source depends on website: .org and .gov are preferred Sponsoring of wesite Textbooks – good starting point Not always uptodate Good starting point for research but ___ have a good chance of being out of date. Textbooks Interviews – add perspective, interest and credibility Chapter 9 Supporting Your Ideas SET = statistics, examples, testimony o Function of the supporting material A user must accept, enjoy and remember the message For communication to occur the audience must be listening To inform they must understand To persuade it must be emotional and credible When using Supporting Material/ Statistics you much have Balance between detail (accuracy) and brevity (simplicity) Types of Supporting Materials Examples – serve as evidence in the reasoning process Types Specific instances Clarify an idea Audience may question your credibility and disregard Stories – extended examples, illustrations or narratives Effective contrast to the scientific nature of number and stats Must make a point Hypothetical examples – real examples, brief or extended Help you understand a current problem Can use to predict the ways persons might respond to actions Can influence our beliefs, attitudes and actions Help a person experience a situation This is the most effective example to use when you want the audience to personally experience something Hypothetical Quantification – numerical data gives the precision you need to clarify a point Enhance credibility Measurement – quantity, distance, length, and time Statistics – information about am entire set of measurements Mean, median, mode, range, percentage Can be difficult to understand Use a visual aid Round numbers Help the audience visualize the statistic Testimony – justifying of your own opinions or experiences Indirect quotations – paraphrased quotations Direct quotation – exact wording Proverb – short familiar sentence that expresses an accepted truth or moral Analogy – similar pattern of form Compare and contrast analogy – used to compare and contrast too cultures, people, ideas Literal analogies – used as evidence to convince or persuade a receiver Assumes that what is true in one situation should be true in another Figurative analogies – comparison of unlike things that share a common characteristic Insurance to an umbrella Metaphors and similes Clichés Explanation – providing detailed information to clarify your meaning Describe the characteristics, functions or parts of an object, process, event or idea Provide answers such as what? How? Why? Definitions Use simple language Avoid abstract explanations Repetition and restatement – reinforce ideas we wish to communicate Understand and remember the idea Audiovisual aids – maps and globes, model and real objects, flip charts, projections Increase understanding and interest and retention Enhance and reinforce the idea Factors of attention Activity Conflict Familiarity Humor Important Proximity Reality Surprise Suspense What is a fallacy? Larson (2007) Believable arguments or premises that are based on invalid reasoning Keep in mind that a logical fallacy is not necessarily false, but its process of inference is invalid Fallacious arguments are used frequently in politics, advertisements, interpersonal persuasion Types of fallacy Post HOC post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore, because of this) A occurs before B Therefore, A is the cause of B Give evidence that A is the cause Non Sequitur It does not follow Stating a conclusion based on something that does not strictly follow from the claim Fill in the information in the middle Ad Hominem An attack against an individual instead of against his or her position on the issues Devalues the statement without actually addressing situation Straw Man The persuader manufactures and defeats a weak argument that the other side "supposedly makes" AD Populum Bandwagon fallacies Person A claims that "everyone is doing it", therefore, it should be done Statistics should be shown o When we find someone who is not doing it your argument is gone False Dilemma - Bifurication Either x is true/best or Y is true/best Choose one of two options, when in reality, there are a variety of possible answers/sides to an argument Hasty generalization An argument that takes a characteristic from a sample population and attributes it to an entire population without any further research (stereotyping) Slippery Slope If W happens, X will automatically follow. Y will follow that and so on. Ultimate doomsday Do research to prove this Red Herring Distraction Topic A is under discussion Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A) Topic A is abandoned Make work in the short term Bernie and the bird Appeal to tradition - argumentum ad antiquitame Argument that something is good or right because it is old "this is the way we have always done it" Appeal to Authority - argumentum ad verecundiam Appeal to a popular figure/authority Might not be authority on topic Circular argument - circulus in demonstrando Someone uses what they are trying to prove as part of the proof of that thing "the bible is the word of God because the bible says it is" Chapter 10 – Developing and Using Your Presentational Aids Importance: visuals are not just in the moment o You can't un-see or un-hear something o Presentations precede you and exist beyond you o They increase audience comprehension o Make speeches more memorable o Can create interest Your First Presentational Aid o Yourself Presentational Aids Select one that will enhance the presentation o Objects – both animate and inanimate objects o Handouts – allow audience to take a useful record of information o Graphics – represent reality, probability, or imagination Types of Graphs Photographs Charts Maps Diagrams Electronic visual aid o Boards o Video aids o Auto aids o slideware Goals of Presentational Aids Increase comprehension - visually and auditorialy Make you speech more memorable Create interest - supplement emotions Shows the audience where to look Layout impacts appeal and understanding - color - easy to understand Nice – Neat, interesting, clear, effective Chapter 12—Wording Your Speech Phonology: description of speech sounds for language Syntax: rules that govern the way we combine words and phrases Ex: the shared girl sandwich boy and the. The boy and girl shared the sandwich Semantics: meaning we attach to language Pragmatics: study of the relationship between language an its user Denotation: the dictionary definition of a word Connotation: the feelings and attitudes associated with the word. Depending upon your experiences, particular word may evoke positive, negative or neutral thoughts and feelings The Stylistic Devices Simile – direct comparison using like or as Metaphor – implied comparison between unlike items Synecdoche – part of the concept to stand by the concept Metonymy – uses a word associated with the concept to stand for the concept Hyperbole – an exaggeration used for emphasis or effect Personification – gives human qualities to abstract ideas or inanimate objects Understatement – a deliberate understatement can crease a desired effect such as humor Oxymoron – links two words that usually express contradictory sentiments Triangle of Meaning Three Standards of Effective Language Appropriateness: it needs to fit the particular purpose Clarity: simplicity and accurate Avoid abstract words (thing and stuff) and complex wording Vividness: A speakers language should be vivid Bright, brilliant, fresh, and intense Chapter 13—Your Persuasive Presentations Definition of persuasion: The process of changing, shaping or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, values or behaviors Problems in persuasion Questioning the speaker Offer as much credibility as possible You have done the research and you seem confident and trustworthy Misinterpreting the message You don’t use an effective organizational pattern so it is hard to follow Using language that isn't adapted to the audience Tunes you out Add emotional appeals to involve the audience Address the underlying assumptions for a hostile audience Seek a second option You don't have clear or credible citations Trustworthy sources Logical appeals to problems Approaches to persuasion Coactive approach o Bridging - build a connection between you and the audience o Support - bring evidence Seem immediate Offer we statements Gestures and movement - interaction Combative approach o Distance - I am so much better than you Let me tell you how you can be better o Threats - downgrading your audience If they seem real, when it is gone the persuasive aspect is removed Only works while the threat is present Damages your credibility Expressivistic approach o All persuasion is exploitive and not worthy to be studied Three audience types Receptive/friendly o Rapport and common group o Clear goals o Emotional examples o Call for action Neutral/apathetic o Appeal to the needs of loved ones Unreceptive/hostile o Be subtle o Rapport and common beliefs o Offer as much credibility and sources as possible o Underlying concerns and values o Acknowledge others o Modest goals Persuasive Question Persuasive Question Must Have Two Sides Three types of questions (propositions/claims ) Question of fact o Truth claim Has happened, is currently happening or will happen in the future Who killed JFK? The world will end in 2012 o Topically Primacy and Recency Question of value o Right or wrong, better, best o 2 pt organizational pattern o Set standard - research each - survey Fresh food Variety Good location o Fulfill the standard Question of policy - Use a should or should not statement o Monroe's motivated sequence o Problem solution 2 point Problem Solution o Problem cause solution 3 point Problem Cause Solution o Comparative advantage - assumes a friendly audience Main points - issues/plans Advantages and disadvantages o Process of elimination structure o Reputational approach - assumes a hostile audience Main points = issues Issue 1 Why important - glad they are concerned, what this side argues Why your side is most correct plenty of support and experts Aristotle Ethos Appeals to the credibility or authority of the presenter. It is how well the presenter convinces the audience that he or she is qualified to present on the particular subject By being a notable figure in the field in question By having a vested interest in a matter By using impressive logos that shows to the audience that the speaker is knowledgeable on the topic Types Stages Pathos (appealing to the emotions) An appeal to the audience's emotions Passionate delivery The speakers ability to invoke fear Appeals to audiences' imagination and hopes Short term Not an effective example of Pathos done well Focus on one emotion Maslow's Hierarchy 1 Self-Actualization - the need to contribute or fulfill one’s full potential 2 Esteem – the need for recognition, respect or admiration from others 3 Social – the need to be accepted by others or to receive love 4 Safety – the need to preserve one’s health, property and security 5 Survival – the need to meet basic requirements of life: food, water, shelter, and procreation A persuasive speaker should assume that human behavior is goal-directed and that humans can be set into action by appealing to various needs Logos (appealing to logic or reasoning) Logical appeal Having a logos appeal also enhances ethos because information makes the speaker look knowledgeable and prepared However make sure your data is correct and does not include any misleading information or fallacies, since that will hurt bother your ethos and logos Theories of Persuasion Use reasoning and support Organization of the message matters o Monroe’s motivated sequence Attention Need satisfaction Visualization Call to action What is a fallacy? Larson (2007) Believable arguments or premises that are based on invalid reasoning Keep in mind that a logical fallacy is not necessarily false, but its process of inference is invalid Fallacious arguments are used frequently in politics, advertisements, interpersonal persuasion Types of fallacy Post HOC post hoc ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore, because of this) A occurs before B Therefore, A is the cause of B Give evidence that A is the cause Non Sequitur – Ludacris example It does not follow Stating a conclusion based on something that does not strictly follow from the claim Fill in the information in the middle Ad Hominem – Trump example An attack against an individual instead of against his or her position on the issues Devalues the statement without actually addressing situation Straw Man The persuader manufactures and defeats a weak argument that the other side "supposedly makes" AD Populum Bandwagon fallacies Person A claims that "everyone is doing it", therefore, it should be done Statistics should be shown o When we find someone who is not doing it your argument is gone False Dilemma - Bifurication Either x is true/best or Y is true/best Choose one of two options, when in reality, there are a variety of possible answers/sides to an argument Hasty generalization An argument that takes a characteristic from a sample population and attributes it to an entire population without any further research (stereotyping) Slippery Slope If W happens, X will automatically follow. Y will follow that and so on. Ultimate doomsday Do research to prove this Red Herring – Bernie and the bird example Distraction Topic A is under discussion Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A) Topic A is abandoned Make work in the short term Bernie and the bird Appeal to tradition - argumentum ad antiquitame Argument that something is good or right because it is old "this is the way we have always done it" Appeal to Authority - argumentum ad verecundiam Appeal to a popular figure/authority Might not be authority on topic Circular argument - circulus in demonstrando Someone uses what they are trying to prove as part of the proof of that thing "the bible is the word of God because the bible says it is" Chapter 14—Speaking on Your Special Occasions Principals of Ceremonial Speaking Meet audience expectations Stress common values Be accurate Highlight the significance of the event Remember your roll o demonstrate good taste – avoid statements or words that audience might find offensive o be sincere o avoid arrogance o work for a smooth delivery – memorized or manuscript delivery may be appropriate o exploit your ability to use language effectively o be brief Types of Special Occasion Speeches speeches of introduction mood interest credibility the presentation speech the acceptance speech acknowledges the support and recognition of others commemorative speech – recognizes events or people toast speech of recognition speech of welcome farewells commencement addres dedication speech Eulogy Special Speaking Situations especially Speaking on Camera Oral Readings Chapter 15 Your Communication in Other Settings Group/Team Presentations Panel discussion – small group of people holds a discussion of ideas in front of an audience Forum – audience members ask wuestion of speakers who respond with brief impromptu speeches Group presentation or report – an individual or a team of speakers presents the findings of a task group’s deliberations Symposium – several individuals deliver related speeches in front of the audiences o Strict time limit Group – individuals who communicate together over time for a common purpose Group Roles Task leader – help to set goals and create agendas Socioemotional leader promote a productive interpersonal climate in the group Information provider – contribute ideas Central negative – instigate conflict by evaluating ideas and assessing opinions Tension releaser help members feel comfortable with one another Cohesiveness refers to the commitment of group members to the goals of the group and to the group itself Decision Making – humans tend to be solution oriented rather than problem oriented Problem solving agenda o Define the problem describe the symptoms, history and scope o Determine the criteria needed to meet the solution o Identify possible alternative solutions o Apply the criteria o Select the best solution o Plan a stepbystep method for implementing the solution o Evaluate the effectiveness of the implementation and determine what changes are necessary Brainstorming – effective way to generate ideas Nominal group technique – promote continuous quality improvement Consensus – all members agree on a decision Appendix D Reasoning with the Toulmin Model Model of argumentation Claim - the point the arguer is trying to prove (your thesis) (the point) Data - the evidence used by the arguer to prove a point (the evidence) Warrant - justifies leaping form data to the claim (justification) Backing - additional support to the warrant answers different questions concerning the claim (additional support) Qualifiers - statements that indicate the strength of the argument (strength of the argument) Rebuttal - counter arguments (counter)
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'