Bio II Exam 4 Answers
Bio II Exam 4 Answers BIO 1144
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rocket on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1144 at Mississippi State University taught by Thomas Holder in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
3 Stages: + Filtration: Glomerulus/Bowman’s capsule + Reabsorption: Proximal tubules (60%) + Secretion: Distal tubules Goals: Removes waste, save goodies, conserve water Nephron Diagram 1. Filtration: blood is being filtered in glomerulus, pushing GF material into Bowman’s capsule where it’s collected 2. Reabsorption: 60% of reabsorption occurs in proximal tube, Active Transport (ATP spent) to force GF material out, reabsorption occurs along entire length of tubule 3. Secretion: occurs in distal tubule, also uses Active Transport, goes into collecting duct which drains down to the renal cavity trying to conserve water ❏ Vertebrate Nephron Differences Freshwater Fish altwater Fish Environment H2O Higher Concentration ion Environment H2O Lower Concentration Body H2O Lower Concentration Body H2O Higher Concentration Constant intake of water Constant loss of water Get enough water by osmosis therefore Drinks saltwater regularly do not drink water Stores ions in tissues (urea) Large Glomerulus Small Glomerulus Short tubule: don’t want to reabsorb Long Tubule to reabsorb water water want to get rid Concentrated waste not diluted with water Diluted waste, ammonia Mammals: +Loop of Henle: constricted portion of tubule (loop) slows down Glomerular Filtrate (GF) moving through tubule Allowing for more water to be reabsorbed Allowing for more goodies to be reabsorbed Allowing more concentration secretion of wastes into tubule Wastes become 20X more concentrated +Plan of this is to minimize loss of water, goodies, and increasing concentration of waste (urea) Endocrine System Ch. 50 +Hormones: Signaling type of molecules such as Neurotransmitters (nervous system) and Pheromones Hormones are transported via blood stream and have a specific target cell Endocrine Glands are ductless secrete hormones directly into bloodstream to be distributed to body Exocrine glands have ducts such as sweat to surface of skin +Few Vertebrate endocrine glands + Associated Hormones 1. Hypothalamus/ Pituitary gland a. Hypothalamus: produce “releasing hormones” that target/regulate pituitary gland hormones FSHRH : follicle stimulation hormonereleasing hormone LHRH: luteinizing hormone releasing hormone b. Pituitary (anterior): secretes hormones that regulate other endocrine glands Gonadotropins: gonads FSH LH Thyrotropin: hormones that act on thyroid gland Adrenocorticotropic: hormones that act on adrenal gland Growth Hormones: secreted by anterior pituitary, stimulate cell division Prolactin Hormones: secreted by anterior pituitary, stimulate mammary glands to produce milk Melanophore stimulating hormone: pigment cells, react to sun c. Pituitary (posterior) Vasopressin: acts on kidney to produce urinal flow Oxytocin: stimulates release of milk of mammary glands/ stimulates muscle of uterine lining during birth 2. Metabolic Hormones + Associated Glands a. Thyroid Gland Thyroxine: promotes normal development of nervous system b. Adrenal Glands Cortisol: antiinflammatory hormone Aldosterone : promotes reabsorption in nephric tubule of kidney *Antagonist *Epinephrine : tones up body in emergency response (adrenaline) Of each other *Norepinephrine : brings body back down to normal (noradrenaline) c. Digestive Hormones Gastrin: stimulates secretion of hydrochloric acid into stomach Cholecystokinin : stimulates gallbladder to release bile salts into small intestine/ stimulates pancreas to secrete enzymatic juices into small intestine Reproductive System Ch. 51 +Closely tied with Endocrine system *Organismal reproduction* Asuexual Reproduction: One parent No gametes (sex cells) No reproductive organs (usually) Produces genetically identical offspring (“cloning”) Result of Mitosis/Cytokinesis (mostly) Simple, fast, energetically cheap 1. Binary Fission: parent individual divides by mitosis into 2 approx. equal parts Transverse Longitudinal 2. Budding: unequal division of organism, where an out growth is produced called a bud which detaches and becomes a new individual Phylum cnidaria 3. Gemmulation: internal bud forms, inside parental body when the parent is damaged or dies the bud is released Gemmule: internal bud phylum porifera 4. Fragmentation: multicellular animal breaks into two or more parts, each fragment becomes a new individual phylum platyhelminthes *Asexual Reproduction: NO genetic variation* +Some animals exhibit both reproductions: Good environment: Asexual Bad environment: Sexual Sexual Reproduction: Gametes (egg/sperm) 2 parents (mostly) → at least 2 types of repro. Organs Energetically expensive, especially on the female side Takes a lot of time, often higher classes of vertebrates Genetic variation offspring genetically different Gametes (egg+sperm) result of meiosis/cytokinesis (reduces chromosome #) Fertilization: fusion of egg+sperm restores chromosomes # to diploid= new genetic combination Ex. Humans Egg + Sperm → Zygote (fertilized egg) (1N= 23) (1N=23) (2N=46) 1. Hermaphroditism: Individuals have both male and female reproductive organs Monoecious : condition of having both sex organs on the same body “Sex reversal”: fish, gonads were only producing eggs then the next season only producing sperm “Self fertilization”: uncommon, little genetic variation “Cross fertilization”: most common, 2 hermaphrodite individuals, genetic variation 2. Parthenogenesis: development of an embryo from an unfertilized egg Sperm may/may not initiate the development 3. Biparental Sexual Reproduction Dioecious : condition of separate sex individuals 2 individuals 2 sex organs 2 sex cells Reproductive Patterns: (modes) 3 types in vertebrates A. Oviparous: condition of female laying eggs outside of body Fertilization can be internal or external Fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals Abandonment → extensive care B. Ovoviviparous: condition of eggs enclosed in a structure, retained within the female's body Fertilization is internal, eggs retained inside body Embryonic nutrition from yolk of egg Young are born “live” No maternal connection C. Viviparous: condition of livebearing with a maternal connection Placenta Development occurs within oviduct or uterus (mostly) Nourishment + gas exchange occurs between the placenta Only found in Reptiles and Mammals Fertilization if ALWAYS internal Parental Care: Protection *Why Sexual reproduction more common in higher animals over Asexual reproduction? More Costly, Time, Energy, Complex Structure +Advantage: Genetic variation Some individuals can survive tough/changing environment conditions +Natural Selection Measure of differential survival + reproduction +Asexual Reproduction “Clones” no variation Very susceptible to natural selection/ extinction Vertebrate Reproductive System +Origin + Maturation of Germ Cells Primordial Germ Cells arise from yolk sac +Vertebrate Gonads (ovary/ testis) Arise from a pair of “genital ridges” along dorsal wall of embryo; migrate ❖ Male Reproductive System +Gonads testis (testes) Develop in abdominal cavity and then descend into scrotum Seminiferous Tubules: coiled tubules in testes Leydig Cells Secrete testosterones Sertoli Cell: located in Seminiferous tubules, provide nourishment to sperm and cells associated with sperm development +Male Duct system Epididymis: Large portion of duct where all seminiferous tubules enter Sperm storage and maturation (swimming ability) Defected sperm resorbed here Vas Deferens: Rapid sperm transport Ejaculatory Duct: Rapid sperm transport Junction of Vas deferens and seminal vessel Urethra Conducts sperm and urine Transport tube within copulatory organ +Copulatory Organ: Penis w/Urethra +Accessory Glands: Sperm does not pass through these structures Secretions into male duct system Seminal Vesicle : Secretes protalands (stimulate muscle contraction within the uterus) and fructose(short term nutrition for sperm) Prostate Glands : Secretes lubricated liquid Bulbourethral Glands: Secretes more lubrication, directly into urethra Hormonal Control of Male Reproductive System At Puberty: Hypothalamus secretes LHRH and FSHRH → to Pituitary which stimulates release of FSH and LH to transport to→ Gonads FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) initiates sperm production in seminiferous tubules + LH (luteinizing hormone) stimulates leydig cells to secrete testosterone ➢ Testosterone: Required for development and maintenance of male reproductive system +Secondary (2 ° ) sex characteristics: Increase bone density Increase skeletal muscle mass Thicken vocal chords Slower vibration response in vocal chords Spermatogenesis Series of stages for sperm development Spermatozoan Head: Contains nucleus Capped by a crosome (contain enzyme that penetrates egg) Midpiece: Abundant mitochondria ATP production Necessary for swimming Tail: Flagellum for swimming ★ Female Reproductive System +Ovary (gonad) site off: Egg production (ovum) Hormone Secretion +At puberty: About 400,000 ova per ovary (primordial ova) Primordial cells producing ova (eggs) form during embryonic development Oogenesis: Steps to producing eggs +Oviduct (uterine tube) NOT attached to ovary, overhanging it Normale site of fertilization +Uterus Site where fertilized egg implants itself Attached by placenta Endometrium (Inner lining) will thicken up and build tissue with vessels and capillary beds If fertilization occurs and becomes implanted to uterine wall, then Endometrium continues to develop, release hormones from both sides of placenta from mother + fetus will maintain placenta connection If NO fertilization occurs and no implantation, endometrium sloughs off and discharged from body +Cervix Distal end of ovary/ entry of uterus +Vagina Receptacle for penis during copulation Birth Canal +Vulva External genitalia Labia Majora Labia Minora Clitoris Analogous: Similar functions Bird wings analogous to mosquito wings Homologous: Similar origin Bird wings and human arms are homologous Labia Majora: Scrotum Clitoris: Penis Hormonal Control of Female Reproductive System At Puberty: Hypothalamus releases FSHRH and LHRH→ Pituitary then secretes FSH and LH which get transported to → Gonads (ovary) Ovarian Follicle= ovum (egg) + surrounding cells Variable stages of maturation Follicle cells secrete→ estrogen + progesterone Estrogen: Formation and maintenance of female reproductive structure More adipose tissue Corpus Luteum: Remnants of follicles after Ovulation (release of egg) Called “yellow body” Secretes Progesterone Progesterone: Promoting gestation (pregnancy) Promoting long term build of Placenta + Uterine wall Induces uterine lands to secrete tissue and blood vessels +Timing of Reproduction Involves environmental cues + hormonal activity Most mammals: Estrous cycle Monestrous ( deer, bears) 1 heat a year Diestrus (dogs) 2 heat a year Polyestrous (rodents, rabbits) Too many a year ❖ Menstrual Cycle: 28 day uterine cycle +Ovarian Effects Days 113: Follicular Phase (FSH Hormone) building up the follicles and cells Day 14: Ovulation (LH Hormone) stimulate release of progesterone Day 1528: Luteal (LH Hormone) +Uterine Effects (menstrual) Days 15: Menstrual phase where endometrium sloughs off, discharged loss of blood Days 614: Proliferative Phase where estrogen increased to the buildup endometrium for preparation of fertilization Days 1528: Secretory Phase where progesterone increased to cause uterine glands to produce more tissue/blood flow Oogenesis Polar bodies: Non functional gametes Mechanisms for ridding extra cells with chromosomes Ovum: 1N= 23 Egg = female gamete Fertilization: 1N Egg + 1N Sperm = 2N Zygote (1N=23) (1N=23) (2N=46) (fertilized egg) Animal Development Ch. 52 +Embryonic development: Cellular differentiation:Cells become specialized Most animals have similar embryonic development processes Embryo in Advanced animals have 3 germ layers/ triploblastic development +5 Stages of Development Fertilization Cleavage Gastrulation Neurulation neural tube dev. Organogenesis *Some animals may also include the metamorphosis of larval form into adult form ❏ Fertilization Internal or external, two haploids fusing to form a diploid 1N Sperm Nucleus + 1N Egg Nuclei → Fuse to form 2N Zygote (fert. egg) ● Cleavage Repeated cell division cycles but without cell growth Blastula is the structure and each cell within is called a blastomere Yolk slows down division, that's why top of blastula is more divided than bottom of blastula because yolk is found towards the bottom, creating polarity 2 Poles: +Poles determines future axes of embryo Vegetal: More yolk, Less cytoplasma often larger but fewer blastomere Animal: Less yolk, More cytoplasma, often smaller but more blastomere +Meroblastic Cleavage Partial/ incomplete cleavage ONLY the Animal Pole divides Blastoderm: “flattened disk of cells” Mostly in bird and fish +Holoblastic Cleavage Complete cell division producing two equal blastomeres with the 1st division Mammals: Fertilization + Cleavage immediately starts in oviduct EXCEPT in bats Fertilized Egg implants on uterine wall Maternal Factors first direct the process and form the placenta Near end of cleavage, Maternal factors play less of a role and it is the embryo directing the shifts ➢ Gastrulation Blastula (Hollow Ball) → Gastrula with 3 germ layers and primordial germ cells +Triploblastic Endoderm : forms epithelial lining of gut tract, liver, pancreas, bladder, lungs, respiratory tube, thyroid gland (mostly respiratory system) Mesoderm : forms notochord, blood, connective tissues, heart, muscles, kidneys, appendages Ectoderm : forms neural tube and epidermis +Invagination : starts when blastopore is created Blastopore: band of tissue “pinches in” to create an opening Archenteron: displaces blastocoel to become digestive tract +Primordial Germ cells (PGC) Specialized cells that migrate to future site of gonads Gonads produce gametes PGC may arise independently from the 3 germ layers +2 functions: Protect and propagate genetic content of species Undergo meiosis to produce gametes +Notochord Derived from mesoderm, the structure provides rigidity along dorsal axis of embryo Defines Phylum Chordata Produces signaling proteins to establish tissue patterns, to form organs Involved in Hox Gene development ● Neurulation Neural tube development from ectoderm, dorsal to notochord All neurons from CNS are derived from Neural Tube +Neural plate: Thickening of ectodermal cells around notochord Cells on each side of neural plate will fuse to form an enclosure Enclosure will be neural tube +Neural Crest: Unique to vertebrates Cells overlying dorsal portion of Neural Tube These cells migrate to other regions of embryo to form all neurons and supporting cells of the PNS Sometimes called the “4th germ layer” ❏ Organogenesis Organ a structure of 2 or more tissue types Each germ layer gives rise to different organs Many forms during or just after neurulation Organs become functional different times of development
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