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Spanish IV, Final Exam Study Guide

by: Kayla Mathias

Spanish IV, Final Exam Study Guide SPA 104

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Spanish > SPA 104 > Spanish IV Final Exam Study Guide
Kayla Mathias
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

These notes cover all of the grammar from chapters 12-14. That includes the past and present subjunctive, past and present perfect, conditional, reciprocal, and future verb tenses.
Intermediate Spanish IV
Dr. Angelo Rodriguez
Study Guide
foreign language, spanish, grammar, subjunctive verbs, conditional tense, reciprocal verbs, Future, Intermediate
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kayla Mathias on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPA 104 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Angelo Rodriguez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Intermediate Spanish IV in Spanish at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

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Date Created: 04/27/16
Spanish IV Final Exam Study Guide Grammar Note: The tenses are not in the order in which they’re presented in the book. All of the subjunctive sections are grouped together. Future Tense (Ch. 12)—Previously, we’ve used the conjugation of ir+a+infinitive to talk about things in the future. Another form of the future tense is to add endings to infinitive verbs. The endings are the same for both –ar and –er/-ir verbs and are as follows: Yo –é, tú –ás, él/ella/usted –á, nosotros –emos, ellos/ellas/ustedes –án Ex: Yo hablaré, tú hablarás, él hablará, nosotros hablaremos, ellos hablarán Irregular Future Tense Verbs: Decirdir- Quererquerr-Sabersabr- Haberhabr- Salirsaldr- Poderpodr- Tenertendr- Ponerpondr- Venirvendr- Ex: Yo tendré, tú tendrás, ella tendrá, nosotros tendremos, ellos tenrán Present Perfect (Ch. 12)—This tense is used to indicate whether or not something has been done. In English we would say “He has done this or that”. This tense is formed by the present perfect conjugation of haber + verb. The second verb’s ending is changed to –ado for –ar verbs and –ido for –er/-ir verbs. Haber Conjugations: Yo he, tú has, él/ella/usted ha, nosotros hemos, ellos/ellas/ustedes han Ex: Ella ha trabajado…, tú has bebido…, ellos han vivido…, etc. Irregular Present Perfect Tense Verbs: Abrirabierto Morirmuerto Decirdicho Escribirescrito Hacerhecho Romperroto Volvervuelto Ponerpuesto Devolverdevuelto Vervisto Expressions commonly used with the present perfect: Alguna vez—ever Recientemente—recently No…todavía—not…yet, still…not Ya—already Nunca—never Past Perfect (Ch. 14)—Also called pluscuamperfecto. It’s used to describe an action that happened before another past action. It’s basically saying you did one thing before you did something else. As with the present perfect, haber (conjugated differently) is pair with another verb (conjugated the same as the present perfect and called a past participle). Past Perfect Haber Conjugations: Yo había, tú habías, él/ella/usted había, nosotros habíamos, ellos/ellas/ustedes habían Past participle conjugations: -ar verbs: -ado (for all persons) -er/-ir verbs: -ido (for all persons) Note: Irregular verbs are the same as present perfect conjugations. Reciprocal Verbs (Ch. 13)—This tense is used when describing something that two or more people are doing to/with each other. Ex: hugging, kissing, writing, looking at, etc. These verbs are always used with either se or nos as the pronoun. Ex: Se besaron, nos escribimos, etc. Subjunctive with Expressions of Desire (Ch. 13)—This is used when expressing a desire for someone to do something and is formed by the expression of desire (first clause) + que + subjunctive (second clause). The first clause is in the indicative and the second is in the subjunctive. Common expressions of desire include: Desear—to desire Mandar—to order Esperar—to hope Necesitar—to need Insistir—to insist Pedir—to ask or request Sugerir—to suggest Recomendar—to recommend Ojalá—to wish/hope Conditional Tense (Ch. 14)—The conditional is used to talk about something that that you would or wouldn’t do. It can also be translated into “probably”. Endings are the same for –ar, -er, and –ir verbs. Conjugations: Yo –ía, tú –ías, él/ella/usted –ía, nosotros –íamos, ellos/ellas/ustedes –ías Irregular Verbs (same as for future tense): Decirdir- Salirsaldr- Haberhabr- Tenertendr- Hacerhar- Venirvendr- Poderpodr- Quererquerr- Ponerpondr- Sabersabr- Subjunctive—Used to convey uncertainty, anticipated or hypothetical events, or the wishes, fears, doubts, or emotional reactions of the subject (WEIRDO). Previously, we’ve only used the indicative which is used to state facts (things that have happened, are happening, or will happen) through present, future, preterite, and imperfect tenses. The present subjunctive is conjugated by dropping the –o from the first person present tense and add the opposite endings. Present Subjunctive: -ar Verbs: yo –e, tú –es, él/ella/usted –e, nosotros –emos, ellos/ellas/ustedes –en -er/-ir Verbs: yo –a, tú –as, él/ella/usted –a, nosotros –amos, ellos/ellas/ustedes –an Note: Stem changes in the present tense carry over to the present subjunctive except in the nosotros form. Irregular Present Subjunctive Verbs: Dardé Irvaya Haberhaya Sabersepa Sersea Subjunctive with Impersonal Expressions (Ch. 12)—The subjunctive is used with impersonal expressions when someone is saying that it is important that…, it is good that…, it is possible that…, etc. Commonly Used Impersonal Expressions: Es buena/mal idea Es posible Es horrible Es probable Es imposible Es raro Es increíble Es recomendable Es justo (it’s fair) Es ridículo Es mejor Es terrible Es necesario Es una lástima Es urgente Subjunctive with Expressions of Doubt (Ch. 12)—Because subjunctive is used in situations of uncertainty, it is ALWAYS used when expressing doubt or uncertainty. Of the other hand, if you are expressing something with certainty or affirming a belief, the indicative (present, past, or future) is used. Common expressions of doubt include (use subjunctive): Dudar que No suponer que No creer que No estar seguro que No pensar que No ser cierto/verdad/obvio/evidente que Common expressions of certainty (use indicative): Creer que Estar seguro de que Pensar que Ser cierto/verdad/obvio/evidente que Suponer que Subjunctive with Expressions of Emotion (Ch. 13)—This form of subjunctive is used to express emotions such as happiness, anger, surprise, etc. As with other uses of the subjunctive, there must be two clauses—the first is in the indicative and the second is in the subjunctive. Commonly used verbs describing emotion: Estar contento de Encantar Estar triste de Gustar Sentir Molestar Temer/tener miedo de Preocupar Alegrar Sorprender Enojar Subjunctive with Adverbial Clauses (Ch. 13)—When talking about something you know to be true, the indicative is used. Otherwise, use the subjunctive. For example, if you’re talking about looking for something, but don’t have a specific idea as to what you want, the subjunctive is used. If you are describing exactly what you want and you know it’s there, the indicative is used. When expressing that you think something does not exist, use nadie or ninguno. Verbs commonly used with adverbial clauses: Buscar Necesitar Querer Imperfect Subjunctive (Ch. 14)—When the imperfect subjunctive is used, two clauses must be present as usual, but the first is either preterite or imperfect (past) and the second is imperfect (past) subjunctive. To conjugate the past subjunctive, we have to remember the third person (ellos) form of the verb in the preterite, especially the stem-changing verbs. Conjunctions of the Imperfect Subjunctive: -ar verbs: Yo –ara, tú –aras, él/ella/usted –ara, nosotros –áramos, ellos/ellas/ustedes –aran -er/-ir verbs: Yo –iera, tú –ieras, él/ella/usted –iera, nosotros –iéramos, ellos/ellas/ustedes –ieran Irregular Preterite Verbs (taken from chapter 7): Ser/Irfu— Hacerhic— Dardi— Quererquis— Vervi— Venirvin— Ponerpus— Decirdij— Andaranduv— Conducirconduj— Estarestuv— Porducirproduj— Poderpud— Traducirtraduj— Sabersup— Traertraj— Tenertuv— Note: for the above verbs, the –er/-ir endings are used, even if the verb ends in –ar. Subjunctive with Adverbial Clauses (Ch. 14)—This is used when one action is dependent on another. Phrases like as long as, in case, and unless are used. Instances in which the subjunctive is ALWAYS used can be remembered through the acronym ASPACE. A fin de que Con tal (de) que Sin que En caso de que Para que Note: Antes de que is a part of this group, but is not included in the A menos que acronym. In other cases, either subjunctive or indicative can be used. The acronym THECD can be used to remember these. Tan pronto como Cuando Hasta que Después (de) que En cuanto Other adverbial clauses include aunque, como, and (a)donde.


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