Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide Bio 1023
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katy Davit on Wednesday April 27, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/27/16
Crime&&&Justice&in&America& & EXAM&4&STUDY&GUIDE& & & CHAPTER 11: •! Quiz questions from this chapter •! Political Crime: Illegal acts that are designed to undermine an existing government and threaten its survival •! Election Fraud: Illegal interface with the process of an election o! Intimidation- Voters can be scared away from the polls o! Disruption- Bomb threats called into polls; sabotage of ballots, voting machine o! Misinformation- Flyers with wrong election date o! Registration Fraud- Busing in ineligible voters o! Vote Buying- Securing votes by payment or other rewards •! Espionage: “Spying” Obtaining information about a government or organization that is considered confidential without the permission of the holder of that information o! Industrial Espionage- spying involving corporations (computer codes, secret formulas, new product lines) o! Foreign Industrial Espionage- Same as above, but carried out by foreign agents (Chinese stealing from US companies) o! Economic Espionage Act of 1996- The theft or misappropriation of a trade secret with the intent or knowledge that the offense will benefit any foreign government, foreign instrumentality, or foreign agent •! Treason: Act of disloyalty to one’s nation or state (not a state within the US) •! Terrorism: Illegal use of force against innocent people to achieve a political objective o! Guerilla- Comes from Spanish term meaning little war; informal military band seeking to overthrow the government o! Insurgent- Typical goal is to confront existing government for control of territory or sharing political power; receive aid from neighboring sympathizers o! Revolutionary- Civil war between nationalists and a sovereign power that holds control of the land o! How are terror groups organized? !! Organized through networks (loosely organized in different parts of an area, hierarchal structure, communication between networks) or terror cells (division of terror groups affiliates, functionally independent, little knowledge of other cells) o! Motivations of terrorists !! Socialization/Friendship view- people outside their country, feeling homesick, seek friends with similar backgrounds; those friends may have terrorist leanings !! Ideological view- terrorists hold extreme ideological beliefs that prompt their behavior, once they believe the government will not help people with their beliefs, they resort to violence !! Religious Fanaticism- motivated by extreme religious beliefs that coincide with their ideological views •! USA Patriot Act: October 26, 2001, giving US law enforcement agencies a freer hand to investigate and apprehend suspected terrorists •! USA Freedom Act: June 2, 2015, restored and modified several provisions to the USA Patriot Act Crime&&&Justice&in&America& & EXAM&4&STUDY&GUIDE& & & CHAPTER 16: •! President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and the Admiration of Justice o! Safe Streets and Crime Control Act- Established the LEAA o! Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)- responsible for administering the federal funding to state and local law enforcement agencies •! Social Control: the enforcement of conformity by society upon its members, either by law or by social pressure •! 3 components of the Criminal Justice System: 1.! Law Enforcement 2.! Courts 3.! Corrections o! Costs to run the system- More than 200 billion per year o! Number of employees in the system- employs almost 2.5 million •! Number of people under correctional supervision/cost associated with it- 7 million under correctional supervision, 68 billion per year, 30,000 per inmate •! In re Gualt- Granted procedural and due process rights to juveniles at trial (just like adults) •! Stages of Justice and their definitions 1.! Initial contact 2.! Investigation 3.! Arrest 4.! Custody 5.! Charging 6.! Preliminary hearing 7.! Arraignment 8.! Bail or detention 9.! Plea bargaining 10.!Trial 11.!Disposition 12.!Post conviction remedies 13.!Correctional treatment 14.!Release 15.!Post release/aftercare •! Hands off doctrine: as a practice or non-interference with prisoners based on the belief that prisoners did not deserve the rights afforded to other citizens •! Bill of Rights: First ten amendments to the US Constitution o! 14 Amendment to the Bill of Rights: Applied the Bill of Rights to the states, due process •! Juvenile Justice System (general facts) !! 1899 first separate juvenile court !! Designed as treatment not punishment !! Handles more than 2 million cases per year Crime&&&Justice&in&America& & &EXAM&4&STUDY&GUIDE& & & •! Crime Control Model- Purpose of the justice system is to protect the public, deter crime, incapacitate criminals o! View of the Criminal Justice System- Advocates promote polices that increase police force, build more prisons, death penalty o! Outcomes- Led to increased numbers of juveniles being tried as adults •! Equal Justice Model- All people should receive the same treatment under the law o! View of the Criminal Justice System- Frustration arises when 2 people commit the same crime and receive different sentences o! Just deserts- punishment must be equitably administered and based on what people deserve for their crimes •! Due Process Model- Individualizes justice, treatment, and rehabilitation of offenders, combines elements of positivist criminology and procedural fairness o! View of the Criminal Justice System- Supported by the fact that black individuals (mostly men) are incarcerated 5.6x more than Hispanics and whites o! Outcomes- Scrutiny of police and sentencing procedures •! Rehabilitation Model- Given the proper care and treatment, criminals can be changed into productive, law-abiding citizens o! View of the Criminal Justice System- Criminals are victims of social injustice, poverty, and racism; their acts are a response o! Outcomes- General public is supportive of treatment programs, esp. for early intervention (for children) •! Nonintervention Model- Concerned with stigmatization and labeling of offenders o! View of the Criminal Justice System- Criminal label jeopardizes future success, limit government intrusion into people’s lives who break the law o! Outcomes- Use programs in place of jail or prison •! Restorative Justice Model- focuses on the rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims and the community at large o! View of the Criminal Justice System- the purpose of the criminal justice system is to promote a peaceful, just society o! Outcomes- Punitive methods are no more effective than humanitarian efforts CHAPTER 18: •! Auburn System AKA Congregate System- A system in which inmates were held in isolation at night but worked with other inmates during the day under a rule of silence •! Penitentiary AKA Pennsylvania model- Each inmate in a single cell, costly to run and rampant abuse •! Definitions of goals of punishments- 1.! Deference- by punishing an offender you deter others from committing crime 2.! Specific deterrence- harsh punishment would reduce recidivism by offenders 3.! Incapacitation- removing opportunity to commit crime through incarceration 4.! Rehabilitation- reduce further criminality by treating the underlying causes of crime 5.! Diversion- sentence other than incarceration to reduce stigma and labeling 6.! Retribution- punishment for misconduct; keeps victims from seeking revenge 7.! Restitution- reimburse society for its loss caused by crimes Crime&&&Justice&in&America& & &EXAM&4&STUDY&GUIDE& & & 8.! Restoration- restore them to good standing in society through confronting their behavior, damage caused to victims, and shame brought to their family •! Indeterminate sentence- offenders are given a short minimum sentence that must be served and a lengthy maximum sentence that can possibly be served o! Inmate can be paroled after serving the minimum sentence if they can show they are ready to be in the community o! Used in majority of the states o! Individualize each sentence in the interests of rehabilitation of the offender •! Determinate sentence- set number of years to be served in prison o! Orientation toward desert, deterrence, and quality at the expense of treatment and rehabilitation o! Designed to reduce racial and gender disparity •! Truth in sentencing laws- require offenders to serve a substantial portion of their prison sentence behind bars o! 85% for violent felony crimes o! Parole eligibility and good-time credits are restricted or eliminated •! Sentencing disparity- People convicted of similar criminal acts receive widely different sentences o! What affects disparity? !! Age, race, gender, SES •! Roper v. Simmons- Under 18 years old cannot receive death penalty •! Probation- Suspension of the offender’s sentence in return for promise of good behavior; under supervision of PO o! Numbers- 4 million currently on probation, 2 million placed on probation annually o! Costs- less costly than prison terms, which can be dangerous because some felony offenders are granted probation •! Indeterminate Sanctions- fines, forfeiture, home confinement, electronic monitoring, intensive probation supervisions, restitution, community corrections, boot camps o! Fall somewhere between prisons and probations •! Jails- secure institution used to detain offenders before trial and house misdemeanors o! Origins- 16 century Europe, used to house those awaiting trail and punishment o! Numbers- 750,000 people in jail on a daily basis •! Prisons- Correctional facilities to house convicted felons o! Types 1.! Minimum security- no armed guard or walls, chain link fences, least violent offenders 2.! Medium security- contain less violent offenders, more varieties of treatment and educational programs 3.! Maximum security- high walls, elaborate security measures, closely controlled activities o! Differences in prisons for men and women MEN !! Fathers become more depressed !! Sexual exploitation and violence; join gangs for protection !! Racial conflict Crime&&&Justice&in&America& & EXAM&4&STUDY&GUIDE& & & WOMEN !! Less violent !! Depression from separation from family !! Surrogate family •! Faith-based correctional treatment o! Promote family reunification and employment o! Better following release, but quickly erode •! Estelle v. Gamble- deliberate indifference to serious medical needs of prisoners constitutes the “unnecessary and wanton infliction of pain” •! Parole- Planned release and community supervision of incarcerated offenders before the expiration of their prison sentence
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