Log in to StudySoup
Get Full Access to UA - PY 413 - Study Guide - Final
Join StudySoup for FREE
Get Full Access to UA - PY 413 - Study Guide - Final

Already have an account? Login here
Reset your password

UA / Psychology / PY 413 / What is the function of mullerian ducts?

What is the function of mullerian ducts?

What is the function of mullerian ducts?


Physiological Psych Final Exam

What is the function of mullerian ducts?


Sexual Development**

• Males and females have undifferentiated gonads in early stage of prenatal development • Wolffian ducts: precursors to male reproductive organs

o develops into vas deferens & seminal vesicles

• Mullerian ducts: precursors to female reproductive organs

o develops into ovaries, uterus, & upper vaginal area

• SRY gene: sex-determining region on the Y chromosome-causes gonads to develop into  testes-the sperm producing organs

• Testes: produce androgens to inc growth, produce Mullerian-inhibiting hormone (MIH) to  inhibit development of Mullerian ducts

Where is steroid derived from?

Steroid Hormones 

• Androgens (male) & Estrogens (female)

• Derived from cholesterol If you want to learn more check out What are the two substructures of peripheral nervous system?

• 3 ways of influencing cells

1. bind to membrane receptors-ex. neurotransmitters

2. enters cell-affects protein synthesis

3. chromosome binding-activate or inactivate certain genes

• Androgens: testosterone (10x higher in men than women)

• Estrogens:

o Estradiol-higher in women than men, menstrual cycle

o Progesterone-activates uterus & maintains pregnancy, 40x higher in pregnant women Organizing Effects of Sex Hormones 

• Organizing effects: long-lasting structural effects

How are hormones and human behavor related to each other?

o Puberty: men-facial hair, penis growth, change in voice; women-breast development o Influence activity in brain areas

▪ sexually dimorphic areas of the brain differ between males and females; larger  in males and contributes to sexual behavior

▪ anterior hypothalamus: men-sexual behavior, women-menstrual cycle

• Sex hormones determine whether the body develops male or female genitals during the  sensitive period of the of the first trimester-sexual differentiation We also discuss several other topics like What do textbooks illustrate?

o testosterone: high level converted to dihydrotestosterone leads to male external  genitalia, low level leads to female external genitalia

o estradiol: effects internal organs, less influence than testosterone

Brain Development & Sex Hormones 

• Alpha-fetoprotein: binds with estradiol and prevents it from entering developing cells; does  not bind to testosterone

• Testosterone is converted to estradiol once it enters the cell to have influencing effects • Excess estradiol in the blood leads to development of more masculine features • Childhood behavior If you want to learn more check out What influences the economy?

o toy preference: boys-cars, balls, light up things; girls-dolls, tea sets

▪ preference at age 3 consistent throughout childhood to age 13

• Sex differences: pain tolerance, stress, psychological disorders

Activating Effects of Sex Hormones 

• Activating effects: temporary, continuing only while a hormone is present or shortly beyond • Testosterone & estradiol inc release of dopamine & other receptors to inc sexual arousal  o stimulation of D1 & D5 receptors facilitates penis erection

o stimulation of D2 receptors leads to orgasm  

• Oxytocin responsible for relaxation & lack of anxiety after orgasm

• Seratonin inhibits sexual activity by blocking dopamine release

• Hormones & human behavior

o inc testosterone levels leads to higher sexual arousal, partner seeking even in a  relationship, & greater enjoyment of sex

o dec testosterone levels leads to dec interest in sex & dec male sexual activity  o testosterone releases nitric oxide which inc & sustains erection (ex. Viagra prolongs  effects of nitric oxide)

o testosterone reduction (unrelated to impotence) has been tried as a means of  controlling sex offenders; side effects of diabetes, weight gain, and depression Menstrual Cycle Don't forget about the age old question of What are the purpose of political parties?

• Approximately 28 days We also discuss several other topics like What is the ingathering of the exiles?

• Produced by hypothalamus and pituitary gland interaction with the ovaries • At the end of menstruation:

o anterior pituitary releases follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-promotes the growth of a  follicle in the ovary

o follicle nurtures ovum in the ovary

• Middle of menstruation:

o inc amounts of estradiol produced by follicle

o anterior pituitary inc release of FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH)-causes follicle to  release ovum

o remnant of follicle (corpus luteum) releases progesterone which prepares uterus for  implantation of ovum

o –periovulatory period: when ovulation occurs, maximum time of fertility, highest level  of estrogen in the body & inc sexual responsiveness

• Ovum is not fertilized: uterine lining cast off, hormone levels decline If you want to learn more check out What are the five foundations of economics?

• Ovum is fertilized: inc estradiol & progesterone (40x normal)

Birth-Contol Pills 

• Interfere with feedback between ovaries & pituitary

• Combination pill: most common, contains estrogen & progesterone which prevents surge of  FSH & LH that would otherwise release an ovum

Sex Hormones & Maternal Behavior 

• Inc sensitivity to estradiol in pregnancy in areas responsible for maternal behaviors • After birth:

o inc levels of estradiol & prolactin-causes inc attn to the infant after birth & milk  production

o affects in medial preoptic area & anterior hypothalamus

• Vasopressin-synthesized by the hypothalamus & secreted by posterior pituitary, strongly  associated with forming long term bonds and relationships; helps facilitate olfactory  recognition, influence caretaker & protective behaviors of young

• Male’s prolactin levels inc and testosterone levels dec after birth, especially if he interacts with  the child

• Hormones vs. experience- hormones do not control, just facilitate

Mate Selection 

• Gender differences due to different reproductive pressures

• Symmetry is “universally” viewed as attractive

• Female preferences: monogamy to inc chance of lifelong mate, a provider • Male preferences: advantageous to be promiscuous to inc chance of spreading genes to  offspring

Gender Identity-what we consider ourselves to be

• Biological differences-“sex differences”

• Feelings about oneself-“gender differences”


• Anatomies intermediate between male or female

• Underdeveloped or ambiguous genitalia

o Can be caused by migration of the SRY gene, exposes women to higher androgen  levels

• Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): overdevelopment of the adrenal glands from birth  causing excess testosterone production; genetic female exposed to excess testosterone can  be partly masculinized

• Androgen insensitivity: XY chromosome pattern with female genitalia; caused by lack of  androgen receptors to activate genes

Sexual Orientation 

• Genetic disposition

o Higher incidence of homosexuality on the maternal relatives of homosexual men • Birth order- higher probability of homosexual men with older brothers-link in X chromosome • Prenatal hormones & in males, reactions to mother’s immune system  



Emotion is defined in components-physical, subjective, valence, and motivation.  Emotion has components of cognitions, feelings, and actions.  

Emotions & Nervous System 

• sympathetic- fight or flight

• parasympathetic- rest & digest

o to a point, as arousal inc, performance inc

• Role of feedback from the body:

o James-Lange theory: autonomic arousal and skeletal actions preceed the feeling  aspect of emotion (ex. feel afraid because you run away)

o Schacter & Singer’s cognitive theory: physical response of emotion is related to  intensity/appraisal of the situation

Body Actions Influence Emotion 

• Manipulating expressions: facial-zygomaticus major (smile)-research shows people who hold a  pen in their teeth forcing a smile feel more amusement than those holding a pen in their lips  forcing a frown

o duchenne smile-genuine smile, zygomaticus major + orbicularis oculi (crows feet) • Mobius syndrome: facial paralysis- people with this condition feel emotion but cannot express  • Benefits of BOTOX: Ach antagonist; injections show dec emotional processing, dec emotional  reactions, less negative emotions

• Controlling facial expression-cranial nerves

o facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) controls outer muscles of facial expression

o trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V) controls deeper muscles for jaw, chewing, etc. • Muscle control in face is combined ipso/contralateral control

o upper 1/3 combined, lower 2/3 only contralateral


• universal emotions of anger, sadness, happiness, fear, disgust, surprise, contempt, and  embarrassment

• cultural and individual differences

• tone of voice carries emotional information

• eyeball whites: more white=fear, less white=happy

The Limbic System 

• forebreain areas surrounding the thalamus-critical for emotion

• hypothalamus-regulates sympathetic/parasympathetic nervous system

• amygdala-fear based learning, critical for all emotions

Brain Activation of Disgust(“bad taste”)

• Insular cortex-smell & taste- to avoid contamination disgust is learned to avoid harm • Moral disgust- (ex. sex offenders) disgusted by things against our moral backgrounds Brain Areas of Emotion 

• Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPC)-decision making

o allows you to make judgements and deliberate consequences

o difficulty learning moral & social cues if damaged

• Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC)

o important for understanding errors in conscious body

o larger ACC related to greater harm avoidance

o works with orbital frontal cortex to make decisions

o inhibits aggression

Brain Hemispheres **

• left hemisphere

o behavioral activation system(BAS): activity left hemisphere marked by low to moderate  autonomic arousal and a tendency to approach

▪ high extroversion related to greater left hemisphere activity

• right hemisphere

o behavioral inhibition system (BIS): activity in right hemisphere which inc attn and  arousal, inhibits, action, and stimulates emotions such as fear and disgust, avoidance

▪ introversion, more negative emotions, and depression related to greater right  hemisphere activity


• regulates anxiety levels

• controls autonomic responses

o startle reflex-extremely fast (200ms)-stimulates pons 3-8ms after noise, pons tenses the  muscles especially the muscles of the neck to protect from injury

• bed nucleus of the stria terminalis- stria terminalis is a set of axons that connects this nucleus  to the amygdala; responsible for long-term, generalized emotional arousal

• damage to the amygdala interferes with inhibited learning of fear & inhibited relation of fear  with emotional consequences

o toxoplasma gondii: parasite produced by cats that can infect other mammals, causes  damage to amygdala-rat fearlessly approaches cat and is eaten

o Kluver-Bucy syndrome in monkeys-monkeys with this are tame and placid-impaired at  learning what to fear and die as a consequence

o Urbach-Wiethe disease in humans: case of SM

▪ calcium builds up in amygdala and causes deterioration over time

▪ impaired at processing emotional information and learning what to fear

▪ SM robbed/assaulted multiple times-no fear response, could recognize  

cognitive aspects of emotion but not feelings

Anxiety & Fear 

• Indirect pathway of fear (conscious fear)

o senses????thalamus????cortex????amygdala

• Direct pathway of fear (unconscious fear)

o senses????thalamus????amygdala????cortex

• Anxiety-fear spreading

• GABA-key neurotransmitter in reducing fear

o high GABA=low fear, low GABA=high fear

Anxiety Disorders 

• panic disorder: frequent periods of anxiety and occasional attacks of rapid breathing, inc  heart rate, sweating, and trembling-extreme arousal of the sympathetic nervous system  • relief from anxiety

o anti-anxiety drugs-benzodiazepines (ex. diazepam-valium, alprazolam-xanax)-binds to  GABA receptors to enhance effects of GABA

o alcohols effects on GABA receptors is responsible for the anti-anxiety effects o systematic desensitization-gradual exposure to feared stimulus in hopes of extinction Concepts of Stress 

• any kind of nonspecific bodily response to some type of demand

• general adaption syndrome:  

o alarm stage-adrenal glands release epinephrine stimulating the sympathetic nervous  system; cortisol released to inc blood glucose providing energy; aldosterone released  to maintain blood salt & blood volume

o resistance stage-sympathetic response declines, adrenal glands continue secreting  hormones that enable body to maintain alertness

o exhaustion stage-tired, inactive, and vulnerable due to prolonged stress-nervous  system and immune system lack the energy to sustain their responses

Stress & Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal Cortex Axis (HPA axis)**

• Stress activates 2 systems in the body: (1) sympathetic nervous system (2) HPA axis • HPA axis for prolonged stressors

• hypothalamus releases corticotrophin releasing hormone (CTH)????pituitary gland releases  adrenocorticotropic hormone(ACTH)????stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol which  enhances metabolic activity, elevates blood levels of sugar, and increases alertness Immune System 

• Cells that protect the body against viruses, bacteria, and other intruders

• Leukocytes (white blood cells)-kill invaders

o B cells: secrete antibodies which are Y shaped proteins that attach to cell surface  proteins called antigens, attack unfamiliar antigens, mature in the bone marrow o T cells: attack intruders directly, mature in the thymus gland

o Natural killer cells: attack tumor cells and cells infected with viruses

o cytokines: combat infections and stimulate prostaglandins to produce  

fever/sleepiness/lack of energy so body can fight off invaders

• Psychoneuroimmunology: deals with the ways experiences alter the immune system and how  the immune system in turn influences the CNS

o stressful experiences cause CNS to activate immune system

o brief stressors strengthen immune system (ex. exercise)

o prolonged stress can damage hippocampus due to cortisol release causing inc  metabolic activity which causes hippocampus to become vulnerable  


Types of Memory 

• Short-term memory: aka working memory, working memory is limited & fades quickly, pre frontal cortex important for working memory, dec as we age

• Long-term memory: unlimited & perpetual, hippocampus important for long-term memory • Consolidation: something stored in short-term memory for a sufficient period of time  transitioning to long-term memory

o emotionally significant memories form quickly because of secretion of epinephrine and  cortisol

• Reconsolidated: when we remember something, we remember the last time we remembered  it, not the original memory

• Implicit memory processing: unconscious memory processing, an influence of experience on  behavior, even if you do not recognize that influence

• Explicit memory processing: known memory, deliberate recall of information • Declarative memory: typically explicit, “I declare _____ happened”

• Procedural memory: memory about knowing how to do something, implicit memory dealing  with development of motor skills and habits

The Hippocampus 

• Important for declarative memory, spatial memory, and memory for context • Patient HM suffered from severe epilepsy, had surgery to remove hippocampus  o had difficulty forming new long-term memories-anterograde amnesia

o poor episodic memory (memories of single personal events) & declarative memory o procedural memory remained intact

o better implicit than explicit memory

o intact short-term memory

• hippocampus important for rapid storage of an event/episodic memory whereas basal ganglia  learn gradually which is important for developing habits and seeing complex patterns Basal Ganglia 

• implicit learning

• procedural memory

• Parkinson’s disease patients have trouble forming implicit memory but not declarative Types of Amnesia(memory loss)

• anterograde amnesia: inability to form memories for events that happened after brain  damage

• retrograde amnesia: loss of memory for events that occurred before brain damage • Korsakoff’s Syndrome: brain damage caused by prolonged thiamine (vitamin B) deficiency o common in chronic alcoholics-alcohol lacks vitamins

o symptoms of apathy, confusion, and memory loss

• confabulation-making up memories to fill in gaps

• Alzheimer’s disease: age related degenerative condition

o affects 50% of people over the age of 85, 99% of cases are late onset

o mild memory impairment gradually progresses to other cognitive deficits

o genes controlling early-onset Alzheimer’s:

▪ accumulation of protein amyloid-B inside and outside neurons damages  

dendritic spines, decreases synaptic output, and decreases plasticity; damaged  structures cluster into plaques and cause atrophy in the braon

▪ tau protein is the intracellular support structure of axons, altered tau protein  builds up in tangles

Improving Memory 

• arousal enhances memory

• caffeine/Ritalin

• mnemonics-chunking  

• relating/rephrasing

• imagery-method of loci


• Hebbian synapse: synapse that inc in effectiveness because of simultaneous activity in the  presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons

• Habituation: a dec in response to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly and accompanied  by no change in other stimuli

• Sensitization: an increase in response to mild stimuli as a result of exposure to more intense  stimuli

Long-Term Potentiation**

• LTP: one or more axons connected to a dendrite bombard it with a rapid series of stimuli; the  rapid burst of intense stimulation leaves some of the synapses potentiated

• 3 properties of LTP for its cellular basis of learning & memory:

o specificity-only active synapses strengthened

o cooperativity-simultaneous stimulation by 2+ axons produces LTP much more strongly  than does repeated stimulation by just one axon

o associativity-pairing a weak input with a strong input enhances later response to the  weak input

• LTP in hippocampal neurons: AMPA receptor excited by glutamate????depolarization removes  magnesium???? NMDA receptors excited

o ionotropic receptors-when stimulated they open a channel to let ions enter the  postsynaptic cell

• long-term depression (LTD): a prolonged decrease in response at a synapse, occurs for axons  that have been less active than others



Asymmetry of Function 

• contralateral connections

• left visual field projects onto right half of each retina sending axons to right hemisphere while  right visual field projects onto left half of retina sending axons to left hemisphere • right hemisphere: perceiving emotions, global/big pictures

o those with damage have trouble interpreting humor, sarcasm, inflection of voice • left hemisphere: language processing, local/small details

o left hemisphere damage have better ability to understand emotion

Development of Lateralization & Handedness 

• planum temporale: section of the temporal cortex, larger in the left hemisphere for 65% of  people

• 95% of right handers have language processing in left hemisphere & lefties resemble righties • hemisphere dominance should not be overemphasized

Corpus Callosum 

• largest connection between the left and right hemisphere

• set of myelinated axons-white matter

• cutting of the corpus callosum:

o early treatment for epilepsy

o creates split-brain individual

• anterior & hippocampal commissure used for exchange of information between hemispheres;  some info can be transferred even after severance of corpus callosum

Language Acquisition 

• social interaction

• sensitive period-early childhood

• children better at pronunciation and learning grammatical constructs

• second language learning-individuals who learn a second language before age 6 show  bilateral processing

Brain Damage & Language**

• aphasia: severe language impairment

• Broca’s area: one of the first areas localized to cognitive function

o Broca’s aphasia (nonfluent aphasia)-impaired language production

o damage results in language disability & inability to understand grammar,  comprehension deficits in speech, and emission of many filler words

• Wernicke’s area-near auditory cortex

o Wernicke’s aphasia (fluent aphasia)-impaired language comprehension

▪ damage causes impaired ability to name objects

▪ anomia-difficulty recalling the names of objects


Drug Mechanisms 

• antagonist-drug that blocks a neurotransmitter

• agonist-drug that mimics or increases the effects of a neurotransmitter

• affinity-drug has an affinity for a receptor if it binds to it

• efficacy- drug’s tendency to activate the receptor

• nucleus accumbens-central to reinforcing experiences of all types; axons releasing  norepinephrine and dopamine work here

Major Depressive Disorder(MDD)

• feeling sad/helpless everyday for weeks at a time; episodic

• DSM characteristics: low energy, low pleasure, feelings of worthlessness

o global-affects all aspects of life

o perpetual-never ending

• absence of happiness better descriptive than inc sadness

Biological Influence on MDD 

• viral infections-borna disease (1/3 of individuals with MDD carry this)

• hormonal: women-post partum depression affects 20% of women (drop in estradiol &  progesterone); men-low testosterone levels

• right hemisphere dominance-individuals with MDD show greater right hemisphere  dominance, most people with depression have inc activity in the right prefrontal cortex • genetic link: moderate aassociation in immediate family but no depressive gene; gene x  environment interaction most predictive

Seratonin Transfer Protein & MDD 

• facilitates serotonin reabsorption

• short form vs. long form gene

o individuals with 2 short forms show greater chance of developing depression especially  following major stressful events



• operate by blocking the transporter proteins that reabsorb serotonin, dopamine, and  norepinephrine into the presynaptic neuron after their release; block histamine receptors, Ach  receptors, & sodium channels

• effect is to prolong the presence of neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft where they  continue stimulating the post-synaptic cell

• profound side effects: drowsiness, dry mouth, difficulty urinating

Selective Seratonin Reuptake Inhibitors(SSRIs)

• block reuptake of serotonin

• operate similar to tricyclics but fewer side effects

• SNRIs-block reuptake of serotonin combined with norepinephrine  

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors(MAOIs)

• blocks monoamine oxidase, a presynaptic enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines and  seratinin into inactive forms; blockage of this metabolizes catecholamines and serotonin  slowing breakdown in synaptic cleft

Atypical Antidepressants 

• wellbutrin-prevents reuptake of norepinephrine, not serotonin

• 2+ weeks before behavior change seen


• not simply serotonin based-seratonin levels not linked to depressive symptoms in control  groups

• individuals with depression have low brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) • BDNF important for synaptic plasticity, learning, and proliferation of new neurons in the  hippocampus

o because of low BDNF, individuals with depression show a smaller hippocampus and  impaired learning ability

Nonpharmalogical Treatments 

• combination of drugs & psychotherapy-cognitive behavioral therapy; shows inc in metabolism  of certain brain areas

• electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-electrically induce a seizure-most immediate relief when no  relief from antidepressant drugs; not long-lasting

• altered sleep patterns

• deep brain stimulation

• exercise!!!!! inc blood flow to brain and inc levels of serotonin and BDNF

BIPOLAR DISORDER aka manic depressive disorder  


• Bipolar I- full blown manic cycle alternated with depressive cycle-rapid cycling • Bipolar II-mild mania, mainly depression

• Mania/manic symptoms- very productive, feel on top of the world, feel they can accomplish  anything resulting in risky behaviors

• glucose-brain uses more in manic phase & dec in depressive phase

• high heritability


• lithium salts-stabilize mood & prevent relapse-work by dec glutamate activity

• drugs effective that block synthesis of arachidonic acid which is produced during brain  inflammation


• characteristics: deterioration of functioning in everyday life

o positive symptoms (additive behavior)- hallucinations (normally auditory), delusions,  scattered speech/thinking

o negative symptoms (absence of behaviors)-lack of emotions, loss of speech abilities,  decreased socialization, isolation


• genetic component: predictive genes linked to schiz, genetic contribution from relative with  schiz

• neurodevelopmental: abnormalities in development of nervous system pre-/neo-natally, poor  nutrition of mother, premature birth, low birth weight, more common in low SES groups • brain abnormalities: enlarged ventricles, disorganized/smaller hippocampus, hypofrontality less frontal activity

Brain Activity 

• during auditory hallucinations: inc activity of broca’s area, ernicke’s area, middle temporal  gyrus; reduced functional frontotemporal connectivity  

• during delusions: dec activity of cortical midline structures like medial prefrontal cortex,  anterior cingulate cortex, insula, and ventral striatum


• antipsychotic/neuroleptic drugs (ex. chlorprozamine-thorazine & haloperidol-haldol)  o these drugs relieve positive symptoms but not negative symptoms, block dopamine  synapses

o tardive dyskinesia-tremors caused by prolonged use of antipsychotics

• *dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia: schiz results from excess activity at dopamine  synapses

o substance induced psychotic disorder-results from abuse of cocaine and meth because  these drugs prolong the activity at dopamine synapses, produces positive symptoms of  schiz (hallucinations & delusions)

o individuals with schiz have twice as many D2 dopamine receptors

• *glutamate hypothesis of schizophrenia: schiz results from deficient activity at glutamate  synapses in the prefrontal cortex

o in many brain areas dopamine inhibits glutamate release, or glutamate stimulates  neurons that inhibit dopamine release---therefore inc dopamine would produce the  same effects as dec glutamate

o individuals with schiz have fewer glutamate receptors & low release of glutamate • frontal lobotomy-severing of prefrontal cortex from the rest of the brain-disrupts personality  and memory

Page Expired
It looks like your free minutes have expired! Lucky for you we have all the content you need, just sign up here