Final Exam study guide
Final Exam study guide HDF 303
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by andrea lott on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDF 303 at Central Michigan University taught by Shannon Sexton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Early Childhood Development in Human Development at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Final Exam Study Guide 1. Selman’s stages of perspective taking Level 0: Undifferentiated (3-6 years): Recognize that self and others con have different thoughts and feelings but they will often confuse the two Level 1: Social-informational (4-9 years): Children understand that different perspectives may be because different people have access to different information Level 2: Self-reflective (7-12 years): Children can step into someone else’s shoes and view their thoughts, can view other’s perspective Level 3: Third-party (10-15 years): Children can step outside two person situation and imagine how the self and other are viewed from the point of view of a third impartial party Level 4: Social perspective taking ( 14-adult): Individuals understand that third party perspective taking can be influenced by one of more systems of larger societal values 2. Concrete Operations Reversibility: Capacity to think through a series of steps and then be able to reverse the direction, returning to the starting point-Example: when you add 7 plus 8 to get 15, then this tells you that 15 minus 8 must be 7. Classification: Sorting and classifying, separating in categories and sub categories- Example: Middle childhood starts collections of stamps, baseball cards, coins, etc. Serration: Ability to order items associated with length or weight: Example- when sorting rocks, selecting the smallest first then the next smallest from the pile until the arrangement is complete 3. Cultural values and how it affects academic performance Willingness to help others, respect for parents and authority is valued Asian parents value modesty, Asian children score lower in self-esteem even though they score higher in academic 4. Family influences in middle childhood Coregulation: the gradual shift of control from parent to child, the parents does not let go completely Parents exercise general oversight while letting children take charge of moment by moment decisions 5. Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence Analytical- Analytical giftedness is influential in being able to take apart problems and being able to see solutions not often seen Creative- Ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills Practical- Applying their abilities to the kind of problems that confront them in daily life, involves being able to problem solve with respect to daily tasks 6. Benefits of small class size: Better scores, show better concentration, high-quality class participation and more favorable attitudes toward school 7. Self-fulfilling prophesy: Teacher’s positive or negative views of an individual child can impact the child and how they start to live up to those views 8. Anecdotals What is included in an anecdotal? o Factual statements that answers- what, how, when, who, not why When is the best time to use an anecdotal during an observation? o When the events are happening 9. Family Types and support each family may need Nuclear: first time parents with children Cohabitation: individuals who live together in a committed relationship but are not married, family may operate like a nuclear family, without legal marriage between parents Extended: additional family members share the home Single-parent: status more from divorce than death Blended: parents remarry within six year after divorce Same-sex: 2-7 million children are being raised in same-sex households 10. Memory strategies When and how are they used? Techniques for holding information in working memory and transferring it to our long term memory. o Rehearsal: early grade school, when the child has a list of things to learn like phone number, capitals, etc. They use rehearsal to repeat to self o Organization: soon after rehearsal, knowledge base helps organizations, grouping related item together, using this approach improves the memory dramatically o Elaboration: end of middle school, meaningful chunks of information, when store a new item in long-term memory by linking it to information already known, can by thinking of other items associated with it 11. How TV influences perception of families through time? TV shows reflect current families and help shape the definition of a family 12. IQ and what do people with higher IQ do? Intelligence can be described as the ability to have skills, necessary to face the requirements and challenges Children with higher IQ’s are more likely to attain higher levels of achievement 13. Attentional strategies when and how are they applied Product deficiency: the failure to produce a mental strategy when it would have been helpful Control deficiency: young elementary school children fail to control, or execute strategies effectively Utilization deficiency: slightly older children apply strategies consistently, but their performance does not improve 14. Whole language approach: parallels natural language learning Phonological approach: awareness of sounds in a language, awareness of rhymes. Awareness that sentences can be broken down into words, syllables and sounds 15. What is included in a running record? Detailed narrative-written as it happens Is special training needed to complete a running record? No special training required What are opinion and evidence statements? Statements that state what you saw (evidence). Statement explaining why you think it happen (opinion) 16. Parenting in middle childhood Learned helplessness o Attribute their failures to their abilities not their successes. When they do succeed they are likely to view that luck was the reason for the success o Prevention: select meaningful and diverse tasks, appropriately matched, communicate warmth, confidence, value of achievement and importance of effect in success, make evaluations private, often small classes, provide individual support, provide cooperative learning and peer tutoring options, and emphasis individual progress and self-improvement Over indulgence o Linked to unrealistically high self-esteem even when they are not performing well 17. Spatial reasoning Maps: Can draw maps or mental representations of familiar, large-scale spaces such as their school, requires perspective taking skill because the entire place cannot be seen at once Directions: Give clear well organized directions for getting one place to another, giving mental directions (mental walk) 18. Standardized testing Difference between group and individual testing o Group testing: Allows testing of large groups, require little training to administer, useful for instructional planning, identify students who need further evaluation o Individual testing: Examiners need training and experience: provide insights about accuracy of score and looks also at the child’s behavior, identify highly intelligent and children with learning problems Is this the best way to test intelligence? No, not all types of intelligence are measured on current tests What type of intelligence is typically tested with standardized tests? General intelligence and reasoning ability
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