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Physical Geography Final Exam Study Guide

by: Megan Hanson

Physical Geography Final Exam Study Guide GEOG 1414

Marketplace > University of Minnesota Duluth > Geography > GEOG 1414 > Physical Geography Final Exam Study Guide
Megan Hanson

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About this Document

The study guide for the final exam
Physical Geography
Tongxin Zhu
Study Guide
Physical, geography, GEOG, 1414, study, guide, final, exam
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Megan Hanson on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1414 at University of Minnesota Duluth taught by Tongxin Zhu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Physical Geography in Geography at University of Minnesota Duluth.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Review Introduction Study objectives of physical geography—four spheres   Chapter 1: Earth and Sun Prime meridian and meridian Equinox Subsolar point The tilt of the earth’s axis The circle of illumination Solstice  Time zone International date line Aphelion, perihelion, astronomic unit Leap year Three types of scales Projection, mercator projection, polar projection, gordee projection Chapter 2 Solar energy Relation between the waves of radiation and the temperature of objects Factor affecting daily insolation the largest variation in solar insolation How does daily insolation change with latitudes ? Convection, conduction, latent heat, sensible heat How energy transfer from low to high latitudes Albedo Chapter 3 Air temperature Daily average temperature, monthly mean temperature, mean annual temperature, annual  temperature ranges What difference in daily temperature changes between maritime location and inland  locations Thermal difference between water and land temperature inversion  urban heat islands chapter 4.Atmospheric moisture and precipitation global hydrological cycle Humidity and relative humidity and how they change during daytime and nighttime  the environmental lapse rate, adiabatic processes. dry and wet adiabetic lapse rates ? dew point temperature ? energy exchanges within three phases of water types of fogs and precipitation Chapter 5. winds and global circulation High pressure, low pressure, trough, ridge Coriolis effect Pressure gradients Factors affecting wind directions Global wind and pressure patterns Sea and land breezes Mountain and valley breezes Chapter 6 Weather systems Air masses Types of air masses, code, source regions, properties Midlatitude cyclone and anticyclone Hurricanes: formation conditions, characteristics Fronts: cold and warm fronts, occluded fronts Chapter 7 global climates Criteria for Koppen classification Climograph Evaporation and potential evaporation, transpiration, evaportranspiration Six categories and code Major types of climates and their typical climate features. Chapter 8. Net primary production, net secondary production Energy transfer efficiency (how to calculate) Primary producer, consumers, carnivores, herbivores, omnivores, decomposers Photosynthesis, respiration, succession Chpt. 9 terrestrial ecosystems­biomes What are the major terrestrial patterns ? what are the major features for them ? Chapt. 10 Soils Parent materials, litter, humus, soil horizons,  Illuviation, eluviation, translocation, transformation, leaching Soil profiles, soil texture, cations, bases, soluability Five soil formation factors 12 soil orders Each of them: main soil formation processes and factors, soil profiles Chapter 11. earth structure and materials Layered structure: core, mantle, crust Inner core, outer core, Asthenosphere, mesosphere, lithosphere Continental crust, oceanic crust What difference between continental crust and oceanic crust ? What is lithosphere ? There types of rocks Law of superposition Metamorphic rocks Chapt. 12 &13. plate tectonics/earthquakes/volcanoes What is the continental drift theory ? What kind evidence support the tectonic theory ? What types of boundaries exist between plates ?  What is the spreading center ? How plate tectonic theory explain the global distribution of earthquakes ? Types of faults Volcanoes distribution, types of volcanoes? Chapter 14. Weathering and mass wasting. What are physical and chemical weatherings? What could cause physical weathering ? freezing­thaw action, exfoliation, temperature  changes, plant root growth ? What chemical weathering include ? hydrolysis, oxidation and carbonation ? How mass wasting is classified ? what are the major mass wasting types? Soil creep, solifluction, earth flow, falls, slides, mudflow/debris flows, talus ch.17 Landforms creating by surface running water Drainage basin ? drainage divide Stream order ? who proposed this concept ? how to divide stream orders in a given  drainage basin ? What is drainage density ?  major types of drainage patterns in the natural world  What causes streamflow erosion ? What streamflow transport load include ?  bed load, dissolved load, suspended load Streamflow transport capacity  How the flow velocities distribute in a cross section profile ? flow discharge What is nickpoint ? how it move over time ? What are meandering and braided channels ? What are flood plains and alluvial terraces What is river delta ? how about Mississippi, Amazon and Columbia ? Ch. 19. Glacial landforms and processes Glacial landforms What causes glacier flow ?  What is the net balance of a glacier ?  Erosion, transport, deposition What are the landscapes developed by glaciation? kettle arête,horn moraine types esker alpine glacial modifying topographic features outwash abration, plucking hanging valley relation between ice sheet and sea level


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