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MGT2200 final

by: Sonita Hong

MGT2200 final 2200

Sonita Hong
Georgia Tech
GPA 3.2

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About this Document

cover all the questions in the study guide from professor Cummins.
Intro to Management Information Systems
michael cummins
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sonita Hong on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2200 at Georgia Institute of Technology taught by michael cummins in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Intro to Management Information Systems in Business, management at Georgia Institute of Technology.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
Ch11, 12, 13 and Data analytics IT Final exam review  3 approaches to system design and development (custom design, selection &  purchase, end­user development)  1. Custom design and development: a. Software expressly made to fit the unique needs of the org 2. System selection and acquisition: a. Off­the­shelf application that is mass produced by a vendor 3. End­user development a. Software application that is created by end users, not the firm’s IS professionals. System development methods: System development life cycle  Concept and Characteristics: o Structured method to design and develop information systems o Detailed justification and planning will reduce risk and uncertainty o Involvement from end­users and functional managers is critical o Requires considerable time up­front to analyze requirements o Changes must be kept to a minimum after the project has started Principal Phases of the SDLC:  Definition o Investigation o Feasibility Analysis o System Analysis  Build o System Design o Programming o Testing  Implementation o Installation o Operations o Maintenance Advantages of SDLC approach:  Provides a systematic approach to software development  Identifies roles and expectations of team members  Best­suited for large­scale projects  Designed for cost and time­line control  Enforces communication between the project team and the stakeholders  Prototyping: o Embodiment of an idea o Working model to test and refine a concept  o Experimentation o Can be as simple as: ­ array of post­it­note, ­ Skit to act out service  experience Advantages:  Speed  Closer to the users expectations  Enables the firm to experiment with new technologies  Smaller­ scale projects End­User Development Advantages:                               Disadvantages: ­ Increase speed of development          ­ Unreliable Quality(cus of limited      ­ End­users satisfaction            skill&knowledge of most end­users) ­ Reduced pressure on the IS Function                ­ High Incidence of Errors (focus on                                                                               outcome increase the likelihood of ­                                                                              errors                                                                            ­ Continuity Risks Case: Project Management at MM Ch12 Information System Trends The Mobile Platform Characteristics: ­ Ubiquity (anytime, anywhere) ­ Identifiability (Mobile devices uniquely identify the user) ­ Context Awareness (Enable by location services, GPS..) Green IS and IT ­ Environmental sustainability: o Conservation of the natural environment and managing sustainability of its resources ­ Green IT o Focus on reducing energy consumption of IT devices and data centers ­ Green IS o Focus on the role of IT on minimizing adverse impacts on environmental  sustainability Open source software Open source Characteristics: ­ Free (no software license fee) ­ Source code available ­ No vendors switching costs ­ Example: t­square, android mobile OS Close source characteristics: ­ Proprietary software (Not free, controlled by a firm) ­ Prevent users from accessing and modifying the source code ­ Example: Microsoft Windows, Iphone OS Models of Open Source ­ Sponsored Open Source: o Foundations provide support and coordination to open source efforts ­ Open Source Service: o Free licensing of the software, but charges for installation, support,  training, and other services ­ Professional Open Source: o A software company maintains tight control over the software programs  that they sell. Advantages of Open Source ­ Robustness : stronger and more reliable than proprietary applications ­ Creativity: Harnesses the ability of thousands of developers ­ Limited lock­in : Switching costs are lower than those with proprietary software ­ Free License: Open source can generally be used for free Disadvantages ­ Unpredictable cost ( total cost of ownership not apparent upfront) ­ Support varies greatly ­ Software development skills needed ­ Security: open source code give advantage to those who want to break its security  since the code is available  ­ Compatibility ( there is no guaranteed compatibility with other software) Software as a service (SaaS) ­ Focus on providing a service o Functionality of the underlying software o Rent capabilities rather than buy software ­ Application Service Provision (ASP) o A provider hosts and manages a software application (Microsoft  Word) o Clients access the application over a network  Triplt Case  Competing on Data Analysis Data Analysis:  Theorize and hypothesize  Identify trends and relationships  Experiment and test  Provide insight to improve the model Competing on analytics   Sophisticated IS and rigorous analysis applied across all company functions  Primary focus is development and maintenance of analytical capability  Fact­based decisions become an integral part of the company culture  Hiring ppl with the very best analytical skills  Invent proprietary metrics for evaluating key business processes  Share data and analysis with customers and suppliers  Conduct numerous small experiments in a “test and learn” environment  Ultimate goal: “ predictive analytics” Management 1.0 (Instinct) Management 2.0 (competing on Analytics)  “Gut feel” decisions  Data­driven decisions  Good managers are born, not made  Eliminate guess­work &“gut feel”  depends strictly on scarce management   Better, more consistence performance talent  Replace “star” system with avg talent   Strict org hierarchy rules performing at extraordinary levels  Poster child : Coca Cola  Google Prime supermarket Mission and strategy  “ to be a leader in the distribution and merchandising of food, health, personal care  and related consumable products and services” Prime’s competitive positioning: ­ Differentiation (better variety, customer service, everyday low prices) ­ Target market (food and pharmacy consumer, woman aged 25­54) ­ Primary category rule (juice & Drinks) o Profit contributor Decision support system design principles  (DSS) ­ An interactive software­based system that utilizes data and business models to  identify and solve problems and make decisions. DSS Components ­ Database ­ Decision models ­ Interactive, analytical process   DSS Design Principles: ­ Reliability : output correct and consistent ­ Auditability: user able to trace steps to generate output ­ Modifiability: capable of easy modification ­ Elegant Simplicity:  o Not clever complexity o Appropriate degree of automation o Appropriate calculation/processing method Structure process Vs. Ad Hoc  o ­ Ad Hoc approach :  ­ Structure Process (SDLC) appropriate: o Simple model Complex model and system o Few deliverables Many deliverable o Small data set Large data set o Builder is the user Builder is not the user DSS Design Process (3steps) 1. Output forms 2. Model 3. Data for analysis (input) Database Core element of a database:  Table: entity  Columns: fields, entity attributes  Rows: records. Database design goals  Minimize redundancy o Duplicate info wastes space o Increases the likelihood of errors and inconsistencies (difficult to modify) Efficiency  o Storage and retrieval o Update and modify info Ensure correct and complete info Standard interface for easy access Database Design Principles o Normalization o Info divided into subject­based tables o Each table must have a primary key (unique identifier for each row,  must uniquely determine value for each column) o Foreign key= fields added to virtually link tables o Bridging Tables may be added to minimize data redundancy Query: method for retrieving specified data from a database SQL = structured query language QBE= drag and drop and management principles  Database terminology   Modern retail environment   General features and advantages of pivot table tool in EXCEL   Growth and market share concepts   Variety / product mix concepts   IT risk management (risk assessment, risk mitigation) o The process of identifying and measuring information systems  security risks o Objective: to devise the optimal risk mitigation strategy  Security o The set of defenses put in place to counter threats to technology  infrastructure and data resources  Security an IT Problem? o Security is a negative deliverable  Produces no revenues   Reduces the likelihood of a “negative” event o Security is difficult to fund  IT departments have limited budgets o The Trade­off  More security vs higher risks o Security should be a management priority, not simply an IT problem 97% of companies experiences a security breach, avg time from security breach  until discovery = 229 days Three Risk Mitigation strategies: 1. Risk Acceptance 2. Risk Reduction 3. Risk Transference  Internal Threats  Intentional Malicious Behaviour (associated with unscrupulous employees)  Careless Behavior (Ignorance or disinterest in security problems) ex: post­it­note  on pc monitor with password..   Security threats and Security threat reposnses  Privacy : ability of individuals to control the terms and conditions under which  personal info is collected, managed and utilized Examples of security without sacrificing privacy (door locks, fences, firewalls) Ethics  Discipline that focuses on moral duty and obligation  Morality (right&wrong, Good&Evil)  The problem with ethical choices: o Rarely straightforward o Often involve sub­optimal alternatives (less of evils) 


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