Final Comm 214 Exam: Dr. Milner
Final Comm 214 Exam: Dr. Milner 214
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Catherine Scudder on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 214 at College of Charleston taught by Dr. Milner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Communications in Journalism and Mass Communications at College of Charleston.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 1 COMM 214: M EDIA IN THE D IGITAL A GE FINAL E XAM S TUDY G UIDE This guide is not meant to be comprehensive. You will be tested both over materials discussed in class and covered in the course texts. You should be able to provide a definition and explanation of the terms below. You should know the author associated with the terms below when relevant. All fillintheblank answers will be one of the key terms below. H ISTORY • Written Era: writing is a technology, one of our first; permanence of ideas, records of information. o Manuscript: books/documents written by hand rather than typed or printed In this stage, new rules about written language and book design were codified Books were elaborately lettered, decorated, and bound by hand Priests and monks throughout Europe transcribed religious texts into illuminated manuscripts o Codex: sheets of parchment sewn together along the edge and then bound and covered • Print Era: 1450’s. The era of our first mass media industry. allows written communication to be reproduced in more quantities more efficiently and sent out further. o The Printing Press: invented by Johannes Gutenberg in Germany. Drawing on principles of movable type, and adapting a device form the design of a wine press, his staff of printers produced the first socalled modern books Spread rapidly across Europe, increased literacy Many of these early books were large, elaborate, and expensive, but printers gradually reduced boo’ sizes and developed lessexpensive grades of paper Books were cheaper to produce. Printers could sell them for less, making the books affordable to many more people o Yellow Journalism: emphasized high interest stories, sensational crime news, large headlines and serious reports that exposed corruption or scandal, particularly in business and government. foundation for investigative journalism o Dime Novels/Pulp Fiction: cheaply produced and low priced novels, popular in the U.S. beginning in 1860. Pulp fiction was referred to the cheap, machinemade pulp paper they were printed on Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 2 • Broadcast (Electronic) Era: 19th early 20th century, media is presented in visual and audio form to a global audience; radios and television; instantaneous transmission, makes the world feel more secure and connected. o Phonograph: invented by Thomas Edison, machine that used foil cylinders to record as well as reproduce sound—patented as the answering machine derived from the Greek terms for “sound” and “writing” o Gramophone: a turntable machine that played flat disks or “records,” made from shellac developed by Emile Berliner The disks/records were easily massproduced making sound recording into a mass medium o Kinetoscope: film projection system invented by Thomas Edison that served as a kind of peep show in which viewers looked through a hole and saw images moving on a tiny plate. Derived from the Greek terms kineto ("movement") and scopos ("to view") o Vitascope: a largescreen movie projection system developed by Thomas Edison o Nickelodeons: the first small makeshift movie theaters, which were often converted sugar stores, pawnshops, or restaurants redecorated to mimic vaudeville theaters. Name combines the admission price (five cents) with the Greek word for “theater” Showed silent films that usually transcended language barriers + that provided workers and immigrants with an inexpensive escape from the challenges of urban life • Digital Era: early 21st century, came from developments in the late 20th century; phones and computers: email, text messaging, snap chat, youtube, Facebook, Instagram etc. the most instantaneous transmission to date; collapses space and time. o Digitalization: the translation of information in analog form to binary code o Hypertext: HTML (HyperText Markup Language); the written code that creates web pages and links; a language all computers can read. the system allowed computeraccessed information to associate with, or link to, other information on the Internet—no matter where it was located. INDUSTRY • Commercialism o 1934 Communications Act: created the FCC, gave them control of telephone services and the power to regulate communications and change policies based on technological advances • Conglomeration Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 3 o 1996 Telecommunications Act: deregulated the converging broadcasting and telecommunications markets, allowed for media crossownership o Oligopoly: an organizational structure in which a few firms control most of an industry's production and distribution resources Examples: Paramount, MGM, Warner Brothers, 20th Century Fox, and RKO. • Branding : for a company to differentiate their offerings and their company's image from those of their competitors; advertising tactic • Product Placement: strategically placing products in movies, tv shows, etc. so the products appear as part of the story's set environment; a casual form of advertising • Net Neutrality: principle that internet service providers should enable access to all content and applications regardless of the source, without favoring or blocking certain websites • Intellectual Property: stories, characters, personalities and music that require licensing agreements Ex: John Madden reportedly signed a $150 million deal with EA Sports that allowed the company to use his name and likeness for the next ten years o Copyright: the legal right of authors and producers to own and control the use of their published and unpublished writing, music, lyrics, TV, programs, movies, etc. Congress passed the first Copyright Act in 1970, which gave authors the right to control their published works for 14 years, with the opportunity to renew copyright protection for another 14 years. o Public Domain: the end of the copyright period for a cultural or scientific work, at which point the public may begin to access it for free. Ex: a publisher could reprint a written work that had entered the public domain Would give authors financial incentive to create original works and that moving works into the public domain would give others incentive to create works derived from earlier accomplishments L ITERACY • Multimodality: communication practices in terms of textural, aural, linguistic, spacial, and visual resources used to compose messages o Rivalry: competition between print an online media o Complementarity: different modes of communication compliment each other o Convergence: print and online (multiple modes of communication) converge and work together to provide information Ex: reading a book online, the Wall Street Journal's overlap with Fox Business News and the Washington Post's partnership with NBC. • Digital Divide: the socioeconomic disparity between those who do and do not have access to digital technology and media. Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 4 The contrast between the “information haves” (those who can afford to pay for Internet services and the “information havenots” (those who can’t)—particularly lowincome households A GENCY • Media Studies: o Social Scientific Approaches: attempts to understand, explain, and predict the impact or effects of mass media on individuals and society. o Humanities Approaches: interviews and face to face experiments, less scientific; how people make meaning and interpret experience through cultural symbols in media. H umans want to make meaning • Media Effects Perspectives (Media Content): o Direct vs. Minimal Effects (Shannon & Weaver): irect effect: mass media have significant, direct effect on audiences, changing and molding behaviors inimal Effects: mass media have limited effects on audiences, reinforcing existing behaviors and attitudes rather than changing them o Agenda Setting (McCombs & Shaw): a mediaresearch argument that says that when the mass media pay attention to particular events or issues, they determine—that is, set the agenda for—the major topics of discussion for individuals and society. remise : “Media do not tell us what to think, but rather what to think about” • Framing theory: media focuses attention on certain events and then places them within a field of meaning (McCombs & Bell) vidence : Mass media have not been proven effective in determining how audiences will accept opinions and point of view in media reports. But mass media are effective in determining what audiences see as newsworthy. By the issues they cover, media can legitimize a story or marginalize either the entire story or certain aspects of it. Ex : In political campaigns, the media may not be effective in swaying public support toward or against a particular issue or candidate. But by continually raising particular questions and issues, or simply by showing an interest in a particular political candidate or issue, the media can lead the discussion toward or away from issues important to the candidate and even to the public (as identified through polls). o Cultivation (Gerbner & Gross): theory which states that high frequency viewers of television are more susceptible to media messages and the belief that they are real and valid; the idea that heavy television viewing leads individuals to perceive reality in ways that are consistent with portrayals they see on TV. “Shared way of viewing the world" Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 5 Began research in the mid1960 ’s on whether watching television influences the audiences idea and perception of everyday life and if so, how. Heavy viewers are exposed to more violence and therefore are affected by the Mean World Syndrome, the belief that the world is a far worse and dangerous place then it actually is. Posits that television viewing can have longterm effects that gradually affect the audience; television + media possess a small but significant influence on the attitudes and beliefs of society about society. Suggests that this cultivation of attitudes is based on attitudes already present in our society and that the media take those attitudes which are already present and represent them bundled in a different packaging to their audiences Conclusion didn ’t deem completely true o Hegemony (Gramsci, Herkherimer & Adorno): the acceptance of the dominant values in a culture by those who are subordinate to those who hold economic and political power. “Power wielded through ideology” Croteau, Hoynes & Milan: Ideology : media’s promotion to the “powerful” worldview; Instead of assessing the images and making some judgment about levels of realness, ideological analysis asks what these messages tell us about ourselves and our society. Normalization : media texts can be seen as key sites where basic social norms are articulated ; have the ability to deviate what is “normal” and “abnormal”; contribute to the ways we understand the roles of these groups in society; This articulation is accomplished, in large part, by the fact that popular media, particularly television and mass advertising, have a tendency to display a remarkably narrow range of behaviors and lifestyles, marginalizing or neglecting people who are “different” from the mass mediated norm False Consciousness : Marxist idea; media influences our actions without our knowledge, they convey images that engrave in our thinking processes. Ideology was seen as a powerful mechanism of social control whereby members of the ruling class imposed their worldview, which represented their interests, on members of subordinate classes. In such a system, the subordinate classes who accepted the basic ideology of the ruling class were said to have false consciousness because their worldview served the interests of others.ideology was understood to involve having ideas that were “false” because they did not match one’s objective class interests Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 6 Cultural Contradictions : media are in the center of “culture wars” in contemporary American society, in which fundamental issues of morality are being fought; provide the principal forms of public discourse by which cultural warfare is waged. o Uses and Gratifications (Katz & Blumler): people use the media to satisfy various emotional desires or intellectual needs. “Social and psychological pleasures” Instead of asking, “what effects do media have on us?” they ask, “why do we use media?” It addresses the functions of media rather than the impact Ex: listen to a playlist of depressing songs on Spotify when you ’re sad, chat with longdistance friends on FB to keep in touch, watch Netflix when you’re bored • : Technological Influence Perspectives (Media Form) Postmes & Baym: o Technological Determinism: tools of communication are active powers that change humans as we have little power to resist how they influence us. o Social Construction of Technology: people are primary sources of change in technology, we shape technology. Technology changes based on our needs o Utopianism: technology is a great thing! we’re more connected, information at our fingertips on a local to global scale Baym asked her students what they hoped for the internet: “might facilitate new connections, crosscultural integration, social support, and tighter family ties” o Dystopianism: technology is a bad thing! disconnected from society, less face to face interactions, less civic engagement, etc. Baym asked her students what they feared for the internet: “losing facetoface interaction as well as the rise of false relationships, deception, and stalking.” o Moral Panic: intense fear/anxiety that society will fall at the hands of technology; our society is losing its moral values, a degradation/crumbling of society. the panic is usually bigger than the empirical understanding Addiction : Danah Boyd definition—passing reference to their online activities, media coverage of teens’ use of social media amplifies the notion that the current generation of youth is uncontrollably hooked on these new technologies and unable to control their lives. Danah Boyd • Being “addicted” to information and people is part of the human condition: it arises from a healthy desire to be aware of surroundings and to connect to society. When teens engage with networked media, they’re trying to take control of their lives and their relationship to society. They learn about the social world and they develop social skills. Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 7 Sherry Turkle • We are always connected to our phones even if it is just in our pocket, its always in the back of our mind • Digital media captures our focus and attention to the point that we use it as a way to escape whether it be from selfreflection or deep personal relationships • Between embodied interaction and mediated interaction, the downsides of dividing our attention are the sense of loss and lack of empathy and intimacy that occurs Narcissism : excessive or erotic interest in oneself and one's physical appearance. • G eoff Nunberg: The word “selfie” comes from the word selfportrait where the intentions for such as unknown but could be related to selfesteem, selfregard, from selfawareness to selfabsorption. The massive amount of conversation over the topic has ultimately labeled the word “selfie” as narcissistic. • Narcissism view in gaming: similar to selfie —isolation, distraction, addiction, immersion. Also gamers become quite competitive and try to beat everyone in gaming, constantly trying to be the best and get to the highest levels Anonymity : the condition of being anonymous in the media, gives users the ability to do/say whatever they want behind closed doors. When they know they won’t be seen, people aren’t afraid to speak out, becomes a source for breaking news, generates unbiased advice/opinion, provides entertainment via gossip and humor. • Dystopian view: Can be harmful in that it has potential to ruin lives (nasty comments to other individuals/cyberbullying), potential for slander and abusive posts, and violence. • Utopian view: Offers a way to help people in need, encourages meaningful dialogue, becomes a source for breaking news, generates unbiased advice/opinion, provides entertainment via gossip and humor. o Domestication: over time people have stopped questioning individual technology becoming takenforgranted parts of everyday life and no longer seen as agents for change. As humans, we adapt and essentially become far too comfortable and familiar with aspects in life that at most times we forget how important they really are, that without them we could potentially suffer or even could not survive without such. “ Marvelous to Invisible” o Social Shaping: argues that technology and society are continually influencing one another. We put in what we put out. Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 8 C ULTURE • Popular Culture: associated with ‘low culture’, tastes of the masses, commercial junk circulated by mass media. • Consensus Narratives: cultural products that become popular and command wide attention, providing a shared cultural experience. • Participatory Media (Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green): people who consume and produce media resulting in meaningful participation in the media o Produsage: user lead content creation—creates complications in the divide bc its hard to decide who created it when theres two involved, the consumers are helping produce it— making it something the producers couldn’t do as well on their own. o Audiences vs. Publics Audiences : less interactive. a group of people who receive information from media but do not take action towards the information they receive. Little to no engagement in media. This group of people are stilled considered meaningful participants nonetheless. Publics: more interactive. a group of people who participates more actively than an audience. They choose to take action based off of the information they receive, they pay attention to a particular area of interest or product etc. Abundance of engagement in media. This group of people are considered the ultimate meaningful participants. o Collective Intelligence: universally distributed intelligence; get from distributed networks; constantly enhanced; coordinated in real time; depends on effective mobilization of skills—work together to build something/engage in information/always adding to the conversation. Ex: Wikipedia, Google, video game tips and cheats shared online Comm 214 Milner Spring 2016 9 • Civic Engagement (Robert Putnam): individual and collective actions designed to identify and address issues of public concern; making a beneficial difference in the community from individual volunteerism to organizational involvement to electoral participation. • Media Networks o Centralized: lead all paths to a single nerve center “one to one” Ex: email, phones, IM o Decentralized: contain several main nerve centers “one to many” Ex: broadcast era, radio, TV o Distributed: resemble a net, no nerve centers, if any connection is severed information can be immediately rerouted and delivered to its destination. “many to many” Ex: ARPNET (first distributed network), social media networks like Facebook/Twitter/Instagram
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