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Study guide for Final

by: S_Johnson210

Study guide for Final ccj4497-0001

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Notes that will be covered on the final thought it would be helpful. exclusions the reading material
Criminal justice and policy
Study Guide
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by S_Johnson210 on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ccj4497-0001 at Florida State University taught by Clark in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
Criminal Justice & Policy Final Review Need & Theory Evaluations   What is the Silver Bullet Solutions? Silver bullet means something that will  very easily and quickly solve a serious problem. What is Size, location, trends, cause of problems? When you define a social  problem you consider these. What is Causal relationships? Linear / & Nonlinear How would you define crime? You must look at crime and the criminal justice  system What are the Outcomes? Longterm. The ultimate changes thought to result  from the outputs and/or the shortterm or immediateterm outcomes.  What does needs evaluations do?   Help to identify whether a problem exists and, in turn, whether and what  type of a policy response is indicated.  Provide guidance on prioritizing different problems.  Point to research gaps that must be addressed before it can be determined that a policy response merits implementation  Highlight the dimensions relevant to assessing success  Clarify policy decisions What are Outputs? The actions, products, or services that define the policy What are the Stages of conducting a needs evaluation?  Are existing efforts insufficient to address some social problem?  Are existing efforts not only insufficient but also amenable to correction?  In comparison to existing efforts, is a proposed or newly implanted policy a  needed substitute or supplement What does a policy theory evaluation consists of? It consists of helping to  explain how some specific policyrelated activities or services are expected to  cause some intended outcome. Its main task is to describe nature and character  of the policy, including its essential activities and how these activities should lead to come outcome. What are the conditioning factors? Characteristics of the policy environment –  the policy (or target groups or areas) that directly, indirectly, or in interaction with  other factors, affect activities, outputs or outcomes.  What is the Service utilization plans? Involves reference to such dimensions  as how frequently clients will be contacted or treated, the duration of participation in or exposure to the policy, and the protocols that must be followed in executing  different activities or providing certain services. What is the Purpose of needs evaluations? To determine if there is a need for  a policy. Why needs evaluations are important?   Identify if a problem exists  Determine if a policy should be retained  Type of policy response that should be considered Implementation Evaluations • Goals: “The basic goal consists of documenting whether a policy delivers  the appropriate amount and types of operations, decisions, services, and  activities to intended targets in a high­quality manner. What are the types of implementation Evaluations and what they mean/do?  There are currently 5 types of implementation evaluations: – Formative evaluations refer to the use of evaluation to improve a  program during the development phase – Process evaluations examine how well the services delivered match  those that were planned – Descriptive evaluations provide extensive details about programs so  their implementation can be compared across sites or replicated  elsewhere – Performance monitoring evaluations connotes an ongoing system of  measurement and feedback of program operations and results – Implementation analysis examines what happened to a policy after it  has been formulated and during its implementation in real­world  settings What policy monitoring is important? “It consists of monitoring measures of program, agency, or system  performance at regular time intervals and reports them to managers and other  specified audiences on a regular basis” what is the purpose? “Implementation, or” process,” evaluations examine the  activities associated with specific policies and practices and the extent to which the amount and quality of implementation accords with the ideals set forth in  protocols, standards, or policy descriptions. What are the formative and summative evaluations? – They can help improve policy design and implementation (formative  evaluation) – They can facilitate performance­monitoring efforts and help to hold  organizations and agencies accountable (summative evaluation) What is the dimensions of Focus? • Delivery of services or activities – Considers whether the services or activities associated with a policy  reach or are accessed or used by the intended target population – Services and activities can include treatment, training, crime­ prevention activities, arrests, sanctions, and community supervision • Operations – The mode and quality of service delivery and of the activities  undertaken Outcome/Impact Evaluations • What does outcome evaluations do? An outcome evaluation establishes  whether a policy is associated with some intended outcome or set of  outcomes – Identify the types, levels, or changes in an outcome or set of outcomes and their association with some policy – Do not allow us to make causal claims • Provides the initial groundwork for making causal claims, but provides little  to no comparative framework for establishing causality What is the difference between an outcome and an output? • Outcomes are the state of the target population or the social conditions that a policy is expected to have changed • Outputs are the services or activities undertaken by a policy • What does impact evaluations do? An impact evaluation determines  whether an association is causal – They establish whether a policy not only is associated with outcomes  but also whether it actually produces or causes them – Attempts to determine what would have happened if a policy had not  been implemented (the counterfactual) • Researchers traditionally use statistical matching techniques  (such as propensity score matching) in order to estimate the  counterfactual What is the components of service quality? Allows us to consider a broader  spectrum of criminal justice outcomes – Can be considered an intermediate outcome used to hold agencies  accountable – Examples include: • Timeliness of service provision; Accuracy of assistance or  information; Courteousness of service delivery; Condition and  safety of facilities; Customer satisfaction • Why are outcome and impact evaluations important? Outcome and  impact evaluations can help to draw attention to and clarify the ultimate  goals of a policy, and, by extension, the relevant criteria for judging policy  performance • Outcome evaluations can provide a relatively inexpensive platform from  which to improve policy performance – by themselves, however, they can’t tell is if a policy caused an  outcome  • Impact evaluations provide information about policy effectiveness and, in  turn, can contribute to debates about which policies merit greater support  and which do not • Outcome and impact evaluations help to ensure that scarce resources are  allocated to policies with the best chances for producing returns – Increase the accountability, effectiveness, and efficiency of the  criminal justice system What is Counterfactual? And why does it matter when we are doing impact  evaluations? Attempts to determine what would have happened if a policy had not been implemented (the counterfactual) - Researchers traditionally use statistical matching techniques (such as  propensity score matching) in order to estimate the counterfactual Cost­Efficiency evaluations What does cost­efficiency evaluations allow us to do? Allows us to assess our  returns on criminal justice policy investments What are the types of cost­efficiency evaluations? the types of cost­efficiency  evaluations are cost­effectiveness analysis, which is used to determine which of  several approaches is best for achieving a given outcome… and cost­benefit  analysis that is used to determine which of several approaches that target  qualitatively different outcomes creates the most benefit relative to costs.  What does cost­efficiency evaluations tell us about policies? Highlight whether  a policy’s impact justifies the expense required to produce it • Inform and complement deliberations about whether policies should be  implemented, continued, expanded, or terminated • Are central to creating a more accountable and effective criminal justice  system What are cost­effectiveness evaluations used for? To identify the cost per  outcome also, to determine which of several approaches is best for achieving a  given outcome What are cost­benefit evaluations used for? To identify in monetary terms,  policy costs and benefits and also to determine which of several approaches that  target qualitatively different outcomes creates the most benefit relative to the cost What are the steps of conducting a cost­benefit analysis? • State the policy question – Should be derived from a needs evaluation,  which will provide context for describing the specific problems and possible  solutions • Identify the perspective of analysis – Different perspectives will produce  different classifications of outcomes as costs or benefits • Identify costs and benefits – Involves the cataloguing of any cost and/or  benefit related to the policy of interest – Can include: direct and indirect, tangible and intangible, fixed and  marginal, and opportunity costs • Assign values – Assigning monetary values to all identified costs and  benefits • Compare costs vs. benefits of one or more policies – Summing all  (monetized) costs and benefits then creating a bottom­line assessment • Assess sensitivity and articulate limitations – Cost­benefit estimates may be  incorrect or sensitive to minor changes in assumptions about costs and  benefits What are the limitations of cost­efficiency and cost­benefit analyses? Most are  subject to the “house of cards” criticism – They build on a wide range of implausible or untested assumptions,  unreasonable time frames or discount rates, or incorrect cost and  benefit estimates • “Garbage in, garbage out” – Can include failure to account for selection bias and failure to identify unintended effects • Intangible costs and benefits Why are sensitivity analyses important? Allows us to determine how much  efficiency estimates will change based on different assumptions, such as the  expected or estimated values of cost and benefits. Gender­Based programming In what ways do female offending differ from male offending? Female  offenders are less likely to have committed violent offenses and more likely to  have been convicted of crimes involving alcohol, other drugs, or property – In a study of California inmates, 72% of women had been convicted  on a drug or property charge, versus 50% of men How feminist theories of crime are different from “traditional” theories?  Theories are traditionally focused on male offending behaviors • Feminist theories suggest that the focus of gender goes beyond simply  adding another variable to the study of female crime – Examine female criminality as a reflection of the situations of women  and girls in relation to offending – Examine female offending as a reflection of the situations of women’s and girls’ lives and their attempts to survive What are the principles of gender­specific programming? Five fundamental  principles for effective gender­specific programming:  – Empowering women,  – Providing meaningful choices in programs and community facilities,  – Treating women with respect and dignity,  – Providing a physically safe and supportive environment, and  – Sharing responsibility among both correctional staff and members of  the community (Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women, 1990)  What are the female pathways to crime? Daly (1992) found five female  pathways to crime: – The street woman­severely abused; lives on the street; crimes may  involve prostitution, drug sale or use, property crimes – The harmed­and­harming woman­ serious childhood abuse (physical  or sexual); responds with anger and violence – The battered woman­usually a first time offender; response to intimate partner violence or abuse – The drug­connected woman­usually a first time offender ising or  selling drugs as a result of relationships with others intimate partner  family members children, etc.) – The economically motivated woman­ poor women who offend for  survival and women who commit crimes because of greed/social  aspiration Empirical evidence regarding gender­specific programming? A 2013 report by  the National Institute of Corrections outlines the (limited) research on various  gender­specific programs: – Moving On – teaches women to access and mobilize varied  community resources. Consistent with the emerging profiles of  women offenders, it also works with women to enhance strengths,  build healthy relationships, and target self­defeating thoughts.  • A 2010 study in Iowa and found significant reductions in  recidivism – Helping Women Recover and Beyond Trauma – substance abuse  treatment programs that combine addiction, mental health, and trauma recovery treatment.  • A 2010 study found that both programs significantly lowered  return to prison rates for women (compared to a standard  therapeutic program), and also had positive effects on  psychological well­being – Seeking Safety – cognitive behavioral therapy program for co­ occurring disorders (mental health, trauma, and/or substance abuse).  • Numerous studies have found reductions in suicide attempts  and drug use and improvements in treatment retention, mental  health, and PTSD symptoms (no specific recidivism­related  outcomes have been studied) Drug Courts • What is the history/development/scope of drug courts? Response to  rising arrests for drugs during late 1980s and early 1990s – Crack “epidemic” – First drug court was in Miami in 1989 • During the 1990s drug courts emerged as an alternative to incarceration for  drug offenders – Expansion was the result of judicially­led nationwide grassroots  efforts – Judicially­led nationwide grassroots efforts • Drug Courts Program Office established to develop more drug courts – As of 2014 there are over 3,400 drug treatment courts in the US • Drug Courts are widely applied to adult criminal cases, juvenile delinquency and truancy cases, and family court cases involving parents at risk of losing  custody of their children due to substance abuse What is the causal process model? What are the Unintended consequences?   Drug courts are too limited in scope and duration and thus cannot create a  significant impact on the drug­crime problem o Generally programs are too short and limited to low­risk offenders • Sanctions don’t help drug addicted populations because addiction  compromises their ability to respond to choices in a rational manner – If drug use is not the sole or primary cause of crime in drug addicts,  curbing drug usage will not necessarily reduce crime among addicts What types of offenders would not be eligible to participate in a drug court? – No violent or sexual offenders – Offenders charged with felonies for selling drugs are ineligible Empirical Evidence on effectiveness of drug courts, also what role the risk­ needs­responsivity principles play? Individuals who participated in drug court  were 11% less likely to recidivate than those that did not participate – Treatment quality matters Adherence to none, one, or two of the Risk­Needs­Responsivity principles  corresponded to a 5%, 11%, and 31% reduction in recidivism, respectively What are problems with implementing drug courts? – Varied theoretical framework and designs – Multiple strategies and services – Collaboration and cooperation with diverse parties – Investments that may not be adequately sustained over time • Without successful implementation of a program it is difficult for  researchers to accurately determine the outcomes and impacts of the  program Community Policing What is the history/Development of community policing? Community policing  developed out of two major forces during the 1960’s and 1970’s:  – Concerns about rising crime rates – The national Civil Rights movement What are the Social/technological changes that influenced the social  distancing of police from communities?  Social distancing: – Reform era in government and nationwide move towards  professionalization resulted in the separation of police from the  community – Expanding role of automobiles – Random patrolling Technological developments: – 911 telephone systems • The prevailing ideology was that the professional knew best and community  involvement in crime control was seen as unnecessary What is the Kansas city prevention patrol study? Found that decreasing or  increasing routine preventative patrol within the range tested had no effect on  crime, citizen fear, community attitudes toward police, response time, or accidents Community­and problem­oriented policing models? Community policing  promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of  partnerships and problem­solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and  fear of crime. Findings from Newark Foot patrol study? Police could develop more positive  attitudes toward community members and could promote positive attitudes toward  police if they spent time on foot in their neighborhoods Community corrections Definitions of Probation vs. Parole?   Probation: is a court­ordered period of correctional supervision in the  community, generally as an alternative to incarceration. In some cases,  probation can be a combined sentence of incarceration followed by a period  of community supervision.   Parole: is a period of conditional supervised release in the community  following a prison term. It includes parolees released through discretionary  or mandatory supervised release from prison, those released through other  types of post­custody conditional supervision, and those sentenced to a term  of supervised release. What is the churning effect? The process of “churning” describes the experience  of offenders who are committed to prison, released on parole, returned to prison for either a technical violation of parole or for a new crime, and subsequently re­ released from prison on the original sentence.  • Churning is a function both of technical violations and new crimes  committed by ex­offenders What are the types of supervision in Florida?  Court Imposed  Pre­Trial Intervention  Felony Probation  Drug Offender PTI  Drug Offender Probation Post­Prison Release  Sex Offender Probation – Parole  Community Control – Conditional Release Contractual Agreement – Addiction Recovery What works in community corrections? • Redefinition of agency goals and officers’ roles – Correctional agencies need to shift to a mission of producing public  safety through the success of supervisees   • Graduated responses and incentives – Providing a continuum of responses that includes both programming  interventions and sanctions (such as an official reprimand from a  senior supervising officer, more frequent reporting, a new curfew, or  time­limited travel restrictions) gives officers the tools to respond to  every violation while allowing them to continue interacting and  working with their supervisees through difficult periods  • Risk and Needs assessment tools: Risk assessment instruments measure the  probability that a person will reoffend if or when released into the  community. Needs assessments identify a person’s criminogenic needs, such as education, mental health counseling, or positive social peers.  – Supervision based on level of Risk ­ The greatest return on corrections spending can be realized by supervising moderate­to­high­risk  offenders more intensively – Supervision tied to Needs ­ Unless officers understand the reasons  why a parolee cannot maintain stable housing or keep a job, they  cannot help change the situation What works in Florida?  • Non­Secure Substance Abuse Treatment Programs – Over 92.2% of successful program completers are not recommitted to  prison or supervision during their first year after completion • Secure Substance Abuse Treatment Programs – Lower success rates than non­secure substance abuse treatment  programs, likely due to high risk offenders • Probation and Restitution Centers – Moderately successful; 86.9% of successful completers have no  recommitment to state prison • Jail Incarceration Programs – Least successful program; 45.2% of successful completers are  recommitted to prison or supervision What doesn’t work in community corrections?  • Large caseloads – 1970s: Parole officers supervised 45 parolees – 2003: Parole officers supervised 70 parolees  • Probation officers supervised 130 probationers  • “One­size­fits­all” conditions – Standardized conditions apply to everyone, regardless of offense or  perceived need; some conditions may be imposed that research has  demonstrated are more harmful than helpful • Lack of differentiation in case supervision – Decades of research confirm that overly supervising (by number of  contacts, over­programming, or imposing unnecessary restrictions)  low­risk probationers and parolees is likely to produce worse  outcomes than essentially leaving them alone • Use of incarceration as a primary sanction – In many cases, a return to jail or prison is unnecessary to protect  public safety and may make things worse as serving time in prison has been shown to increase the risk of future offending, not to decrease it Effectiveness of community supervision in Florida, Generally and FSU study  on post­prison supervision? • Florida: – Generally, having supervision to follow a term of incarceration is a  strong predictor of future re­imprisonment for both male and female  inmates – The type and length of time on post­release supervision matter in  predicting success after prison release FSU­FL Dept. of Corrections study Findings: • Split probation and community control are significantly better than no  supervision • Offenders were approximately 25­30% less likely to be arrested or convicted of a new felony • However, they were 3 times more likely to be returned to prison • Offenders were 24% more likely to be employed after release • Conditional release supervision had mixed results relative to no supervision • Offenders were between 20­26% less likely to be arrested or convicted of a  new felony • However, they were also 3 times more likely to be returned to prison • Offenders were about 20% less likely to be employed after release Theoretical Foundations of community corrections?  • Retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation The “Typical” offender on community supervision in Florida? White male age 25­49


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