Study guide for Final
Study guide for Final ccj4497-0001
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by S_Johnson210 on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ccj4497-0001 at Florida State University taught by Clark in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Criminal Justice & Policy Final Review Need & Theory Evaluations What is the Silver Bullet Solutions? Silver bullet means something that will very easily and quickly solve a serious problem. What is Size, location, trends, cause of problems? When you define a social problem you consider these. What is Causal relationships? Linear / & Nonlinear How would you define crime? You must look at crime and the criminal justice system What are the Outcomes? Longterm. The ultimate changes thought to result from the outputs and/or the shortterm or immediateterm outcomes. What does needs evaluations do? Help to identify whether a problem exists and, in turn, whether and what type of a policy response is indicated. Provide guidance on prioritizing different problems. Point to research gaps that must be addressed before it can be determined that a policy response merits implementation Highlight the dimensions relevant to assessing success Clarify policy decisions What are Outputs? The actions, products, or services that define the policy What are the Stages of conducting a needs evaluation? Are existing efforts insufficient to address some social problem? Are existing efforts not only insufficient but also amenable to correction? In comparison to existing efforts, is a proposed or newly implanted policy a needed substitute or supplement What does a policy theory evaluation consists of? It consists of helping to explain how some specific policyrelated activities or services are expected to cause some intended outcome. Its main task is to describe nature and character of the policy, including its essential activities and how these activities should lead to come outcome. What are the conditioning factors? Characteristics of the policy environment – the policy (or target groups or areas) that directly, indirectly, or in interaction with other factors, affect activities, outputs or outcomes. What is the Service utilization plans? Involves reference to such dimensions as how frequently clients will be contacted or treated, the duration of participation in or exposure to the policy, and the protocols that must be followed in executing different activities or providing certain services. What is the Purpose of needs evaluations? To determine if there is a need for a policy. Why needs evaluations are important? Identify if a problem exists Determine if a policy should be retained Type of policy response that should be considered Implementation Evaluations • Goals: “The basic goal consists of documenting whether a policy delivers the appropriate amount and types of operations, decisions, services, and activities to intended targets in a highquality manner. What are the types of implementation Evaluations and what they mean/do? There are currently 5 types of implementation evaluations: – Formative evaluations refer to the use of evaluation to improve a program during the development phase – Process evaluations examine how well the services delivered match those that were planned – Descriptive evaluations provide extensive details about programs so their implementation can be compared across sites or replicated elsewhere – Performance monitoring evaluations connotes an ongoing system of measurement and feedback of program operations and results – Implementation analysis examines what happened to a policy after it has been formulated and during its implementation in realworld settings What policy monitoring is important? “It consists of monitoring measures of program, agency, or system performance at regular time intervals and reports them to managers and other specified audiences on a regular basis” what is the purpose? “Implementation, or” process,” evaluations examine the activities associated with specific policies and practices and the extent to which the amount and quality of implementation accords with the ideals set forth in protocols, standards, or policy descriptions. What are the formative and summative evaluations? – They can help improve policy design and implementation (formative evaluation) – They can facilitate performancemonitoring efforts and help to hold organizations and agencies accountable (summative evaluation) What is the dimensions of Focus? • Delivery of services or activities – Considers whether the services or activities associated with a policy reach or are accessed or used by the intended target population – Services and activities can include treatment, training, crime prevention activities, arrests, sanctions, and community supervision • Operations – The mode and quality of service delivery and of the activities undertaken Outcome/Impact Evaluations • What does outcome evaluations do? An outcome evaluation establishes whether a policy is associated with some intended outcome or set of outcomes – Identify the types, levels, or changes in an outcome or set of outcomes and their association with some policy – Do not allow us to make causal claims • Provides the initial groundwork for making causal claims, but provides little to no comparative framework for establishing causality What is the difference between an outcome and an output? • Outcomes are the state of the target population or the social conditions that a policy is expected to have changed • Outputs are the services or activities undertaken by a policy • What does impact evaluations do? An impact evaluation determines whether an association is causal – They establish whether a policy not only is associated with outcomes but also whether it actually produces or causes them – Attempts to determine what would have happened if a policy had not been implemented (the counterfactual) • Researchers traditionally use statistical matching techniques (such as propensity score matching) in order to estimate the counterfactual What is the components of service quality? Allows us to consider a broader spectrum of criminal justice outcomes – Can be considered an intermediate outcome used to hold agencies accountable – Examples include: • Timeliness of service provision; Accuracy of assistance or information; Courteousness of service delivery; Condition and safety of facilities; Customer satisfaction • Why are outcome and impact evaluations important? Outcome and impact evaluations can help to draw attention to and clarify the ultimate goals of a policy, and, by extension, the relevant criteria for judging policy performance • Outcome evaluations can provide a relatively inexpensive platform from which to improve policy performance – by themselves, however, they can’t tell is if a policy caused an outcome • Impact evaluations provide information about policy effectiveness and, in turn, can contribute to debates about which policies merit greater support and which do not • Outcome and impact evaluations help to ensure that scarce resources are allocated to policies with the best chances for producing returns – Increase the accountability, effectiveness, and efficiency of the criminal justice system What is Counterfactual? And why does it matter when we are doing impact evaluations? Attempts to determine what would have happened if a policy had not been implemented (the counterfactual) - Researchers traditionally use statistical matching techniques (such as propensity score matching) in order to estimate the counterfactual CostEfficiency evaluations What does costefficiency evaluations allow us to do? Allows us to assess our returns on criminal justice policy investments What are the types of costefficiency evaluations? the types of costefficiency evaluations are costeffectiveness analysis, which is used to determine which of several approaches is best for achieving a given outcome… and costbenefit analysis that is used to determine which of several approaches that target qualitatively different outcomes creates the most benefit relative to costs. What does costefficiency evaluations tell us about policies? Highlight whether a policy’s impact justifies the expense required to produce it • Inform and complement deliberations about whether policies should be implemented, continued, expanded, or terminated • Are central to creating a more accountable and effective criminal justice system What are costeffectiveness evaluations used for? To identify the cost per outcome also, to determine which of several approaches is best for achieving a given outcome What are costbenefit evaluations used for? To identify in monetary terms, policy costs and benefits and also to determine which of several approaches that target qualitatively different outcomes creates the most benefit relative to the cost What are the steps of conducting a costbenefit analysis? • State the policy question – Should be derived from a needs evaluation, which will provide context for describing the specific problems and possible solutions • Identify the perspective of analysis – Different perspectives will produce different classifications of outcomes as costs or benefits • Identify costs and benefits – Involves the cataloguing of any cost and/or benefit related to the policy of interest – Can include: direct and indirect, tangible and intangible, fixed and marginal, and opportunity costs • Assign values – Assigning monetary values to all identified costs and benefits • Compare costs vs. benefits of one or more policies – Summing all (monetized) costs and benefits then creating a bottomline assessment • Assess sensitivity and articulate limitations – Costbenefit estimates may be incorrect or sensitive to minor changes in assumptions about costs and benefits What are the limitations of costefficiency and costbenefit analyses? Most are subject to the “house of cards” criticism – They build on a wide range of implausible or untested assumptions, unreasonable time frames or discount rates, or incorrect cost and benefit estimates • “Garbage in, garbage out” – Can include failure to account for selection bias and failure to identify unintended effects • Intangible costs and benefits Why are sensitivity analyses important? Allows us to determine how much efficiency estimates will change based on different assumptions, such as the expected or estimated values of cost and benefits. GenderBased programming In what ways do female offending differ from male offending? Female offenders are less likely to have committed violent offenses and more likely to have been convicted of crimes involving alcohol, other drugs, or property – In a study of California inmates, 72% of women had been convicted on a drug or property charge, versus 50% of men How feminist theories of crime are different from “traditional” theories? Theories are traditionally focused on male offending behaviors • Feminist theories suggest that the focus of gender goes beyond simply adding another variable to the study of female crime – Examine female criminality as a reflection of the situations of women and girls in relation to offending – Examine female offending as a reflection of the situations of women’s and girls’ lives and their attempts to survive What are the principles of genderspecific programming? Five fundamental principles for effective genderspecific programming: – Empowering women, – Providing meaningful choices in programs and community facilities, – Treating women with respect and dignity, – Providing a physically safe and supportive environment, and – Sharing responsibility among both correctional staff and members of the community (Task Force on Federally Sentenced Women, 1990) What are the female pathways to crime? Daly (1992) found five female pathways to crime: – The street womanseverely abused; lives on the street; crimes may involve prostitution, drug sale or use, property crimes – The harmedandharming woman serious childhood abuse (physical or sexual); responds with anger and violence – The battered womanusually a first time offender; response to intimate partner violence or abuse – The drugconnected womanusually a first time offender ising or selling drugs as a result of relationships with others intimate partner family members children, etc.) – The economically motivated woman poor women who offend for survival and women who commit crimes because of greed/social aspiration Empirical evidence regarding genderspecific programming? A 2013 report by the National Institute of Corrections outlines the (limited) research on various genderspecific programs: – Moving On – teaches women to access and mobilize varied community resources. Consistent with the emerging profiles of women offenders, it also works with women to enhance strengths, build healthy relationships, and target selfdefeating thoughts. • A 2010 study in Iowa and found significant reductions in recidivism – Helping Women Recover and Beyond Trauma – substance abuse treatment programs that combine addiction, mental health, and trauma recovery treatment. • A 2010 study found that both programs significantly lowered return to prison rates for women (compared to a standard therapeutic program), and also had positive effects on psychological wellbeing – Seeking Safety – cognitive behavioral therapy program for co occurring disorders (mental health, trauma, and/or substance abuse). • Numerous studies have found reductions in suicide attempts and drug use and improvements in treatment retention, mental health, and PTSD symptoms (no specific recidivismrelated outcomes have been studied) Drug Courts • What is the history/development/scope of drug courts? Response to rising arrests for drugs during late 1980s and early 1990s – Crack “epidemic” – First drug court was in Miami in 1989 • During the 1990s drug courts emerged as an alternative to incarceration for drug offenders – Expansion was the result of judiciallyled nationwide grassroots efforts – Judiciallyled nationwide grassroots efforts • Drug Courts Program Office established to develop more drug courts – As of 2014 there are over 3,400 drug treatment courts in the US • Drug Courts are widely applied to adult criminal cases, juvenile delinquency and truancy cases, and family court cases involving parents at risk of losing custody of their children due to substance abuse What is the causal process model? What are the Unintended consequences? Drug courts are too limited in scope and duration and thus cannot create a significant impact on the drugcrime problem o Generally programs are too short and limited to lowrisk offenders • Sanctions don’t help drug addicted populations because addiction compromises their ability to respond to choices in a rational manner – If drug use is not the sole or primary cause of crime in drug addicts, curbing drug usage will not necessarily reduce crime among addicts What types of offenders would not be eligible to participate in a drug court? – No violent or sexual offenders – Offenders charged with felonies for selling drugs are ineligible Empirical Evidence on effectiveness of drug courts, also what role the risk needsresponsivity principles play? Individuals who participated in drug court were 11% less likely to recidivate than those that did not participate – Treatment quality matters Adherence to none, one, or two of the RiskNeedsResponsivity principles corresponded to a 5%, 11%, and 31% reduction in recidivism, respectively What are problems with implementing drug courts? – Varied theoretical framework and designs – Multiple strategies and services – Collaboration and cooperation with diverse parties – Investments that may not be adequately sustained over time • Without successful implementation of a program it is difficult for researchers to accurately determine the outcomes and impacts of the program Community Policing What is the history/Development of community policing? Community policing developed out of two major forces during the 1960’s and 1970’s: – Concerns about rising crime rates – The national Civil Rights movement What are the Social/technological changes that influenced the social distancing of police from communities? Social distancing: – Reform era in government and nationwide move towards professionalization resulted in the separation of police from the community – Expanding role of automobiles – Random patrolling Technological developments: – 911 telephone systems • The prevailing ideology was that the professional knew best and community involvement in crime control was seen as unnecessary What is the Kansas city prevention patrol study? Found that decreasing or increasing routine preventative patrol within the range tested had no effect on crime, citizen fear, community attitudes toward police, response time, or accidents Communityand problemoriented policing models? Community policing promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problemsolving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of crime. Findings from Newark Foot patrol study? Police could develop more positive attitudes toward community members and could promote positive attitudes toward police if they spent time on foot in their neighborhoods Community corrections Definitions of Probation vs. Parole? Probation: is a courtordered period of correctional supervision in the community, generally as an alternative to incarceration. In some cases, probation can be a combined sentence of incarceration followed by a period of community supervision. Parole: is a period of conditional supervised release in the community following a prison term. It includes parolees released through discretionary or mandatory supervised release from prison, those released through other types of postcustody conditional supervision, and those sentenced to a term of supervised release. What is the churning effect? The process of “churning” describes the experience of offenders who are committed to prison, released on parole, returned to prison for either a technical violation of parole or for a new crime, and subsequently re released from prison on the original sentence. • Churning is a function both of technical violations and new crimes committed by exoffenders What are the types of supervision in Florida? Court Imposed PreTrial Intervention Felony Probation Drug Offender PTI Drug Offender Probation PostPrison Release Sex Offender Probation – Parole Community Control – Conditional Release Contractual Agreement – Addiction Recovery What works in community corrections? • Redefinition of agency goals and officers’ roles – Correctional agencies need to shift to a mission of producing public safety through the success of supervisees • Graduated responses and incentives – Providing a continuum of responses that includes both programming interventions and sanctions (such as an official reprimand from a senior supervising officer, more frequent reporting, a new curfew, or timelimited travel restrictions) gives officers the tools to respond to every violation while allowing them to continue interacting and working with their supervisees through difficult periods • Risk and Needs assessment tools: Risk assessment instruments measure the probability that a person will reoffend if or when released into the community. Needs assessments identify a person’s criminogenic needs, such as education, mental health counseling, or positive social peers. – Supervision based on level of Risk The greatest return on corrections spending can be realized by supervising moderatetohighrisk offenders more intensively – Supervision tied to Needs Unless officers understand the reasons why a parolee cannot maintain stable housing or keep a job, they cannot help change the situation What works in Florida? • NonSecure Substance Abuse Treatment Programs – Over 92.2% of successful program completers are not recommitted to prison or supervision during their first year after completion • Secure Substance Abuse Treatment Programs – Lower success rates than nonsecure substance abuse treatment programs, likely due to high risk offenders • Probation and Restitution Centers – Moderately successful; 86.9% of successful completers have no recommitment to state prison • Jail Incarceration Programs – Least successful program; 45.2% of successful completers are recommitted to prison or supervision What doesn’t work in community corrections? • Large caseloads – 1970s: Parole officers supervised 45 parolees – 2003: Parole officers supervised 70 parolees • Probation officers supervised 130 probationers • “Onesizefitsall” conditions – Standardized conditions apply to everyone, regardless of offense or perceived need; some conditions may be imposed that research has demonstrated are more harmful than helpful • Lack of differentiation in case supervision – Decades of research confirm that overly supervising (by number of contacts, overprogramming, or imposing unnecessary restrictions) lowrisk probationers and parolees is likely to produce worse outcomes than essentially leaving them alone • Use of incarceration as a primary sanction – In many cases, a return to jail or prison is unnecessary to protect public safety and may make things worse as serving time in prison has been shown to increase the risk of future offending, not to decrease it Effectiveness of community supervision in Florida, Generally and FSU study on postprison supervision? • Florida: – Generally, having supervision to follow a term of incarceration is a strong predictor of future reimprisonment for both male and female inmates – The type and length of time on postrelease supervision matter in predicting success after prison release FSUFL Dept. of Corrections study Findings: • Split probation and community control are significantly better than no supervision • Offenders were approximately 2530% less likely to be arrested or convicted of a new felony • However, they were 3 times more likely to be returned to prison • Offenders were 24% more likely to be employed after release • Conditional release supervision had mixed results relative to no supervision • Offenders were between 2026% less likely to be arrested or convicted of a new felony • However, they were also 3 times more likely to be returned to prison • Offenders were about 20% less likely to be employed after release Theoretical Foundations of community corrections? • Retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation The “Typical” offender on community supervision in Florida? White male age 2549
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