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BSC 215 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Regan Dougherty

BSC 215 Final Exam Study Guide BSC 215

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 215 > BSC 215 Final Exam Study Guide
Regan Dougherty
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Final exam study guide - covers CNS, PNS, reflexes, and general/special senses
Human Anatomy & Physiology 1
Jason Pienaar
Study Guide
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jason Pienaar in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Exam Date: 5/3/16 BSC 215 Final Exam Study Guide - The Central Nervous System • PNS: sensory and motor functions • CNS: integrative functions - interpretation of sensory information - planning and monitoring movement - maintaining homeostasis - higher mental functions (language and learning) • Brain Structure Cerebrum - enlarged, • higher mental functions • composed of left and right superior portion of the brain • interpretation of sensory stimuli cerebral hemispheres • planning and initiation of movement Diencephalon - the central • processes, integrates, and relays • made up of the thalamus, core of the brain information hypothalamus, epithalamus, • maintains homeostasis and subthalamus • regulates biological rhythms Cerebellum - the posterior • monitors and coordinates movement • composed of left and right inferior portion of the brain hemispheres Brain stem - the most • maintains homeostasis • connects the brain and inferior part of the brain • controls some reflexes spinal cord • monitors movement integrates and relays some information • **The brain and spinal cord are anatomically one structure. White vs. Gray Matter • - White matter - myelinated axons; commonly found on the inside of the brain • Bundles of white matter are called tracts. - Gray matter - unmyelinated dendrites and cell bodies; commonly found on the outside of the brain, allowing for greater surface area • Gray matter is known as nuclei. • Brain Embryonic Development - The neural tube differentiates into the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. 1 Exam Date: 5/3/16 • The forebrain differentiates into the telencephalon and diencephalon. - The telencephalon becomes the cerebrum. The midbrain becomes the mesencephalon. • - The mesencephalon differentiates into the midbrain (brain stem). • The hindbrain differentiates into metencephalon and mylencephalon. - The metencephalon differentiates into the pons (brain stem) and cerebellum. - The mylencephalon becomes the medulla oblongata (brain stem). • The Cerebrum - responsible for higher mental functions - Sulci - shallow grooves on the surface of the cerebrum • ex. central sulcus, parieto-occipital sulcus - Fissure - a deep groove on the surface of the cerebrum • ex. longitudinal fissure (separates the 2 hemispheres), lateral fissure - Gyri - elevated ridges between sulci • ex. pre-central gyrus, post-central gyrus • increase surface area Lobes of the Cerebrum (5 x2 for each hemisphere) Frontal • located on the anterior portion of the cerebrum • planning central sulcus - posterior boundary thinking • • • precentral gyrus - just anterior to the central sulcus • behavior • conscience • personality Parietal posterior to the frontal lobes sensory integration • post-central gyrus - just posterior to the central • attention • • sulcus Temporal • located on the sides of the cerebrum • hearing • separated from the frontal and parietal lobes by the • language lateral fissure memory • • emotion Occipital • located on the posterior portion of the cerebrum • visual information processing • separated from the parietal lobe by the parieto- occuipital sulcus 2 Exam Date: 5/3/16 Insular • located deep to the frontal, parietal, and temporal • taste lobes • regulation of internal organs - Cerebral cortex - outer gray matter of the cerebrum that functions in conscious processes • Neocortex - the most recent part of our brains to evolve; makes up the majority of the cerebral cortex Areas of the Neocortex Primary motor cortex • plans and executes • located in the percentile gyrus (of movement the frontal lobe) • receive and process • primary somatosensory cortex and sensory input somatosensory association cortex • primary visual cortex and visual Primary sensory cortices association areas • primary auditory cortex and auditory association areas • gustatory cortex, vestibular areas, and olfactory cortex • integrate different types of • Multimodal Association areas: information •Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas Association areas • unimodal - integrate one (language) specific type of information prefrontal cortex • • multimodal - integrate •parietal and temporal association information from multiple areas different sources Cerebral White Matter Commissural fibers • connect the right and left hemispheres of the brain • The corpus callosum is the largest group of commissural fibers. Projection fibers • connect cerebral cortex to areas in the same hemisphere as well as other parts of the brain and spinal cord Association fibers • connect gyri within the same hemisphere • Basal nuclei - cluster of nuclei (cell bodies of CNS) embedded in central white matter that sit on either side of the diencephalon; involved in movement - components: globus pallidus - medial to the putamen; inhibit the initiation of movement by • inhibiting the thalamus 3 Exam Date: 5/3/16 • caudate nuclei - c-shaped rings of gray matter; work with the putamen to inhibit the globus pallidus and initiate movement • putamen - lie posterior and inferior to the caudate nuclei; work with caudate nuclei (see above) • Limbic System - a functional brain system that participates in learning, memory, emotion, and behavior • Gray matter - Amygdala - an almond-shaped structure anterior to the hippocampus; responsible for expression of emotion and fear - Hippocampus - a seahorse-shaped structure; responsible for memory and learning - Medial cerebrum - connects to the fornix • cingulate gyri and parahippocampus gyri • White matter - Fornix - C-shaped ring; main output tract • Diencephalon - the central core of the brain Components of the Diencephalon Thalamus the central and largest part of the • edits and sorts information entering the diencephalon consisting of 2 egg- cerebrum shaped masses of gray matter • “main entrance” to the cerebral cortex the small, anterior and inferior • regulates autonomic nervous system component of the diencephalon • regulates temperature Hypothalamus • regulates hunger and thirst • master regulator of endocrine system (connected to the pituitary gland by the infundibulum) Epithalamus superior to the thalamus • contains the pineal gland (endocrine organ that secretes melatonin) Subthalamus inferior to the thalamus • functionally connected to the basal nuclei (movement) Functional Classifications of Thalamic Nuclei Specific relay nuclei receive information, process/integrate it, and send it to specific areas 4 Exam Date: 5/3/16 Association nuclei send information to association areas Nonspecific nuclei send information to broad areas of the cortex and rest of the brain • Cerebellum - posterior inferior portion of the brain; responsible for coordination of movement - works with cerebral cortex, basal nuclei, brain stem, and spinal cord - 2 cerebellar hemispheres which are connected by the vermis - Gray Matter • cerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei - White Matter • arbor vitae (branched structures) and cerebellar peduncles (connect the cerebellum to the rest of the brain) • The Brain Stem (controls basic homeostatic functions - ex. heart rate and breathing) - contains the fourth ventricle - Mid brain (top) - responsible for movement, sensation, startle reflex - Pons (middle) - responsible for breathing, sleep, arousal • associated with comas (pons determines when you wake up) - Medulla oblongata (bottom) - connects to spinal cord • decussation (crossing over) of motor corticospinal tracts (motor neuron fibers) - Most nerves one the right side of the brain affect the left side of the body and vice versa. - Fibers that decussate (90%) travel in the lateral funiculi. - Fibers that do not decussate (10%) travel in the anterior funiculi. • Reticular formation - network of nuclei in the brain stem - input from several sources - output to entire brain and spinal cord 5 Exam Date: 5/3/16 • sleep (tells you when to go to sleep and when to wake up), pain transmission, mood, motor functions, breathing, blood pressure, alertness • Coma: damage in the brain stem so the body does not know to wake up • Brain Protection - Skull bones - Cranial meninges - 3 protective membranes of dense irregular connective tissue that surround the brain Layers of the Cranial Meninges Epidural space space between the dura and the cranial bones Dura mater tough, outermost meninx that surrounds the brain and spinal cord Subdural space narrow, fluid-filled space between the dura mater and the arachnoid mater Arachnoid mater middle meninx that surrounds the brain and spinal cord Subarachnoid space narrow, fluid-filled space between the arachnoid mater and the pia mater Pia mater inner, delicate meninx that surrounds the brain and spinal cord - Ventricles - cerebrospinal fluid-filled cavities located within the brain; lined with ependymal cells Right and left lateral ventricles considered the first and second ventricles • Third ventricle • located in the center of the diencephalon Fourth ventricle • located in the brain stem • continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord - Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) - fluid with the same density of the brain that fills ventricles and surrounds the brain; continuously circulates within and around the brain and spinal cord • additional functions: brain buoyancy, temperature regulation, waste removal • Choroid plexuses - group of brain capillaries that come into contact with ependymal cells and produce CSF CSF is circulated through ventricles, subarachnoid space, and the central • canal (circulation occurs by the beating of cilia on ependymal cells). 6 Exam Date: 5/3/16 • CSF is reabsorbed into the bloodstream via dural sinuses. - Blood brain barrier - tight junctions between brain capillaries, their basal laminae, and astrocytes; keeps CSF and brain extracellular fluid separate from the blood • “selective filter” • The tight junctions are formed by astrocytes. - Spinal cord - connects the brain with the peripheral nervous system and performs certain integrative functions • Functions - Relay station: provides a way for the brain to communicate with the body below the neck - Processing station: some integrative functions without input from the brain (spinal reflexes) Protection of the Spinal Cord • - 3 spinal meninges are present: dura, arachnoid, and pia mater (just like brain) - Differences from brain: • no periosteal layer of dura mater (only contains meningeal layer) - epidural space exists between the meningeal dura and vertebral foramina • Denticulate ligaments (thin pieces of spinal pia) attach to the spinal dura. • External Spinal Cord Anatomy - The spinal cord extends form the foramen magnum in the skull and terminates between the first and second lumbar vertebrae. • Conus medullaris - the cone-shaped terminal portion of the spinal cord between L1 and L2 • Filium terminale - the inferior continuation of the pia mater; continues after the end of the spinal cord through the vertebral cavity and anchors into the first coccygeal vertebra • Nerves exit the spinal cord below the vertebrae. - 2 enlargements (cervical and lumbar) 7 Exam Date: 5/3/16 - Posterior median sulcus and anterior median fissure • Internal Spinal Cord Anatomy - Central canal - small, CSF-filled canal located at the center of the spinal cord Spinal Gray Matter Anterior horn contains motor neurons Posterior horn contains sensory neurons; longer and thinner than anterior horn Lateral horn contains autonomic neurons; only found in the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord **Gray matter is on the inside of the spinal cord. - Spinal White Matter (tracts) • Funiculus - a general region of white matter in the spinal cord that is organized into tracts - posterior (sensory) - anterior (motor) - lateral (sensory and motor) - The white matter within funiculi is further organized into columns (tracts). Ascending Tracts (posterior spinal cord; sensory) Posterior columns • faciculus gracialis - medial; transmits information from the lower limbs and lower trunk about touch and proprioception (joint position) • faciculus cuneatus - lateral; transmits information from the upper limbs and upper trunk about touch and proprioception (joint position) Spinocerebellar tracts • transmits proprioceptive information to the cerebellum Anterolateral system • send pain and temperature information to the brain (spinothalamic tracts) Descending Tracts (anterior spinal cord; motor) Corticospinal • largest descending tracts • carry motor information from motor areas of the cerebral cortex Reticulospinal • motor information from the brain stem maintenance of posture and limb orientation during movement • Tectospinal • reflexive movements of head and eyes 8 Exam Date: 5/3/16 Vestibulospinal • posture and balance Upper motor neurons - interneurons located in the frontal lobe that are in the • conscious planning of movement; initiate movement via the lower motor neurons of the PNS - cell bodies are found in motor areas of the cortex (some in brain stem) - belong to CNS (travel only in spinal cord/brain) Lower motor neurons - motor neurons of the PNS that directly innervate skeletal • muscles - cell bodies are located in the anterior horn of spinal grey matter - belong to PNS (exit spinal cord) - Alpha motor neurons - stimulate skeletal muscles to contract - Gamma motor neurons - innervate stretch receptors • Motor Pathways - Corticospinal tracts - descending spinal tracts that consist of axons of upper motor neurons that control movement of muscles below the neck via stimulation of lower motor neurons Decussation occurs at the medullary pyramids • Axons of corticospinal tracts originate from cell bodies of upper motor neurons in the primary motor and premotor cortices. - Corticonuclear tracts - motor tracts that control the muscles of the head and neck via the lower motor neurons and cranial nerves • Axons of corticonuclear tracts originate from the cell bodies of upper motor neurons. The Role of the Brain in Voluntary Movement • Cerebral cortex • primary motor cortex and premotor and motor association areas house the majority of upper motor neurons • plan and initiate movement Basal nuclei • initiate appropriate movement by stimulating neuron in the thalamus • inhibit inappropriate movement by blocking neurons in the thalamus • Parkinson’s disease - movement is difficult to initiate and terminate 9 Exam Date: 5/3/16 Cerebellum • monitors ongoing action (by receiving information from the motor cortex and ascending tracts) and corrects motor error • motor learning - the correction of motor error by the cerebellum (long term) A homunculus (little man) can be used to illustrate the sizes of the areas of the cerebral cortex that are devoted to a particular body region (ex. hands). - The Peripheral Nervous System PNS Subdivisions Sensory - Somatic provides sensory innervation to the skin, muscles, and joints Sensory - Visceral relays sensory information from internal organs Motor - Somatic responsible for voluntary motor functions (innervates skeletal muscles) Motor - Visceral (autonomic responsible for involuntary motor functions (internal organs) nervous system) - Peripheral Nerves • Spinal Nerves - originate in the spinal cord and innervate structures below the head and neck - Anterior root - extension from the anterior horn of the spinal cord containing the axons of lower motor neurons - Posterior root - extension from the posterior horn of the spinal cord containing the axons of somatic sensory neurons • posterior root ganglion - There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves. • Cervical (C1-C8) - Cervical plexus (C1-C5) - Brachial plexus (C5-T1) • Thoracic (T1-T12) Lumbar (L1-L5) • - Lumbar plexus (L1-L4) • Sacral (S1-S5) 10 Exam Date: 5/3/16 - Sacral plexus (L4-S4) • Coccygeal (Co1) - Most spinal nerves have both sensory and motor functions. - Spinal nerves are formed from the fusion of an anterior root containing motor neurons and a posterior root containing sensory neurons. • Cranial Nerves - attach to brain - The cell bodies of cranial nerves tend to be in the brain stem. - There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves. - Some cranial nerves have sensory functions, some have motor functions, and some have both. • I. Olfactory - Sensory • II. Optic - S • III. Oculomotor - Motor • IV. Trochlear - M • V. Trigeminal - Both VI. Abducens - M • • VII. Facial - B • VIII. Vestibulocochlear - S • IX. Glossopharyngeal - B • X. Vagus - B • XI. Accessory - M • XII. Hypoglossal - M - Stretch Receptors (allow for motor error correction) • Muscle spindle - mechanoreceptor located in the muscle; measures stretch in muscles • Golgi tendon organ - mechanoreceptor located within tendons near the muscle tendon junction; measures stretch in tendons 11 Exam Date: 5/3/16 - Control of Voluntary Movement by the Nervous System 1. CNS: Movement plan is selected in premotor cortex. 2. CNS: Basal Nuclei allow thalamus to stimulate primary motor cortex. 3. CNS: Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send signal to lower motor neurons. 4. PNS: Lower motor neurons stimulate a skeletal muscle to contract. 5. PNS: Sensory apparatus in muscles send signal to cerebellum. 6. CNS: Cerebellum instructs upper motor neurons to modify program as required. - Reflexes • Reflex - automatic response to a stimulus • Reflex arc - a 3-step process in which 1) the PNS detects and delivers a signal to the CNS, 2) the CNS integrates the stimulus, and 3) the PNS delivers a motor response from the CNS to effectors. • Stretch Receptors (allow for motor error correction) - Muscle spindle - mechanoreceptor located in the muscle; measures stretch in muscles - Golgi tendon organ - mechanoreceptor located within tendons near the muscle tendon junction; measures stretch in tendons • Types of Reflexes - Monosynaptic - single synapse between a sensory and motor neuron - Polysynaptic - multiple synapses • Simple stretch reflex - monosynaptic reflex triggered by muscle stretch, which produces an automatic contraction of the muscle to counter the stretch; returns the muscle to optimal length - ex. patellar reflex • Flexion and Crossed-Extension Reflexes - Flexion - rapidly conducting pain (nociceptor) signals to interneurons in the spinal cord; polysynaptic 12 Exam Date: 5/3/16 - Crossed-extension reflex - polysynaptic reflex that occurs concurrently with the flexion reflex; triggers extension of the limb on the opposite side of the body from a painful stimulus - General vs. Special Senses General Special detect touch, pain, and temperature detect smell (olfaction), taste (gustation), vision, hearing (audition), and balance (vestibular sensation) Receptors are simple and located throughout the Specialized sensory organs that are located in the body. head detect signals from the environment. (Exception: Smell does not contain sensory organs, instead, it includes specialized olfactory neurons.) Signals travel on axons of cranial or spinal nerves.Signals travel exclusively on axons of cranial nerves • Transduction of Special Senses 1. A stimulus directly or indirectly opens ion channels, altering the membrane potential of the receptor cell. 2. The change in membrane potential causes an increase or decrease in neurotransmitter release, triggering a change in the activity of the neuron. 13


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