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GWU / Humanities and Social Sciences / ORSC 1109 / What is the meaning of Personalized?

What is the meaning of Personalized?

What is the meaning of Personalized?


School: George Washington University
Department: Humanities and Social Sciences
Course: Introduction to Organizational Sciences
Professor: D costanza
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: Organizational sciences, final, exam, midterm, life, cycles, organization, material, reoccurring, decisionmaking, equfinality, growth, change, power, Leadership, Influence, knowledge, Principles, IBM, authority, Personal, control, situational, transformational, Environment, Management, Culture, embedding, mechanisms, alignment, members, founders, Technology, R&D, research, development, revolution, and evolution
Cost: 50
Name: ORSC 1109 Final Study Guide
Description: This document is a cohesive compilation of all lectures since the midterm. So it begins with power and influence up until our final class on 04/27, which discussed life cycles of an organization. Majority of the material comes from class discussion and notes. The final is not cohesive but bear in mind there are some reoccurring concepts from the beginning of the semester.
Uploaded: 04/28/2016
19 Pages 5 Views 7 Unlocks

Leslie Ogu ORSC 1109 Final Date: 05/02/16

What is the meaning of Personalized?

*Note* This is an organized and a little more succinct compilation of all notes (majority of the information is from class), so for some this is just a review

DEFINITIONS​(all are from class notes)

➔ Power ­ the extent to which party A can get party B to do something they would not normally do

➔ Authority ­ the legitimate exercise of power

➔ Politics ​­ non­legitimate use of power

➔ Control ​­ managing self­interest such that organizational interests are paramount ◆ Process Control ­ goal setting strategy

◆ Agency Control ­ giving someone else the control to achieve what your interests are

◆ Market Control ­ ​markets pick the winners and losers

◆ Bureaucratic Control ­ the procedures, rules, policies, hierarchy, etc. control

◆ Clan Control ­ the culture / social norms have control over you

➔ Socialized ­ changing people for the greater good

What is the meaning of Technical Application?

➔ Personalized ­ changing people for your own good

➔ Technical Application – use tech to help org do what it does but better ➔ Programmability – being able to control the technology

➔ Variability – ​number of unique and common tasks

➔ Analyzability – to what extent are the tasks routine or not

➔ Mediating / Pooled ​– We are reliant on each other only to extent that the overall effect of the org is combined

➔ Stretch Assignment ­ bring in people who know how to do something and then give them specialized training to improve in that specific area; maximizes employee efficiency to organization

➔ Knowledge Management (KM) ­how to hold onto information

◆ Codification ­ ​write it down and pass it on

◆ Personalization ­ passed from person to person

➔ Organizational Change ­ ​actions organizations take to change

What is the meaning of Programmability?

➔ Erosion ­ when an organization's environment is slowly going away

NOTES​(if a topic or concept has stars next to it, it means it was mentioned multiple times and/or is very important to know) If you want to learn more check out What is Executive Function?


● relational

● exercised

● can be multi­directional

● there is always an associated cost Don't forget about the age old question of Why does lactose intolerance cause pain?

● Authority

● Politics

● Accounts for people and organizations

● How does one develop power?

○ Contingency ***

■ You have to do something for the person (creating a requirement for the person that if they do not do it, you hold power over them) ○ Organization Evolution

■ Power will come over time

■ They key is adaptation

● Weber

○ Rational­Legal Power **

■ The rules say it

○ Charismatic Power

■ You give the person power because you like them, they are funny, relatable, etc

○ Traditional Power

■ Ex: A teacher usually has some power over the students

● French & Raven

○ Reward

○ Coercion

■ If you don’t do it, you will lose something or won’t get what you asked for

○ Legitimate

■ matches up with the rational­legal power

○ Expert Power **

■ believe the person knows best

○ Referent

● Power is constantly shifting **


● I need to control you so that the organization’s interests supercede yours 1. Process Control If you want to learn more check out Two dominant languages in the region?

a. Ex: Faculty Annual Report ­ all professors are required to report this to the university to ensure they are effectively teaching students If you want to learn more check out What is the “boomerang model” and what can it achieve?

2. Agency Control

a. introduces a level of separation

3. Market Control

a. This means the markets have control over organizational behavior b. Assumes rationality

i. assumes you have all the information to make a decision rationally 4. Bureaucratic Control

a. can be through chains of command, written rules, etc

5. Clan Control

a. nonprofits

● These could be combined in an organization

Leadership **

● People believed successful leadership was based on:

○ Traits

○ Behavior

○ Situational

○ Transformation

● Traits

○ Cognitive Capacity

■ “smarter people” tend to make better leaders

○ Social Capacity

○ Personality

○ Expertise

● Behavioral

○ Leaders that get their followers to act a certain way

○ Task People & Change

○ Short & Long Term

● Situational

○ Leaders that arise in certain situations

○ Similar to contingency

○ Problem Solving

● Transformational

○ Goal of leaders is to transform their followers

○ Charisma

■ goals of the organization

■ higher­order needs

● appeal to the intellectual interests of and things that are

internally motivating to the followers

■ ethics

○ Socialized v. Personalized If you want to learn more check out What is Kinesiology?

■ Socialized

■ Personalized

Uncertainty **

● Examples include lack of knowledge, lack of resources, etc

● More concrete, task­orientated forces when there is more uncertainty ● Related to transformational and influences whether transformations are needed or not We also discuss several other topics like What are the five characteristics of a good research question?

Does Leadership Matter?

● No ­ Environment

● Yes ­ but within certain environmental situations

○ Leaders do have an impact in the organization but they can still end up making a decision that fails miserably

Who Decides Who Leads?

● Individuals

● Situation

○ Who emerges as leaders in different types of situations

● History

Management **

● People who are in charge at lower levels of the organization tend to be more task­oriented and as you go higher, people tend to look further out ● As you move up, you move more away from the task, you think more further out, and you start thinking more long­term

○ Things That Change:

■ Actions

■ Time

■ Effectiveness


● Not all bad

● Managing it

● Not linear

○ It is not the case that the more conflict you get, the worse things get ○ Lower conflict tends to lead to lower performance

● Stages

1. Latent

a. It’s there; underlying; potential for conflict

b. Interdependence

i. Usually functions that are dependent on others

c. Bureaucracy ***

i. Rules, procedures, forms, standards, etc.

ii. “You can not do this thing until you sign this form” ­

Employee refuses for some reason ­ Conflict ensues

d. Resources ***

2. Perceived

3. Felt

a. Other parties begin to feel the conflict

b. Has now become a serious issue

4. Manifest

a. Somebody does something about the conflict

5. Resolution

a. How do you resolve the issue?

6. Aftermath?

a. The conflict is handled. Now what?

b. This is where people can try to reorganize things to address the underlying forces that contribute to conflict.

● Strategies

○ Organizational Strategies ***

1. Integration **

a. integration of people’s interests

2. Mediating Roles

a. people whose job is to cut across departments

b. Ex: liaisons, coordinators, etc

c. serve as mediators; listen and understand both sides

3. Introduce Structural Changes

○ Individual Strategies

1. Rewards?

2. Training

a. Prepare people for conflicts and how to deal with them

3. Selection

a. Choose people to be less likely to cause or be involved in a


○ Culture Strategies

1. Shared norms, beliefs, values and assumptions

2. Guide and are reinforced by organizational behavior

● Social Anthropology

○ Jacques (1952) ­ one of the first guys to write about it

○ Ouchi ­ Theory 2

○ Ed Schein

● How Strong Is It?

● How many?

○ Main and Sub. Cultures

■ Dominating

■ Enhancing

● sub­cultures enhance each other

■ Orthogonal

● one or more of the sub­cultures are unrelated


● Sharedness

● Influence on the organization and how it operates

● Subcultures within the organization


● More Agreement; less conflict between people

● More Formal

● More Attachment to the organization; feel more of a need be there


1. People

2. Organization / Environment (External Aspects)

3. Country



● Hofstede

1. Power Distance

2. Uncertainty Avoidance

3. Individualism

4. Masculinity

5. Long Term Orientation

Organization ­ Industrial

● People ⇒ Founders

● Schein

● Innermost Circle: Basic Assumption

○ Easier when it’s just for one person

○ Not as easy for larger companies and a higher number of employees ● Second Circle: Espoused Values (what is believed to be true)

● Third Circle: Artifacts

● If all three are aligned, then you know they are related and impact each other ● If they are not aligned, then it can mean a lot of different things ● To understand the culture of an organization, you must understand all three

Creating Culture

● The roles people play

1. Needs to be some organization there

2. Founder will bring on additional people who share same values 3. As organization grows, it differentiates​and formalizes ***

4. Less impact later on due to more and more people coming in

Embedding Mechanisms

● How does the founder embed, build in and fix the culture they have/want 1. Primary mechanisms

a. Attention and Rewards ­ what the founder pays attention to and what they reward **

b. Reactions to Change ­ how founders react to change and crisis ** i. Change seen as challenge v. change as bad

c. Resource Allocation ­ where does the founder allocate limited resources ** d. Role Model

2. Secondary Mechanisms ­ indirect impacts that the founder does a. Organizational Design and Structure ***

b. System and Procedures

c. Rites and Rituals

d. Physical Space ­ how it’s designed / layout / environment of working place e. Mythology ­ story of the founders

f. Missions

● Try to make culture early to make things easier


1. Socializations ­ how does one learn about the culture

a. Collective v. Individualized **

i. Collective brings an element of sharedness

b. Formal v. Informal

c. Sequential v. Random

i. Sequential: learn in an order

ii. Random: learn as you go

d. Self v. Other

i. Expected to learn on your own? Do you have a mentor or trainer to help you?

e. Divesting v. Investing

i. Designed to get rid of people who don’t fit the culture or try to make them fit the culture


● Three Circle Model and Alignment

● Founders

● Social

● Institution v. Individual

What does it do?

● Meaning and Sensemaking

○ What kind of culture is housed in the organization?

○ What role should culture play?

○ What is culture to the employees?

○ How does the organization support the organization?

● Facilitates adaptation

● Decision­making (Racy!)

○ Day­to­day decisions

○ How urgent is a certain matter?

● Strategically Adaptive

○ Strategy is a pattern of decisions, choices, intentions, etc

○ Actions

● Core Competencies?

○ What do we do well?

Value Creation Cycle

● These happen in steps, meaning the next can’t happen without the previous 1. Strategy ***

2. Core Competencies **

3. Competitive Advantage ***

4. Resources (and this ties back to the strategy) ***

● These are all aligned as well

Sources of Competencies

1. Coordination and Structure of Organization (Big picture)

○ Hierarchy

○ Leadership

○ Structure

2. Acquisition (Buy what you need)

○ Money

○ Shorter term solution

3. Functional Development (Develop one person at a time) ***

○ Helps people last longer in the organization (retention)


1. Functional Strategy

a. Human Resources (HR) ****

i. Used to help enforce ideals and systems of organization

b. R & D ****

i. Ensuring safety of employees

ii. Reduce injuries


● Strategy ⇒ Core Competencies ⇒ Competitive Advantage ⇒ Resources ⇒ (and back to strategy) ● Structure

● Acquisition

● Develop

1. Functional Strategy **

a. Lower cost (more common in functional) ***

b. Differentiation ­ separate functions and separate an organization from another in terms of how it operates, what it offers, deals, etc. ****

i. Trader Joe’s offering different products than what we are normally

accustomed to

ii. HR (I need you to do this faster and cheaper), Tech, Structure, Culture, R & D

2. Business Strategy

a. Organization takes core competencies, and tries to extend them into new areas (such as a new product or a new method)

b. Leverage / Extend

c. Low cost

d. Differentiation (more common in business) ****

e. HR Approach (need to be more flexible; bring a lot more to the table) *** f. Research & Development (R & D) ***

g. Structure ****

h. Culture

i. Get more subcultures; more variety

3. Corporate Strategy

a. Going beyond core competencies into new areas; beyond comfort zone b. R & D

c. HR ­ HQ

d. Planning Function

i. With a large body organization, need to make sure things are running smoothly and not overwhelming

e. Culture

f. Differentiation

i. Related

ii. Unrelated

4. Global Strategy

a. More globalized

b. Multidomestic

c. International

d. Transnational

i. Hybrid strategy

● Equifinal ****

● Alignment ***

● Concentrate on Core Competencies ***

Org Technology – Transformational Characteristics

● Tools/equipment

● KSA’s (Knowledge, Skills, Abilities)

○ Implies it is people biased

● Tech occurs at different levels

○ Individual – KSA’s that individual has, singular person

○ Department / Functional – group or department of transformational characteristics

○ Organizational – all department / functional changes come together for the organization

Organizational Effectiveness *****

● Tech allows for the acquisition of external resources **

● Internal Systems – tech is used to help organization carry out other tasks ● Technical Application


● Tech ⇒ New Organizations

● Tech ⇒ New Theories

Woodward Model​– thinks about tech in terms of complexity

● Made idea of Programmability

● Levels of Programmability

○ Small Batch – high customiz;, specialized; can only produce once, small volume

■ Like a painter or custom clothes maker

■ Low complexity

■ High levels of flexibility

■ Technology is expensive

○ Large Batch / Mass production – standard, classic assembly line ■ Complexity medium

■ Medium flexibility

■ Lower cost

○ Continuous – maximum level of complexity and programmability ■ Complexibility is high

■ Flexibility low

■ Cost very low

● Want to know about a org’s tech look at org’s structure

○ Technology ⇒ Structure

Perrow Model​– looked at Tasks

● Want to understand tech look at tasks in an org

● Variability

○ same tasks, then no variability

● Analyzability

● Combinations of variability and analyzability creates different tasks ○ Low variability, High analyzability = Mass Production

● Tasks drive org structure

○ Tasks ⇒ Structure

Thompson Approach​– focuses on interdependence of the people ● How the people effect the changes **

● Type of Interdependence

○ Mediating / Pooled

■ Everyone works together to achieve goal

Decision Making ****

● Programmed Decisions ***

○ Fairly routine; fairly straightforward

○ If you are dealing with a constantly changing environment, these decisions become less and less useful

● Unprogrammed Decisions

○ Novel; unstructured; new; unexpected

○ Every other decision an organization has to make

● Approaches / Models

1. Rational

a. Identify the problem

i. What is the actual problem? What is the cause? What

makes it a problem? How serious is it?

b. Generate Solutions

c. Select & Implement

i. Pick the good solutions

ii. Which solutions are feasible?

2. Carnegie Model

a. Bounded­Rational Decisionmaking ****

b. Recognizes satisficing (there is not just one solution for every

problem; there is more than one way to do something; best option

of possible solutions available)

c. Stakeholder ****

i. There will be disagreement about what the problems are,

which solutions to use, etc

ii. How to navigate disagreements

3. Incremental

a. Take it in steps

4. Unstructured

a. Deal with things as they occur

b. Organizations dislike this approach

c. Best for small issues

5. Solution First

Organizational Learning ****

● Improve capacity to decisionmaking and problem solving

● Exploration

○ Finding new ways to do things; different actions

○ More business strategy

● Exploitative

○ Finding ways to do current things better, more efficiently, cheaper, etc ○ More functional strategy

● Levels

1. Individual

a. Training

b. Development in area of expertise

c. Stretch Assignment

i. Risk: It could fail miserably

ii. Payoff is really good if it works

Levels of an Organization

1. Individual

a. Teaching individual people what to do and how to do their job 2. Group

a. Cohesion

3. Organizational

a. Big training

b. Everyone gets the same information

4. Inter­Organizational

a. IORs

b. Trade

Knowledge Management

● Identify information

○ One person can’t know everything about an organization **

● Collect information

● Make it available

● Keep it up­to­date

● Limits

1. Self­interest

a. Why would I share this information with you?

b. What’s in it for me?

c. Doesn’t apply to everyone

d. Strongly related to culture

2. Cognitive Biases

a. Escalation of commitment

b. Cognitive Dissonance

3. Structural Impediments (Limitations)


● How to document these things?

● Documentable


● Mentoring


● HR ****

● Experimentation

● Structural Change *****

Knowledge Management (KM)

● Codification

● Personalization

Block KM

Overcoming Blocks

Organizational Change ****

● Targets (what is the focus of the change)

○ Human Resources ­ management styles ****

○ Functional Resources ­ functional approach; do what you already do, but better ****

■ Structure

○ Technology

■ Tools

■ Job Design

○ Organization Capabilities

■ Big picture ideas of what the organization wants to do

○ Physical

● Reasons?

○ Competitive Advantage

○ Environments

○ Ethics

● Resistance to Change

○ Individual

■ Uncertainty

■ Self­interest

○ Group

■ Cohesion

■ Subcultures

○ Organization

■ Power

■ Structure

■ Culture

● Overcoming

○ Participation ­ get the people impacted involved

○ Support ­ try to get their support

○ Communicate ­ tell them the end goal

○ Reward / HR

○ Structural Support

Revolution v. Evolution

1. Total Quality Management (TQM) / Quality Circles (QC)

a. The idea of these is that quality, success, etc are all grouped phenomenon b. You have to concentrate on the level the work is happening; not the big picture and individual training

2. Re­engineering

a. How is the work being done and what is the state with that?

b. Where do we want to be and what do we change to get there?

c. Ex: Uber (who act as brokers ­ bringing you to empty cars willing to drive you places)

d. Ex: Tesla

Planned Change

1. Problem Identification

2. Change Agents

○ Who will be doing the change?

3. Diagnosis

○ You have to be sure of what the problem is

4. Goals

5. Intervention

○ Going in and actually changing specific areas

6. Evaluation

○ Did this intervention make a difference?

○ Was the problem solved?

7. Feedback


● Making sure these changes stay and are actually benefitting organization ● Socialization

○ This is how our culture looks like

○ Part of getting the new changes into place

● Rewards

○ Make sure rewards support and match up with what the change is ● System Diffusion

Life Cycles

1. Life Cycles (what goes into the idea)

a. Resources?

b. Selection is cruel

i. Not every organization survives

ii. Average lifespan of a restaurant is 1 year to a year and a half c. Existing Form

i. Mimicking the model of current successful organizations


1. Environmental Change

2. Someone Notices (usually an entrepreneur)

3. Strategic Analysis

4. Business Plan

Life Cycles

1. Emergence

a. Networks

b. Knowledge

i. Knowing how to do stuff

c. Money

d. First or Later?

i. Selection will be crueler for those who come first

ii. Chances of success are higher if you wait for successful models but your profit will be less

e. Density

i. How much competition is there?

2. Mid­Life

a. Organizations differentiate *** (differentiation in the sense of life cycles) i. Change + Adapt

ii. Environmental Scanning

1. Checking what’s going on around organization


b. Institutionalization

3. Decline + Death

a. “Decrease in internal worth over time”

b. Age

i. How old is the organization?

c. Cohort

d. Period

e. Types of Decline

i. Intentional

ii. Wanted

iii. Strategic

1. Planning to sell of the organization

2. Make as much profit as possible

iv. Complete?

1. Is it a full shutdown or partial?

f. Stages of Decline

i. Environment Change

1. Erosion​**

a. Could be due to technological developments (JVC 

slowly stops making tube TVs), new competition (GM

market share declines after the Japanese cars started 

arriving), or organizational mistakes (Sears) 

2. Contraction

3. Collapse

a. Environment supporting organization disappears

i. Ex: Nuclear exposure to environment kills

resources and/or environment

Stages of Decline (cont’d)

1. Environment Change

a. Erosion

b. Collapse

c. Contraction

2. Recognition

a. Failure to anticipate

b. Changes can be subtle

3. Response

a. Mistake

b. Too slow ­ didn’t react fast enough

c. The longer you wait, the harder it is to make changes

4. Evaluation (only if they can fix the problem)

Organization Death?

● Very complicated

● Culture

Avoid / Recover from Death

1. Extensive Focus

2. Decisionmaking

3. Frame­breaking changes

○ Erosion ­ you know market is changing

■ Solution is to be offensive; do something else (Ex: IBM)

○ Contraction

■ Solution is to be defensive; try to keep from getting worse (Ex:

Home Depot)

○ Collapse

■ Solution is to be experimental; try something new

The Future

● Innovation: reaction to environmental change

● Legal Issues

● New Org Forms


● History

● Organizations are made up of people

● Environment ­ organizations exist in environments and they affect the organization ***

● Open Systems Model ******

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