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Final Study Guide

by: Shaynah Hilaire

Final Study Guide SPCH 2050

Shaynah Hilaire

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This is the Study Guide she sent us with the answers, I know it's last minute. But better late than never!
Media, Culture and Society
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Shaynah Hilaire on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPCH 2050 at Georgia State University taught by Sandmeier in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 71 views. For similar materials see Media, Culture and Society in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
Miglena Sandmeier • Media, Culture & Society   Review Sheet for Final Exam   Description:  The final exam will be worth 350 points. The test will be multiple choice. This test WILL BE IN SCANTRON FORMAT, so  you HAVE TO fill in the scantron, and also to write your answers directly on the test, for a back up copy. You won’t need to  bring a scantron forms, but you but you must bring your own pencils. Each question will be worth 5 points. The exam will  cover the information in the lectures, along with the parts of the textbook that were highlighted in class. Study the following list  of topics,  and  you will do  satellite systems designed to link and carry computer  just fine:  info worldwide  The World Wide Web: a data­linking system for  organizing and standardizing info on the Internet  Media Why the Internet is Open? See notes for Net  Economics  Neutrality Some basic  terms:  Direct payment v. Indirect payment: Media  products supported primarily by consumers, who pay  directly for a book, movie, music download, etc V.  Media products supported primarily by advertisers,  Net Neutrality: the principle that every Website  who pay for the quantity/quality of audience members  that a particular medium delivers  and every user has the right to the same Internet  network speed and access  Regulation & deregulation: much higher prices for  A Video Game Timeline: Penny Arcades, Pinball  some products, consolidation of ownership, large  companies tend to diversify across an entire industry to Machines, Cathode Ray Tube (1948), Pong,  Death  avoid antitrust laws, an increase in the availability of  Race (1976); Super Mario Bros (1985),  low­wage jobs at the expense of higher­paying middle  jobs, and an increase in compensation for top­level  PlayStation (1994), Xbox LIVE (2002), World of  Warcraft (2004),  employees Collective Intelligence: the sharing of knowledge and  Global economics: the extension of synergy to  international levels; the way corps buy multiple  ideas, particularly in the world of gaming  Gender Problems in Video Games: frequency and  products/companies to take advantages of their  playability (ability to play a male character vs female  interaction  The stuff at the end of the end of the presentation:  character), physical abilities, role in the game, and  physical representation (body, attire, etc)    ­ Cultural imperialism: American culture  The stuff at the end of the end of the presentation  dominates the media, crowding out local alternatives  Stuff From the First Two Tests  The Internet & Gaming  Who invented the Internet?  Telecommunications Act of 1996: knocked down  regulatory barriers for the communications industry;  ARPAnet, 1960s abolish most TV ownership  An Internet timeline: first signal of the Net’s  marketability with intro of microprocessors (1971);  Radio Act of 1912: Congress addressed the problem of  amateur radio operators increasingly cramming the  NSFNET designed to link university research computer airwaves centers around the country & also encourage private  investment in the Net (1986); fiber­optic cable:  Radio Act of 1927: radio stations are required to  transmitting communication data speedily (mid­1980s) operate in the “public interest, convenience, or  necessity.”  Definition of the Internet: the vast network of  telephone and cable lines, wireless connections, and         Communications Act of 1934: mandates that during  elections, broadcast stations must provide equal  opportunities and response time for qualified political  controversial news  candidates report Feature syndicates: commercial outlets/brokers that  Near v. Minnesota:  contract with newspapers to provide work from well­  Supreme Court  known political writers, editorial cartoonists, comic­ determined that a  strip artists, and self­help columnists  Minneapolis  Sara Josepha Hale:  newspaper couldn’t  started the first  be stopped from  magazine directed  publishing  exclusively to the  “scandalous and  female audience: The defamatory” material Ladies’ Magazine;  about police and law  magazine advocated  officials whom they  for women’s  felt were negligent in education, work and  arresting and  property rights punishing local  The Progressive  gangsters case: 1979; dispute  FCC v. Pacifica Foundation: require broadcasters to air began when  adult programming at time when children are not likely publishers sent a  to be listening draft to the DOE to  Burstyn v. Wilson: 1952; the movie’s distributor sued  verify technical  the head of the NY Film Licensing Board for banning  portions of the  the film; A few religious and political leaders  article, but because  considered the 1948 Italian film sacrilegious and  the DOE believed  pressured the film board for the ban; the supreme court  that the article  declared that movies were “a significant medium for  contained sensitive  the communication of ideas”  the decision granted  data that might  films the same constitutional protections as those  damage U.S efforts  enjoyed by the print media and other forms of speech to halt the  Mutual v. Ohio: Mutual Film Company sued Ohio  proliferation of  whose review board had censored a number of  nuclear weapons,  distributor’s films; Supreme Court rules that motion  they told them not to  publish it. However,  pictures were not a form of speech, but “a business  pure and simple” they proceeded  The SPJ codes of ethics (four major sections, four  anyways, and they  government sued the  ethical directives): Seek Truth and Report It, Minimize  Harm, Act Independently, and Be Accountable  Progressive and  asked a fed. District  Section 315 of The 1934 Communications Act: If  court to block  broadcasters give/sell time to one candidate, they must  give/sell the same opportunity to others publication; Judge  Warren’s decision  Who invented television?  Philo Farnsworth  stands as the 1  time  Consensus narratives: cultural products that become  in American history  popular and command wide attention, providing shared that a prior­restraint  cultural experiences  order imposed in the  name of national  The year of the movie attendance peak and the reasons  movie attendance declined: 1947; declined because security actually  couples started to use their income on new homes,  stopped the initial  publication of a  appliances, and babies The cultural impact of movies: Movies are “America’s  monopoly: a single firm dominates production and   storyteller,” Movies help us process changing values,  movies bring us together, they define and serve as   oligopoly: a few firms control most of an industry’s  markers for periods of time production and distribution resources  Cultural studies & rhetorical studies: the approaches  that try to understand how the media and culture are   limited competition: a many producers and sellers but only  tied to the actual patterns of communication used in  daily life; envisioned as an artful skill and a means of  a few differentiable products   persuasion Selective exposure & selective retention: the  hegemony: the acceptance of the dominant values in a  phenomenon whereby audiences seek messages and  culture by those who are subordinate to those who  hold economic and political power  meanings that correspond to their preexisting beliefs  and values; the phenomenon whereby audiences  remember/ retain messages/meanings that correspond  economies of scale: as production levels increase, cost per  to their preexisting beliefs and values  unit goes down  The cultivation effect: the idea that heavy TV viewing  leads individuals to perceive reality in ways that are  Moore’s Law:  consistent with the portrayals they see on TV  Jürgen Habermas: considered relationship between  Spiral of Silence: a theory that links the mass media, social  communication and democracy; public sphere (1962);  psychology, and the formation of public opinion; theory  found societies to be increasingly influence by free  says that people who hold minority views on controversial  trade and the rise of the printing press issues tend to keep their views silent  The early history of the Internet: originated as a  military­gov’t project, with computer time­sharing as  What are these about? Learn to distinguish them so you  one of its goals (1960); a multimedia source for both  know which one is which in a question with a  info and entertainment as it quickly became an integral  different context. There may be more than one  part of our daily lives (2000);  question including these.   Absolute & qualified privilege: privilege that protects  Clayton Antitrust Act: (1890) stopped business from  its holder from all harms arising from any  action/inaction; a legal right allowing journalists to  selling only to those who rejected competitors’  products   report judicial/legislative proceedings even though the  McCain­Feingold Act:  public statements being reported may be libelous ruling that “the  Who invented the World Wide Web & where? Initially  government may not ban  a text data linking system that allowed computer­ political spending by  accessed info to associate with other info no matter  corporations in candidate where it was on the Internet; Switzerland elections” overturned 2  Slander vs. Libel: spoken language that defames a  decades of precedents  person’s character; the defamation of character in  that had limited direct  written expression corporate spending on  Definition of prior restraint: prohibits courts and  campaigns which placed  governments from blocking any publication or speech  restrictions on buying  before it actually occurs  TV and radio campaign  Modern definition of obscenity: how movies are  ads   protected Sherman Antitrust Act: (1914) outlawed monopolies  OTHER STUFF:   and other anticompetitive practices  Anti­Monopoly Act of 1921:     digital divide: the growing contrast between those who do  and those who don’t have access to digital technology and  Celler­Kefauver Act: 1950; corporate mergers and  media, such as the Internet  joint ventures that reduce competition are limited Synergy Haptic: when  Adolph Zukor: eventually will run Paramount Pictures; his  the interaction of  early companies figured out ways to bypass the Trust, and a multiple elements is  suit by Fox, a nickelodeon operator turned film distributor,  greater than the sum of resulted in the Trust’s breakup due to restraint of trade  its parts; the way  violations in 1917 corporations buy  William Fox: established  multiple  Twentieth Century Fox;  products/companies to Paul Nipkow: developed the  take advantage of their interaction scanning disk, a large flat metal disk with a series of small   Kinetics:   perforations organized in a  What is TCP/IP in the context of the internet? TCP is the  spiral pattern; served as the  foundation for experiments on  component that collects and reassembles the packets of  the transmission of visual  data; IP is responsible for making sure the packets are sent  to the right destination images Who are these people and what have they done for  What is modding? Slang for modifying game  communications?   software/hardware The most advance form of collective  intelligence


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