New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

final study guide

by: Milana Katz

final study guide rel 161

Marketplace > University of Miami > Religion > rel 161 > final study guide
Milana Katz
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

these notes will cover whats on the final
Religion and Medicine
C. Newell
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Religion and Medicine

Popular in Religion

This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Milana Katz on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to rel 161 at University of Miami taught by C. Newell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Religion and Medicine in Religion at University of Miami.


Reviews for final study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/28/16
Avicenna- A Persian philosopher and physician, who became physician to the sultan in 997. Born in what is today Uzbekistan, he studied the philosophy and science of the lands that were absorbed into the expanding Islamic Empire and incorporated them into his medical practice. His Canon of Medicine integrates older Persian texts, along with Galen’s work, Ayurvedic principles, and Aristotle’s philosophy. He introduced significant ideas such as quarantining the sick to limit the spread of disease (including STDs), clinical trials, theories of contagion, clinical pharmacology, and the concept of a syndrome — He also believed that medicine should not be just theoretical, but should also include attention to maintaining health through diet and exercise. The body of Christ- In Our Image”—imitatio Dei—made in the image of God 2. Christ’s physical body; the body of Jesus was God taking on an Earthly body in order to die for our sins, a body that died and then rose again 3. The body of Christ as the Eucharist, the bread shared during the recreation of the Last Supper, which was the final meal Jesus had with his followers. Reverence for life- Schweitzer was among the first to point out that all ethical systems must include a “reverence for life”; all beings along the great chain are equally deserving of respect because they are alive Atul Gawande- his ideas about care. It discusses three virtues that Gawande considers to be most important for success in medicine: diligence, doing right, and ingenuity. Gawande offers examples in the book of people who have embodied these virtues. The book strives to present multiple sides of contentious medical issues, such as malpractice law in the US, physicians' role in capital punishment, and treatment variation between hospitals. st Religious liberty- Dr. Soller . ACLU 1 amendment. Not have religion interefere with gove. Torah and Talmud- The Torah is both a book and idea; it includes: the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (believed to have been authored by Moses); a narrative of God’s creation of the world and the origins of the Jews in Israel specific commandments for living according to God’s will. Many of those commandments have to do with health, hygiene, and sanitation. Talmud? — The title itself means “instruction” and dates back to approximately 400 CE — The first part of the Talmud is Mishnah, a collation of Jewish laws; the second part, the Gemara, is more or less commentary on the Mishnah and the Hebrew Bible — Contained within these laws, stories, teaches, and commandments are many, many reiterations of the idea that humans are obligated to care for one another, to care for their bodies, and to provide healing for the sick, no matter whom or where — N.B. Leviticus is sometimes referred to as the first book on public health and hygiene! Maimonides- He was both a rabbi and a physician—but he’s remembered as a philosopher, as well — He wrote a great deal on bringing together Jewish religious law and Greek philosophy/study of natural law — Because of these confluences of faith and culture, Maimonides was then and is now valued for his commentaries on Jewish laws and his formulations of Jewish ethics and beliefs — However, during his own time and in the century or so afterward he was revered as a physician — He followed Galen’s medical philosophy, but Maimonides famously used experimentation and observation to heal others; some claim he described blood circulation well before William Harvey — His writings include injunctions such as “a perfect [healthy] body is an essential to the proper serving of God” and methods for diagnosing disease that were ahead of their time — He was then and is now considered a model of a Jewish physician/philosopher, and many have patterned their lives and careers on his Abraham Heschel- jewish philospjer who addressed the medical association in the 1960s, and he was advocating for ideas similar to schwitzer. Rabbi Abraham Joshua Heschel was born in what is today Poland in 1907; after losing most of his family to the Nazis, he emigrated to New York City in 1940, and became an American citizen — Due to his past and his Biblical studies, he believed very strongly in social action, social justice, and service to a community, and was consequently very involved in the Civil Rights movement in the 1960s — This essay was given as a speech to the American Medical Association in 1964 Ahisma- jane term for non violence. Universal principle of non violence important to Jainism and deeply influenced people like albert Schweitzer. (non- violence; “do no harm”) also prohibits causing pain and stresses acting with compassion This was the principle at the heart of “reverence for life” Techne and phronesis- Kinghorn. Phronesis (practical wisdom) rather than techne must therefore be the guiding logic of educational initiatives in medical profes- sional formation, with particular emphasis on close mentorship and on the moral char- acter both of students and of those who teach them. For Aristotle, these ideas are tools in pursuit of reaching eudaimonia, the highest good—for individuals, for groups, and for all humans Impermanence- a philosophy more so that Abrahamic religions, Judaism, Buddhism. Life giving life, thinking about death. one life gives way to another; death is part of life— not the opposite of it Buddhism- Care of the whole person— wellness depends on not just physical health, but heath of the spirit and mind, as well. Buddhism began in India +/- 5th century BCE. It is based on the spiritual teachings of Siddhartha Gautama, the Gautama Buddha (which means “awakened one”). It is “non-deist”. The two major branches of Buddhism include Mahayana (“The Great Vehicle”), practiced primarily in China, Tibet, and Japan, and Theravada (“The School of the Elders”) and is practiced in Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, and throughout southeast Asia. 4 noble truths: 1) suffering is inevitable. 2)there is a cause to the suffering. 3)there is an end to the suffering. 4) the end to suffering is contained in the 8 fold path. Aristotle- Aristotle provides a cogent argument, however, that the moral excellences denoted by “professionalism” cannot be “produced” or even prespecified in the concrete; rather, they must be acquired through long practice under the careful concrete guidance of teachers who themselves embody these moral excellences. Aristotle opens his ethical masterpiece, the Nicomachean Ethics, by asserting that the good (agathos) is “that at which all things aim,” the goal of all action (1094a). Albert Schweitzer- Over the course of the rest of his life, he wrote extensively on the evils of colonialism, the importance of health care as a vocation, the intertwined histories of religions, and ethics. Schweitzer was among the first to point out that all ethical systems must include a “reverence for life”; all beings along the great chain are equally deserving of respect because they are alive — This idea came from his study – not just of the life of Jesus – but of all religions — In particular, he was deeply affected by the concept of ahimsa (non- violence) and the devotion to ending suffering found in Hinduism and Buddhism — He wanted to use medicine to heal the whole person, but also to remake the world and end needless suffering Hospice care-being immortal. Guande. People don’t like hospice care, and they rather die than be on these medcations. Out country doesn’t talk about death, and we’re not straight forward about things. Ayurveda- A system of healing that came out of ancient Vedic culture in India The name comes from the Sanskrit words for ‘longevity’ (ayus) and ‘knowledge’ or science’ (veda). Three substances (doshas) govern our bodies, spirits, and minds: Vata (Wind) Pitta (Fire) Kapha (Earth) The goal of ayurvedic medicine is to find and balance these elements through diet, medicine, therapies (message, meditation), and [not so much anymore] surgical techniques. Alternative therapies- mindfulness. 38% adults and 12% children use it. Community health workers- ACommunityHealthWorker(CHW)isa frontline public health worker who is a trusted member of and/or has an unusually close understanding of the community served. This trusting relationship enables the CHW to serve as a liaison/ link/ intermediary between health/social services and the community to facilitate access to services and improve the quality and cultural competence of service delivery. ACHWalsobuildsindividualand community capacity by increasing health knowledge and self- sufficiency through a range of activities such as outreach, community education, informal counseling, social support and advocacy. The first CHWs in the U.S. were established in community health centers in Boston and San Francisco in the 1990s Virtue ethics- Aristotle distinguished between two kinds of virtue: intellectual virtue (what is true), and moral virtue (what is good)Virtue ethics can be summed up by that third option, and deals more with the concept of motives: are you motivated to help make a better society, to do good for your fellow human, to act out of generosity rather than greed, etc.? — But, in order to build those motivations, one must build good habits of character through action and practice—one has to learn how to make moral decisions and then act from those correct motives — Therefore, education is important, a good teacher is very important, and an ability to practice phronesis is ideal—it’s all about developing character. Mindfulness-guest lecture. being continuously present with experience —includes meeting death mindfully. Professor from law school, rogers. Bring your mind back from wandering by sTOP, take a breath, observe proceeed. Core competencies-adopting professionalism. Skills learned. Qi-energy in traditional Chinese medicine. The central teaching of TCM is that the body’s qi (energy) circulates through the body through a network of channels (meridians) Canon of medicine- Avicenna, Islamic philosopher, good exercise and diet. 5books. Used in unani medicine. Traditional chinese medicine- “TCM” dates back almost 2500 years; some of the first medical teachings and practices were described in documents that date to the 14 century BCE. It includes practices such as acupuncture, herbal medicine, therapeutic massage, diet, and tai chi (a slow, gentle movement of the body that trains mental focus and relaxation) Professionalism- Aristotle and virtue ethics, what the word actually meant in terms of greek philosophy. A vocation that is characterized by mastery of an extensive body of technical knowledge, and 2. Theories that explain that knowledge and guide its application to various circumstances, and 3. Has a special relationship with those whom it serves — “Profession” also comes from a Latin word: professio, meaning a public declaration that has the connotation of being a promise — What, then, is professionalism? — Professionalism: the carrying out of professional responsibilities and adherence to ethical principles (definition by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) Airs, waters, places- Hippocrates: 2400 years ahead of his time He’s saying that health—either the absence of disease (old definition) or the general well-being of inhabitants (new definition)—is associated with the physical environment and the people around you (i.e., you tend to have the same health outcomes as the people in your immediate community). Galen’s surgical tools- made 1800 years ago. Jon kabat-zinn- explains how mindfulness mediation can help with stress reduction. Humanism- system of thought rather than divine. Believe in phronesis, practical wisdom leading toward action (praxis). Ecology of healing- healing happens in a community.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.