Final Exam Review
Final Exam Review Bio 1023
Popular in Plants and humans
Popular in Biological Sciences
This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katy Davit on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 1023 at Mississippi State University taught by Outlaw in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Plants and humans in Biological Sciences at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
PLANTS!&!HUMANS!FINAL!EXAM!REVIEW!!! ! EXAM 1 REVIEW: •! Characteristics of living organisms: o! Composed of cells o! Metabolism o! Respond to stimuli o! Growth and development o! Reproduction o! Ability to adapt •! Hierarchy of smallest to largest entity (Atom to Biosphere): 1.! Atoms- smallest “functional” unit of all chemical substances (molecules). Cannot be broken down. 2.! Molecules and Macromolecules- Two or more atoms connected by chemical bonds. 3.! Organelle- Membrane-bound sub-cellular structure with it’s own unique fashion. 4.! Cell- The simplest unit of an organism. 5.! Tissues- The association of many cells of the same type. 6.! Organs- Two or more types of tissue combined to perform a common function. 7.! Organism- A living thing that maintains an internal order and is separate from the environment. 8.! Species- Group of related organisms sharing a distinct form. 9.! Population- Group of individuals of the same species that occupy the same environment. 10.!Community- Assemblage of populations of different species living in the same place/time. 11.!Ecosystem- Biotic community of populations and the abiotic environment affecting that community. 12.!Biosphere- All regions on Earth, and in the atmosphere, where organisms exist. •! Steps in the Scientific Method: o! Observation- Specific, observation-based question you are trying to answer. o! Hypothesis- Plausible explanation for observation o! Prediction- Outcome you believe will come from experimentation o! Experiment- Gathering of data appropriate to address question o! Results- Organized and detailed mathematical data o! Conclusion- Accept or reject hypothesis !! Null hypothesis not rejected = reject hypothesis !! Null hypothesis rejected = accept hypothesis •! Hypothesis: A proposed explanation for a natural phenomenon •! Theory: A broad explanation of some aspect of the natural world •! What is Energy? The ability to promote change or do work comes in many forms o! Kinetic energy- Energy associated with movement o! Potential energy- Energy due to structure or location of substance o! Chemical energy- Potential energy held in molecular bonds •! Thermodynamics: First law of thermodynamics (also called the Law of conservation of energy) o! Energy cannot be created or destroyed o! Can be transformed from one type to another PLANTS!&!HUMANS!FINAL!EXAM!REVIEW!!! ! o! Ex: Chemical energy into heat energy Second law of thermodynamics o! Transfer of transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy o! Entropy (S)- The degree of disorder of a system o! Any transfer of energy ALWAYS results in a loss of energy of heat o! No energy transfer is 100% efficient •! Metabolism: All chemical reactions within a cell that allows an organism to maintain structures and grow and most importantly, respond to the environment •! Catabolism: The breakdown of larger molecules into subunits releasing chemical bond energy •! Anabolism: Chemical reactions responsible for “building” large macromolecules from smaller subunits •! Oxidation: Removal of electrons •! Reduction: Addition of electrons •! What is ATP? o! Adenine (nucleotide) with extra 2 phosphates o! Primary energy carrying molecule in the cell o! Bond between the 2 terminal PO4 are high energy bonds o! If terminal PO4 is removed, energy is released and can be “captured” by the cell to do work •! Molecules of Life: o! Carbohydrates- Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, includes monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides o! Proteins- any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms o! Lipids- any of a class of organic compounds that are fatty acids or their derivatives and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents o! Nucleic acids- a complex organic substance present in living cells, especially DNA or RNA, whose molecules consist of many nucleotides linked in a long chain EXAM 2 REVIEW: •! What are the 4 Plant Tissues? o! Lateral- secondary growth, results in increase in girth (diameter) (tree growing wider) o! Apical- primary growth, results in increase in length (tree growing taller) o! Dermal- covers and protects the plant’s exposed surfaces, often involves a thick waxy cuticle to prevent water loss o! Vascular- Distributes water and nutrients to all parts of the plant body •! Differentiate between the 2 different meristems: o! Apical Meristems- Located at the tips, and directly involved in their elongation, form primary growth o! Lateral- Responsible for horizontal expansion PLANTS!&!HUMANS!FINAL!EXAM!REVIEW!!! ! •! Function of Xylem and Phloem: o! Xylem- the vascular tissue in plants that conducts water and dissolved nutrients upward from the root and also helps to form the woody element in the stem o! Phloem- the vascular tissue in plants that conducts sugars and other metabolic products downward from the leaves •! Taproot v. Fibrous Root: o! Taproot, structure (one main primary root, grow deep to reach underground water) o! Fibrous roots (highly branched lateral roots, take advantage of subsurface area area after a rain) •! Function and Parts of the Root: o! Generally, as extensive as shoots, formed first after seeds germinate o! Anchor plants in soil o! Storage of organic molecules, starch, amino acids, enzymes o! Main function is to take up water and dissolved nutrients o! Root cap- covers root tip o! Secretes mucigel, protection from drying o! Subapical region, three regions 1.! Zone of cell division 2.! Zone of cell elongation 3.! Zone of cell maturation •! Mucigel: slimy substance that covers the root cap of the roots of plants •! What is the Function of the “knees” of Cypress Trees? •! Epiphytes: a plant that grows on another plant but is not parasitic •! Layers of Soil: o! Top soil o! Sub-soil o! Weathered rock o! Rock •! Humus: the organic component of soil, formed by the decomposition of leaves and other plant material by soil microorganisms •! 3 Main Functions of the Stem: o! Support- for leaves and reproductive structures o! Conduction- water/minerals and carbohydrates o! Growth- apical and lateral meristems •! What are Annual Rings? o! each of a number of concentric rings in the cross section of a tree trunk, representing a single year's growth •! Dendrochronology: the science or technique of dating events, environmental change, and archaeological artifacts by using the characteristic patterns of annual growth rings in timber and tree trunks •! Heartwood v. Sapwood: o! Heartwood is darker and stronger o! Sapwood is functioning tissue and lighter in color •! 2 Parts of Bark: o! Inner bark=phloem PLANTS!&!HUMANS!FINAL!EXAM!REVIEW!!! ! o! Outer bark=protective barrier •! Rosette plants: Stems do not elongate, leaves are protection •! Stolon’s: Horizontal above-ground stems •! Thorns: Sharp, pointed modified stems, deter herbivores from eating the plant •! Rhizomes: Horizontal underground stems, cold environment, allow plants to survive cold winters •! Tubers: Horizontal swollen stems •! Bulbs: Vertical swollen stems •! What are Stomata and what controls the opening and closing? o! Stomata, pores found on underside of leaf, allows for gas station o! Transpiration, the evaporation of water vapor from aboveground tissues (usually leaves) •! What Gases Enter and Exit the Leaf? o! Carbon dioxide enters through the stomata, and through the process of photosynthesis, this carbon dioxide is changed to oxygen and then released through the stomata •! Transpiration: the process where plants absorb water through the roots and then give off water vapor through pores in their leaves •! C-A-T Mechanism: o! C- Cohesion: water ▯sticks “to other water molecules o! Adhesion: water sticks to other polar molecules o! T- Tension: Evaporation from leaves •! Differentiate between deciduous and evergreen plants: •! What are modified leaves and their functions: EXAM 3 REVIEW •! Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis: o! Mitosis Type of nuclear division resulting in 2 genetically identical daughter cells Type of division used in growth o! Meiosis Specialized type of nuclear division which results in 4 genetically different daughter cells with half the number of chromosomes as mother (original) cell •! Stages of Mitosis: o! Interphase- phase of the cell cycle during which the chromosomes are uncondensed and found in the nucleus o! M-phase- Division of one cell nucleus into two o! Prophase- Chromosomes condensed into highly compacted structures o! Metaphase- Sister chromatids aligned along a plane halfway between the poles, organized into a single row o! Anaphase- Connections between the pairs of sister chromatids are broken o! Telophase- Chromosomes have reached their respective poles and de-condense o! Cytokinesis- Two nuclei are segregated into separate daughter cells •! Crossing over: the exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes, resulting in a mixture of parental characteristics in offspring PLANTS!&!HUMANS!FINAL!EXAM!REVIEW!!! ! •! Autotrophs: an organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide •! Photosynthesis equation: 6CO + 12H O + Light Energy > C H O + 6H O 2 2 6 12 6 2 •! How do Pigments work? o! Absorb some light energy and reflect others •! Cellular Respiration equation: C H O 6 12> 6O + 2 O + A2P 2 •! Where does Cellular Respiration begin and end? o! Begins- Mitochondrion o! Ends- ATP •! Differences between anaerobic and aerobic respiration: o! Anaerobic- release of energy from glucose or in the presence of oxygen o! Anaerobic- oxidation of a molecule •! Biofuels: a fuel derived directly from living matter •! Biodiesel: a biofuel intended as a substitute for diesel •! Allele: one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome. o! Two types •! Differences between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes o! Homozygous- same o! Heterozygous- different •! Who was Gregor Mendel and what did he contribute to science: Father of genetics •! Genotype: of the genetic makeup of a cell, and therefore of an organism or individual, which determines a specific characteristic •! Phenotype: he observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environmental influences •! Heredity effects of sex-linked genes: EXAM 4 REVIEW: •! Define Biological Evolution: Any genetic change in a population that is inherited over several generations. These changes may be small or large, noticeable or not noticeable. •! Who was Charles Darwin and what did he contribute to science? Charles Darwin was an English naturalist and geologist who is best known for his contributions to the evolutionary theory •! How does Natural Selection work? Natural selection is the process where the species that is better adapted to an environment tend to survive better and produce more offspring. This theory was first brought about by Darwin and is now believed to be the main process that brings about evolution. •! How does Artificial Selection work? Artificial selection is the process of breeding specific plants or species to produce desirable traits. •! Ecological Fields of Study: o! Population Ecology- Focuses on groups of interbreeding individuals o! Community Ecology- Studies how populations of species interact and form communities PLANTS!&!HUMANS!FINAL!EXAM!REVIEW!!! ! o! Ecosystem Ecology- Studies the flow of energy and cycling of chemical elements among organisms within a community and between organisms and the environment o! Physiological Ecology- how organisms are physiologically adapted to their environment o! Behavioral Ecology- how the behavior of an individual organism contributes to survival and reproductive success •! General Features of Biomes: o! Tropical Rainforest (wet) o! Taiga (cold) o! Prairie (grassland) o! Hot Desert (hot and dry) o! Tundra (cold) •! Quantifying Population Density: o! Visual survey- count by eye o! Sampling- extrapolate population size from number of captured individuals •! Dispersion Patterns: o! Clumped- most common, resources tend to be clustered in nature o! Uniform- caused by competition, may also result from social interaction o! Random- rare, resources are rarely and randomly spaced •! Reproductive Strategies: o! Semelparity- produce all offspring in single reproductive event, reproduce once and die o! Iteroparity- reproduce in successive years or breeding seasons o! Seasonal iteroparity- distinct breeding seasons o! Continuous iteroparity- reproduce repeatedly •! Patterns of Species Richness: o! Species Richness- number of species in each community o! Varies by geographic range o! Increases from polar to temperate regions o! Increases by topographical variation •! Succession: Gradual and continuous change in species composition and community structure over time o! Primary succession- succession on a newly exposed site not previously occupied by soil and vegetation o! Secondary succession- succession on a site that has already supported life but that has undergone a disturbance, such as a fire, tornado, hurricane, or flood •! Island Biodiversity: Study of succession of islands o! MacArthur and Wilson developed the equilibrium model of island biogeography o! Number of species on an island tends toward and equilibrium number •! What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity can be examined at 3 levels o! Genetic Diversity- amount of genetic variation within and between populations o! Species Diversity- number of species in a community o! Ecosystem Diversity- diversity of a structure and function within an ecosystem •! Conservation Strategies: o! Habitat conservation PLANTS!&!HUMANS!FINAL!EXAM!REVIEW!!! ! o! Hot spots- have widest variety of endemics o! Representative habitats o! Complete restoration- attempt to put back what was there prior to disturbance o! Rehabilitation- return habitat to something similar but less than full restoration o! Ecosystem replacement- replace original ecosystem o! Captive breeding- breeding of animals and plants to produce stock for release into the wild •! Causes of Extinction: o! Introduced species- species moved by humans from native location to another o! Invasive species- out-compete native species for space and resources o! Direct exploitation o! Habitat destruction (deforestation) o! Climate change (global warming) o! Inbreeding- mating along relatives
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