HDFS 129 Final Study Guide
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This 19 page Study Guide was uploaded by Camryn McCabe on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 129 at a university taught by Molly Countermine in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 241 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Id, Ego, and Super ego o Psychoanalytic Theory of Freud- development is directed by the interaction of nature (drives/instincts, present from birth) and nurture (early experiences, primarily parents) o 3 structures involved in formation of personality o Id- present at birth Our basic instinct to seek pleasure and avoid pain Our need to express the self o Superego- begins in infancy, in place by 3-6 years old Constraints placed upon infant/child by parents and society “The rules” o Ego- begins to form in infancy How we cope with our instinctual drives (Id) and demands made by parents and society (superego) Reflected in our decisions, our behavior o Internal conflict- anxiety/mental tension that results from struggle between biological demands/drives and societal expectations o Ex.) Id- drive to be loved and protected Superego- neglect/abuse/rejection by parents (the knowledge that this is the way it is) Ego- must develop coping mechanism; create a way to handle rejection Gottman’s research on conflict and divorce How Gottman measure couples’ marriage Not just with surveys or questionnaires (bc people lie) Need to record couples’ interaction (people are unaware of their style of communication) Marital Interaction Assessment: 15 minute recording of couple talking about something they disagree on Specific Affect Coding System: facial expressions, tone of voice, body language Positive affect: humor, affection, validation, joy Negative affect: disgust, contempt, criticism, belligerence, domineering, defensiveness, whining, tension, fear, anger, sadness Physiological measures: heart rate, palmar skin conductance (sweat), gross motor movement, blood assays of immune response HDFS 129 Final Study Guide The “Four Horseman” of Divorce Criticism Defensiveness Contempt Stonewalling These 4 styles of interacting predict divorce Criticism Attacking someone’s global character Involves placing blame on person It’s global, not specific Females use it more than males “Always” and “never” statements o “You never want to talk.” o “You only think of yourself.” Complaining is NOT criticizing o Gottman says complaining is one of the healthiest things we can do in a marriage, if done correctly o Expressing anger and disagreement o Complaining isn’t pleasant, but it makes a marriage stronger in the long run o Unvoiced complaints lead to repression, resentment, and trouble o Complaints are specific, not global “I really love it when we talk deeply… can we do that more?” Defensiveness Denying responsibility, making excuses Complaint: “I’m upset you didn’t call.” Defensiveness: “I never said I’d call.” Complaint: “ My feelings were hurt by what you said.” Defensiveness: “You’re too sensitive; I didn’t mean it the way you took it.” Cross complaint: “Well my feelings were hurt by what you said.” Used equally by both genders Contempt The intention to belittle your partner The message is that he/she is stupid HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Can include name-calling Hostile humor, sarcasm, mockery Body language Husband’s contempt toward wife over time predicts wife’s physical health Used equally by both genders Contempt is the BIGGEST predictor of divorce Stonewalling Physically and/or emotionally withdrawing from conflict 85% of time it’s the male who stonewalls Males have a different physiological response to relational conflict than females o Muscles tense, heart rate increases, breathing becomes shallow, palms sweat o Because of biology and socialization How to fight fair 1. Soften your startup 2. Learn to make repair attempts (humor) 3. Learn to self soothe 4. Compromise Attachment and Communication styles Secure: interest in partner’s comments, recognize partner’s distress, response with empathy, give and receive comfort Insecure Ambivalent: overly dependent and anxious in relationships Insecure Avoidant: dismiss or withdraw form conflict, less emotional expression in relationship Gottman’s suggestions Work on one problem at a time Take responsibility; be willing to look at your own behavior If you see your partner becoming upset, try to soothe him/her (and yourself) Complain, don’t criticize; be specific, face problems head on Use empathy --- understanding, not advice Validate your partner’s feelings HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Show genuine interest (bids for attention) Communicate your understanding Remarriage and divorce On average, people remarry within 4 years of divorce Men remarry faster than women Remarriages are especially vulnerable to breakup o Practical matters amount more heavily Rearing children, social acceptance, financial security o Transfer of negative patterns of interactions from first marriage o View divorce as an acceptable solution when difficulties resurface with a failed marriage in their past o Stress from stepfamily situations Effects of divorce on children For kids, families are supposed to support their psychological and emotional into maturity When the family structure collapses, the child’s world hoses its support Most kids found out about the divorce on the day of separation Many felt angry and powerless (especially the older ones) Fewer than 10% of kids had any adult express sympathy to them as the divorce unfolded Divided Loyalties: kids are put into the position that if they give sympathy or love to one parent, they are being disloyal to the other Issues kids have to deal with Being forced to move; leaving behind friends, schools, other support Having 2 parents in 2 different homes Weekend visits, less time with friends Having to adjust to parents’ new boyfriends/girlfriends Carving out a new relationship with father Adolescence beings earlier; responsibilities, risk-taking behavior, sexual activity Different issues for different age groups at time of divorce Preschoolers HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Fear of abandonment Confusion about visitation, time o Don’t understand “next week” Difficulty comforting self 5-8 Preoccupation with feelings of rejection, guilt, and loss Fear of being replaced Males began to have intense longing for father 9-12 Intense anger Psychosomatic symptoms Acting as caregivers to adults to the exclusion of their own needs o “Parentified children” Adolescents (13-18) Worry about their own relationships Because they understand complexity, they have difficulty sorting through all the issues Parents often thought they would be “old enough to understand” Either separate or become “enmeshed” with one or both parents Emerging Adulthood “Sleeper effect” Anxiety about their own successful involvement in romantic relationships Females were preoccupied with betrayal; behavior took many forms Males avoided relationships, or were very reserved emotionally How to help children cope with divorce Understanding divorce: give info, tell kids at the same time and as soon as a decision is made to separate o Initially at level of youngest child Stability: stay in activities; parents remain committed to kids’ lives Dealing with loss; permission to love both parents Dealing with anger Dealing with guilt Accepting permanence of divorce Taking a chance on love HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Should parents stay together “for the sake of the children”? Young adults who perceive their parents’ marriage as high in conflict fared better if their parents divorced and the conflict ended Young adults who perceive their parents’ marriage as low in conflict fared worse For all kids, if divorces is followed by inept parenting and/or continued conflict, divorce is detrimental At the same time, high conflict in a marriage is detrimental Poor adjustment in children after divorce is associated with: Continuing conflict between parents Decline in parental support Loss of contact with non-custodial parent Economic decline Decline in parental supervision/monitoring Moving Children with divorced parents experience more problems: Depression/anxiety Lower academic achievement Poor self-concept Decreased social competence Healthy problems Behavior problems More likely to divorce as adults Age at time of divorce doesn’t predict whether or not there are problems; it predicts the types of problems children have Gay and lesbian families Parental influence o Fathers are more active in gender role development than mothers o Parents encourage “male” and “female” chores, toys, and behaviors o Gay/lesbian parents? Their kids usually turn out better (because they did not have a particular gender pushed on them) Adult attachment Adult attachment and Communication styles HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Secure: interest in partner’s comments, recognize partner’s distress, response with empathy, give and receive comfort Insecure Ambivalent: overly dependent and anxious in relationships Insecure Avoidant: dismiss or withdraw form conflict, less emotional expression in relationship Judith Wallerstein’s research on outcomes of divorce Began in 1971- divorce was thought to be a brief crisis and that the divorce rate would drop 60 families, 131 kids Homogenous group: well-educated, middle and upper class, no prior emotional problems Divorce “under the best of circumstances” Wallerstein expected her study to end in a year or so Interviews and questionnaires to measure adjustment (kids, parents, teachers of kids) Results at 18 months Adults still angry; lives not put back together Kids “seemed to be on a downward course” Toddlers were like “babies holding up the world” o Had weight of world on their shoulders She was refunded for another 5 years with 90% participation Results at 5 years: adults 50% of men felt more content 75% of women felt more content 50% of men felt just as unhappy 25% of women felt just as unhappy Results at 5 years: children 1/3 doing well 40% had significant problems Remaining kids had some problems Majority felt their parents had given priority to adult needs more than kids’’ needs HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Majority still wanted parents to get back together 10% felt relieved when parents divorced Conventional wisdom about divorce As parents put their lives back together, the kids lives will also improve Not what research has found Circumstances that enrich as adult’s life do not necessarily trickle down to kids (new job, new love, new friends) Less time, less focus, less available for kids Wallerstein sough funds for a 10-year follow up Death, dying, and old age Integrity v. Despair: on death and dying Late Adulthood: 65-75 Integrity: life has been meaningful and held purpose; life has been satisfying Despair: life has not been meaningful nor held any purpose Greatest fears of elderly people: o Being a victim of crime (actually, the younger are mostly victims) o Senility (actually, only 3-4%) o Poverty (actually, only 10% live in poverty) o Being in a nursing home Living arrangements of elderly people o Living with spouse Women: 41% Men: 73% o Living alone Women: 40% Men: 17% o Other (w/children, w/friend, w/sibling, assisted living, nursing home) Women: 19% Men: 10% ***Only 5% are living in a nursing home Elderly people… o Are the least likely of all age groups to feeling lonely o Have the fewest friends… by choice HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o Score highest of any age group on well-being and general satisfaction with life Hope & Faith v. Despair Ages 75+ Hope: to transcend life’s circumstances Generally, young people express a greater fear of death than people over the age of 75 Realistic fear of elderly people: being kept alive by medical technology with a diminished capacity for living The Living-Dying Interval Communicating with a person who is facing eminent death 1. Be at the same eye level 2. Eliminate distraction 3. Be aware of the energy level of the person with regard to visiting 4. Follow the person’s lead in accepting their death 5. Encourage expression of feelings (“Anything you want to talk about?”) 6. Don’t be afraid to ask the person about their prognosis 7. Ask the person if there is anyone they would like you to contact 8. Encourage the dying person to reminisce 9. Talk when they want to talk 10. Don’t be afraid to say goodbye Happiness The top 5 regrets of people who are dying 1. I wish I’d had the courage to live a life true to myself, not the life others expected of me. 2. I wish I hadn’t worked too hard. 3. I wish I’d had the courage to express my feelings. 4. I wish I had stayed in touch with my friends. 5. I wish that I had let myself be happier. “The 3 grand essentials of happiness are: something to do, someone to love, something to hope for.” What makes us happy? o Family o Meaningful philosophy of life o Purposeful work (doesn’t have to be a career) “Happiness” transmitter- dopamine HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Hedonic treadmill: Whatever level of wealth/material goods you have, you adapt to it and always want more Intrinsic values: close relationships, community feelings Extrinsic values: money, image, popularity Erikson’s stages of development 1. Trust v. Mistrust: birth-18 months a. “Can I trust?” “Is the world a safe place?” b. Trust – warm, responsive, consistent caregiving c. Mistrust- unresponsive, harsh, neglectful, abusive 2. Autonomy v. Shame/doubt: 18 months – 3 yr. a. “Can I do it?” b. Autonomy- ability to do things for yourself c. Increase of a child’s own exploration and independence d. Child needs patience and encouragement i. Doesn’t need belittling, discouragement 3. Initiative v. Guilt: 4-5 yr. a. “What can I do?” i. After they know they can do it, what can they do? b. Curiosity, free play c. Must allow child to try 4. Industry v. Inferiority: 6-10 yr. a. “Can I keep trying?” b. Industry- capacity to try, problem solve, and work c. Perseverance (biggest measurer of success) i. Child is not afraid to fail b/c they were never made to feel bad for failing d. Big role for teachers 5. Identity v. Role Confusion: 11-22 yr. a. “Who am I?” “Where do I belong?” “What do I believe?” b. Family, friends, teachers, coaches, mentors all contribute (people who mean the most to you) 6. Intimacy v. Isolation: 22-35 yr. a. “How do I love?” “How do I want to be loved?” “What do relationships mean to me?” b. Applies to romantic relationships and friendships c. Commitment 7. Generativity v. Self-absorption: 35-65 yr. (middle adulthood) a. “What am I doing with my life?” “What am I giving back/accomplishing for the community?” b. “What will outlive me?” (Career accomplishments, kids, ideas) c. As long as you feel generative about something, that thing makes you generative 8. Integrity v. Despair: 65-85 yr. (old age) HDFS 129 Final Study Guide a. “How have I lived my life?” i. Looking back b. Finding meaning in one’s life c. Going within yourself 9. Hope/faith v. Despair: 90 and UP (old old age) a. Transcendence- being ready to go/move on Levinson’s developmental tasks of adulthood o Young-Old: finding positive meaning in being older Men focus on health (strength), women on body issues (image) o Destruction-Creation: becoming more aware of how we have acted in a harmful way toward others and trying to correct it o Masculinity-Femininity: becoming more androgynous Men become more feminine, women become more masculine o Engagement-Separation: resolving issues of work and family Identity statuses James Marcia Late adolescence (18-22) is a period of consolidation, tearing of the initial ID construction that began in early adolescence By late adolescence, it is possible to categorize the ID status of individuals into one of 4 categories Framework for assessing statuses o ID achievement o ID moratorium o ID foreclosure o ID diffusion ID achievement- commitment made after crisis experienced o Individual has resolved his/her ID issues and made a commitment to particular goals, beliefs, and values ID moratorium- no commitment made and currently experiencing crisis (exploration) o Individual is actively raising questions and seeking answers o Enduring commitments have not yet been made ID foreclosure- commitment made but no crisis experienced o Individual seems to know who he/she is but has latched onto an ID prematurely w/o exploration HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o Ex. A person who adopts whatever view his parents have without questioning ID diffusion- no commitment made and no crises experienced o Person has not yet thought about or resolved ID issues and has failed to chart directions in life This is NOT a stage theory o However, most adolescents move from foreclosure or diffusion to moratorium and then achieved between their mid-teens and mid-twenties o One can be in different ID states for various ID domains o One MUST go through moratorium to reach ID achievement Achievement and moratorium are associated with… o Higher self-esteem o Feeling of more in control o Favorable view of education o More capability of sustaining intimate relationships Foreclose is associated with… o Being dogmatic, rigid, defensive o Fear of rejection o Being a rule follower Diffusion is associated with… o Less capability of intimacy o Avoidance of decision making o Poor academic performance o Poor time management o More likely to abuse drugs/alcohol Parenting Styles 2 dimensions of parenting o Warmth, responsiveness, support o Control, demandingness, expectations Types of parenting o Authoritarian: high control, low warmth o Authoritative: high control, high warmth o Permissive: low control, high warmth o Uninvolved: low control, low warmth Parenting styles and Identity o Authoritative parenting is correlated with ID achievement o Authoritarian parenting is correlated with ID foreclosure o Permissive parenting is correlated with diffusion HDFS 129 Final Study Guide Temperament o Refers to an innate style of responding to the environment o An infant has a distinct temperament in the first few days and weeks of life that is independent of parenting style Aspects 1. Activity level 2. Rhythmicity (predictability of bodily functions- eat, sleep, bathroom) 3. Approach/withdrawal (when presented w/something new, do they approach it or withdrawal?) 4. Adaptability (go with the flow or rigid?) 5. Threshold of responsiveness (how much does it take to get a response?) 6. Intensity of reaction (ex. How much you laugh at jokes) 7. General mood (happy, sad, irritable, etc.) 8. Focus/attention span Categories of temperament o Easy (40% of children) o Approach new events, people, toys, etc. positively o React to novelty in a non-distressed way o Regular in eating and sleeping patterns o Generally cheerful and happy (Buddha babies) o Make parents look like good parents o Slow-to-warm (15% of children) o Withdraw form new events, people, toys, etc. o Uneasy with novelty o Lower activity levels o Somewhat fussy o Difficult (10% of children) o React negatively and vigorously to novelty o Generally irritable o Tend to have high activity levels o Irregular in eating and sleeping patterns o Make parents look like bad parents o The rest (35% of children) o Have mixed characteristics and cannot be classified Is temperament stable? Yes and no HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o Development (simply getting older) and environment may heighten, diminish, or otherwise alter reactions to the environment Goodness of Fit o Creating a child-rearing environment that recognizes child’s temperament and encourages adaptive functioning o This is the parents’ responsibility o The child cannot change their temperament o Good parenting involves structuring child’s environment to suit child’s temperament o Easy baby: easy parenting o Difficult baby: needs parent to be non-punitive, not harsh, patient, consistent o Slow-to-warm baby: needs parent to be patient, low-key, allow child to adapt at their own pace Longitudinal study of temperament Capsi, 2000 o Children were studied from birth 21 yr. o Measured participants 9 times across the span o 1037 kids, 97% retention rate (that’s a lot) o Representative sample (gender, race, SES) o Subjective o Given psychological test, interviews with participants, parents teachers o Objective o Direct observations Results o Difficult kids o Age 3: irritable, impulsive, moody, difficulty staying on task, behavioral problems o Age 18: aggression, impulsive, angry, conflict in interpersonal relationships o Age 21: conflict in friendships and romantic relationships; unreliable, more likely to have substance abuse problems and to have been fired from a job o Slow-to-warm kids o Age 3: shy, fearful, not at ease in new situations, uncomfortable w/strangers o Age 18: over-controlled, cautious, non-assertive; followers rather than leaders o Age 21: lower levels of social support; anxious, more likely to be depressed, less engagement in the world HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o Easy kids o Age 3: getting along well with peers and teachers o Age 18: doing well in school; good friendships, leaders o Age 21: well-adjusted, happy, successful friendships and romantic relationships Does this mean temperament is stable? o Studies show mixed results o Hard to measure temperament in adults o Relative v. absolute terms (have to think about it this way) o Consistency of temperament depends in part on fit between a child’s nature and a parent’s nature o A child’s temperament and parents’ responses to the child interact to produce particular outcomes Sexual development We start dating in adolescence because… o Biological factors (puberty) o Cognitive factors (understanding of romance) o Familial factors (expectations, restrictions) o Societal factors (expectations, restrictions) Typical Timeline for development o 15- first kiss, first date o 17- first “I love you”, first time having sex o 18- first serious relationship o 21- cohabitation, moving in together o 27- marriage o 13-16: initiation phase o 17-18: affiliation phase o 19-22: intimate phase o 23-27: committed phase Typical Timeline for the development of gay/lesbian adolescents o 8- first aware that something is different o 10- first same sex attraction o 14- first self-labeling, disclosure to a friend o 15- disclosure to parent, same sex activity o 18- same sex relationship Why is adolescence dating important? o Sexual identity development HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o Sexual/romantic competence development o Romantic attachment o Positive effects on development Positive affect, self-esteem, social competence o Negative effects on development Depression, conflict, mood swings Empathy Empathy o Recognizing and accepting another’s emotions Empathy v. Sympathy o Sympathy Friend is down in hole Looking down at them from the top and feeling bad o Empathy Friend is down in hole Going down in hole with them and feeling with them Correlates of Empathy (findings of PONS) o Women (bc society) o More popular o More outgoing o More satisfying relationships o Better mental health o These hold true for kids too Empathy in infants and children o Humans are hard-wired for empathy o Crying babies in nurseries 1 starts crying rest do However, babies don’t cry when played a recording of their own cry o Toddlers bring their own mom to a crying baby/toddler o Give hugs, favorite stuffed animal, binky, blanket o Infants wipe their own eyes if they see their mother crying We see different levels of empathy in children… why? Attunement: a parent’s recognition, acceptance, and reciprocation of an infant’s emotions o When an adult either over-responds or under-responds to an infant’s emotional expression, the infant will become disturbed HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o Essentially, the same as matching, but at a deeper emotional level Harder to do Parenting gone wrong o Ignoring feelings altogether o Showing contempt for child’s emotions o Being too “Laissez Faire” (hands-off) o Ex. A child falls down; saying “you’re fine” is invalidating their emotions Parenting gone right o Empathy comes from being empathized with; fostered by environment o Discipline should help a child learn to regulate his emotions, to calm him down rather than become more agitated o The more agitated the parent, the more agitated the child o Explain to child how his behavior affects others o Validate ALL emotions o Give names to feelings o Modeling empathy Healthy relationships o Mutual empathy (emotional responsivity) o Mutual authenticity (relational honesty; be real, genuine) Breastfeeding Breast is best Newborns are hard-wired to nurse Size does not matter Continuous v. scheduled feedings o Continuous is better Great for baby’s immune system Smarter babies When to wean? o Average age worldwide= 2 years o Average age in the U.S.= 3 months Not good Personality Do people change? o Stability- adult personality is stable over time o Change- adult personality is a continual process of change and growth HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o Survey of 2000 40 year olds Asked to think about their personality 52% said they stayed the same 39% said they changed only a little 9% said they changed a lot This means 91% felt personality was relatively stable 5 stable factors of personalityOCEAN o Openness o Conscientiousness o Extroversion o Agreeableness o Neuroticism Openness o Imaginative or practical o Variety or routine o Independent or conforming Conscientiousness o Organized or disorganized o Careful or careless o Disciplined or impulsive Extroversion o Social or retiring o Fun-loving or somber o Affectionate or reserved Agreeableness o Soft-hearted or ruthless o Trusting or suspicious o Helpful or uncooperative Neuroticism o Calm or anxious o Secure or insecure o Self-satisfied or self-pitying As we age… o Agreeableness and conscientiousness increase o Neuroticism declines o Extroversion and openness either do not change or decrease slightly o Personality is responsive to life experiences (change) but that change exists within boundaries HDFS 129 Final Study Guide o These changes may just reflect a “settling down” or maturity o A person who scores high or low on a trait is likely to retain that standing throughout adulthood
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