Midterm Study Guide
Midterm Study Guide ARH 205
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassandra Helgen on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 205 at University of Oregon taught by Carmen Lord in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see in Art History at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
ARH 205 MID TERM STUDY GUIDE - EVOLUTION OF CHURCH ARCHITECTURE - ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - FUNCTIONS Societal and religious - ARCHITECTURAL TERMS - RELIGIOUS IMAGERY o EXTERIOR & INTERIOR USE: understand context TERMS: BASILICIAN PLAN: a nave with a semicircular apse, 2-4 ailes, narthex and clerestory CENTRAL PLAN: primary central space surrounded by symmetrical areas PILGRIMAGE CHURCH: located by graves of saints AMBULATORY- MAJOR INNOVATION: continuation of isles on either side of the nave around the apse to form continual processional way RADIATING CHAPLES: chapel radiating tangentially from one of the bays or divisions of the apse PORTAL&PARTS: opening in wall or building with many symbols NAVE: many body of the church TRANSEPT: lies across the main body of the building APSE: semicircular recess covered with hemispherical vault SIDE AISLES: passageway to either side of the nave CRUCIFORM (SHAPE): cross shaped church CROSSING SQUARE: junction of the four arms of the cruciform SQUARE SCHEMATISM: a way to determine different lengths of parts of the church BAYS: space between architectural elements GALLERY&TRIBUNE LEVELS: stage like platforms CLERESTORY: high section of walls with windows BARREL VAULT: formed by extrusion of single curve GROIN VAULT: intersection of right angles at two barrel vaults CLOISTER: covered walk, open gallery, running along walls of buildings RIB VAULT: intersection of two or three barrel vaults VOUSSOIR: wedge shaped element, typically stone used in archs/vaults KEYSTONE: stone piece at apex of arch IMPOST: projecting block resting on top of a column LINTEL: strong horizontal elements held up with strong vertical LOCULI: niche that houses a body CUBICULA: A small cubicle or bedroom that opened onto the atrium of a Roman house. Also, a chamber in an Early Christian catacomb that served as a mortuary chapel. ATRIUM: The court of a Roman house that is partly open to the sky. Also the open, colonnaded court in front of and attached to a Christian basilica. NARTHEX: the portico of an ancient church. 2 : a vestibule leading to the nave of a church. SQUINCH: The lowest voussoir on each side of an arch. It is where the vertical support for the arch terminates and the curve of the arch begins. PENDENTIVES: A pendentive is a constructive device permitting the placing of a circular dome over a square room or an elliptical dome over a rectangular room. HYPOSTYLE: Having a roof or ceiling supported by rows of columns MIHRAB: a niche in the wall of a mosque, at the point nearest to Mecca, toward which the congregation faces to pray. MINARET: a tall slender tower, typically part of a mosque, with a balcony from which a muezzin calls Muslims to prayer. TYMPANUM: semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance, bounded by a lintel and arch. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments PORTAL: a doorway, gate, or other entrance, especially a large and elaborate one TRUMEAU: a section of wall or a pillar between two openings, especially a pillar dividing a large doorway in a church. BUTTRESS: a projecting support of stone or brick built against a wall. FLYING BUTTRESS: most strongly associated with Gothic church architecture. The purpose of any buttress is to resist the lateral forces pushing a wall outward (which may arise from stone vaulted ceilings or from wind-loading on roofs) by redirecting them to the ground. SLIDES: 1. THE GOOD SHEPARD, EARLY CHRISTIAN FRESCO, ROME, ITALY, EARLY 4 THCENTURY CUBICULA: CHAPEL BETWEEN CATACOMBS - MOTIF OF SHEPHERD TRACABLE BACK TO GREEK ART - EARLY CHRISTIANS ALMOST ALWAYS DEPICTED CHRIST AS SHEPHERD OR TEACHER - CHRIST WITH LAMBS SYMBOLIZES SAVIOR OF PEOPLE, EVEN MOST WAYWARD SOULS SIMILAR TO ROMAN IMAGERY KEY STORY ELEMENTS OF JONAH 2. DETAIL OF VAULT, SANTA COSTANZA, ROME, ITALY, 337-351 MOZAIC- harvest of grapes and making of wine – wine= blood of Christ for Christians while romans identified it with the god bacchus – made of tesserae 3. SAN VITALE, RAVENNA, ITIALY, 526-547, BYZANTINE ALTER ALWAYS CENTRAL TO PERSON, NARTHEX ISN’T PARALLEL TO APSE Not a basilica, centrally planned – dome covered clerestory and columned exedrae creating complex eight-leafed plan – off-axis placement of the narthex weakens effect – images and symbols covering sanctuary express the idea of Christ’s redemption of humanity 4. HAGIA SOPHIA, Cnstantinople, turkey, 532-537 PENDENTIVES, SUPPORTED BY NATURAL LIGHTING Mineretes were added later, built originally as Christian church, converted to mosc Term: named for saint, built for Justinian, Anthenians & Isadors, greated church of period • Vast interior space, mystery of the lighting, 270X240 • All things present for church, dome intended to symbolize heavens 5. MALWIYA MINARET OF THE GREAT MOSQUE, SAMARRA, IRAQ, 848-852, ISLAMIC MOSIEM CALLS PEOPLE TO PRAYER - ONCE LARGEST IN THE WORLD WITH BRIDGE TO THE MOSQUE - 6. GREAT MOSQUE, CORDOBA, SPAIN, 8 THTO 10 THCENTTURIES, ISLAMIC COLUMNS HAVE CORINTHIAN CAPITALS - HAD DIFFERENT INFLUENCES TO DIFFERENT PARTS OF BUILDING - CONQUESTS BROUGHT MORE ANTIQUE ITEMS FOR MOSQUE - ARCHITECTURE REFLETED TENSIONS THROUGH AND PEACE WITH KNOWLEDGE THAT IT WAS A SPANISH MONUMENT IN THE END 7. PURSE COVER, SUTTON HOO SHIP BURIEL, ENGLAND. 625, EARLY MIDDLE AGES/PERIOD OF MIGRATION. CLOISSOINE- TECHNIQUE SIMILAR TO MOSAIC, USE GLASS OR PRECIOUS GEMS, INSERTED INTO ANOTHER OBJECT 8. INERIOR OF PALATINE CHAPEL, CHARLEMAGNE, CAROLINGIAN, 792-805 CIRCULAR PLAN, INFLUENCED BY SAN VITALE, MORE MASSIVE, PLACEMENT OF NARTHEX DIRECTLY PARALLEL TO APSE, INTERIOR MORE OSTERE, 9. SCHEMATIC PLAN FOR A MONASTERY, SAINT GALL, SWITZERLAND, 819, CAROLINGIAN CENTER FOR ECONOMICS, EDUCATION, AND MEDICENE FOR PEOPLE WHO INHABITED SPACE OF CITY, BUILDINGS SELF SUSTAINABLE, SCRIPTORIUM FOR PRODUCTION OF TEXTS AND MANUSCRIPTS 10. ST MATTHEW, EBBO GOSPELS, 816-835, CAROLINGIAN, DRAPERY HELENISTIC, EXPRESSION ON FACE DEPICTING EMOTION, BUT ANIMATED, LINE WORK IS FRENETIC 11. ABBEY CHURCH OF ST MICHAEL. HILESHEIM, GERMANY, 1001-1031, INTERIOR NAVE, ELEVATION AND PLAN, OTTONIAN DESCENDENTS OF CHARLEMAGEN (OTTO 1-3) BUILT CHURCHES, CROSSING SQUARE IMPORTANT TO LAYOUT BECAUSE ALL UNITS OF MEASUREMENT BASED THERE, AMBUATORY BEHIND CROSSING SQUARE, NAVE IS PART GOING THROGH THE MIDDLE, BILATERAL ENTRANCES, TWO APSES ON EITHER SIDE: SMALLER CHAPELS ON EITHER SIDE 12. BRONZE DOORS, ABBEY CHURCH OF ST MICHAEL, 1015 SCENE OF ADAM AND EVE WITH APPLE, CREATION OF EVE, PURPOSE OF DOORS WAS DIALECTIC TOOL FOR COMMUNIATING STORIES, NEEDED VISUAL LITERACY TO UNDERSTAND VISUAL REFERENCES 13. SAINT-SERNIN, TOULOUSE, FRANCE C.A. 1070-1120, ROMANESQUE PILGRIMIGE CHURCH, RELICS IN CHUCH, FUNCTIONS ON MEDIVAL SOCIETY: PILGRIMS BROUGHT ECONOMIC BOOMS TO CITIES WITH CHURCHS, CHURCHES BEGIN SURVEYING AS RELIGIOUS AND SURVEYING POWER AGAINST THE PEOPLE, ONE OF THE REASONS THEY WERE OVERTHROWN 500-800 YEARS LATER DIFFERENT VAULTING TYPES USED: BARREL VAULTING, AND IN AILES GROIN VAULTS South portal of Saint-Pierre, Moissac, France, ca. 1115–1135, Romanesque. Vocab: trumeau, portal LIONS REPRESENTED CHURCH PROTECTION – EITHER PROPHET JEREMIAH OR ISSAC – PAIRING OF OLD TESTAMENT WITH NEW TESTAMENT BY HAVING POSITION BELOW APPARITION OF CHRIST AS THE APOCALYPTIC JUDGE IS ANOTHER INSTANCE – ANIMATION OF BODY REVEALS PASSIONATE NATURE OF SOUL, ENTRANCED BY VISION OF APOCALYPSE Hildegard receives her visions, detail of a facsimile of a lost folio in the Ruperts-berger Scivias by Hildegard of Bingen, from Trier or Bingen, Germany, ca.1050–1079. Abbey of St. Hildegard, Rüdesheim/Eibingen. Romanesque manuscript illumination – A NUN WHO EVENTUALLY BECAME THE ABBESS OF THE CONVENT AT DISIBODENBERG – SHOWS HER EXPERIENCING DEVINE VISION – DEPICTS ANCIENT AND MEDEVIAL BOOK MANUFACTURING Plan of the east end, abbey church, Saint-Denis, France, 1140–1144 (after Sumner Crosby), Gothic Vocabulary: Abbot Suger (1081 – 1151) ABBOT SUGER= MONK WHO REPAIRED CHURCH TO ACCOMMODATE GROWING NUMBER OF PILGRIMS – REMODELED PORTION REPRESENTED SHARP BREAK FROM PAST PRACTICE – RIB VAULTS RESTING ON POINTED ARCHES – ALLOWED BUILDERS TO ELIMINATE WALLS BETWEEN FRAMING THE CHAPELS TO FILL WITH STAINED GLASS WINDOWS – BECAME HALL MARK OF FRENCH GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE – KEY MONUMENT OF EARLY GOTHIC SCULPTURE Interior of Laon Cathedral (looking northeast), Laon, France, begun ca. 119, Gothic. west facade, plan, interior, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, begun 1194, Gothic rectangular bays replaced square bays – first church planned from inception to have flying buttresses Rose window and lancets, north transept, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1220. Stained glass, rose window 43’ in diameter Gift of queen Blanche of Castile around 1200 – royal motifs of yellow castles on red ground and yellow fleurs-de-lis on blue ground fill the eight narrow windows in the rose’s lower spandrels – iconography fitting for queen with representation of enthroned Virgin and Child in rounded center of the rose – royal ancestors of Christ present in 12 square panels – familiar motif “tree of Jesse” from medival art – glass changes in hue and intensity with hours Old Testament kings and queens, jamb statues, central doorway of Royal Portal, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155. ROYAL ANCESTORS OF CHRIST, AND SUPPORT THE NEW TESTAMENT FIGURES ABOVE THE DOORWAY – MOVEMENT OF CLOTHES ECHO THE COLUMNS BEHIND THE FIGURES – PERSONAIZED APPEARANCE BEGAN THAT LED TO IDEALIZED PORTRAITS OF THE PERFECT CHRISTIANS, AND EVENTUALY TO INDIVIDUAL PORTRAITS BY 1400 Royal Portal, west facade, Chartres Cathedral, Chartres, France, ca. 1145–1155. RIGHT PORTAL DEPICTS SEVEN FEMALE PERSONIFICATIONS OF THE LIBERAL ARTS WITH LEARNED MEN OF ANTIQUITY AT THEIR FEET – FIGURES CELEBRATE REVIVAL OF CLASSICAL SCHOLARSHIP AND SYMBOLIZE HUMAN KNOWLEDGE – SCULPTURES PROCLAIM THE MAJESTY AND POWER OF CHRIST – CARVED IMAGES OF LIFE OF THE VIRGIN AND CHRIST ON CAPITALS, WHICH FORM A FRIEZE LINKING ONE ENTRANCE TO ANOTHER. ROBERT DE LUZARCHES, THOMAS DE CORMONT, and RENAUD DE CORMONT, façade & interior of Amiens Cathedral (looking east), Amiens, France, begun 1220. Most influential buildings in architectural history – design reflects builders vocabulary with rectangular-bay system, four part rib vault, and buttressing system that made the almost complete elimination of heavy masses and thick weight bearing wall – effect of vaults is effortless strength and buoyant lightness – uneven towers were later additions from 14 and 15 centuries God as architect of the world, folio 1 verso of a moralized Bible, from Paris, France, ca. 1220-1230. Ink, tempera, and gold leaf on vellum, 1’ 1 ½” X 8 ¼”. Osterreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, Gothic Geometry played important role in gothic art works – triangle: holy trinity circle: eternity of one god Square: reference to perfectly square city Jerusalem in book of revelations – depicts god creating the world in accordance with geometric principals of nature JEAN PUCELLE, David before Saul, folio 24 verso of the Belleville Breviary, from Paris, France, ca. 1325. Ink and tempera on vellum, 9 1/2” X 6 3/4”. Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris., Gothic Placed fully modeled figures in 3D architectural setting in convincing perspectives – at the end of church monopoly on book production
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