Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Final
Intro to Sociology, Study Guide for Final SO 1003
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Smith on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SO 1003 at Mississippi State University taught by Robert Montgomery in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Intro to Sociology Final Study Guide (Vocab words are in bold) Chapter 1 Sociological Imagination Sociology- study of human society C. Wright Mills- said sociology is where your personal story crosses with the larger story of history Sociological Imagination- created by C. Wright Mills; aids us in: o Connecting our own life experiences with that of the larger society and other historical facts o Questioning the habits and behaviors that are normal to us Social Institutions Social institutions- systems of units in society that help groups of people in these units socialize with each other Examples: o The family o The military o The educational system o The labor market o The legal system Social identity- how people describe themselves according to groups they choose or not choose to be a part of History of Sociology Auguste Comte- invented social physics or positivism which uses scientific laws that control behavior to understand society Harriet Martineau- first person to put Comte’s books into English; one of the first feminist sociologist Karl Marx- created the theory of historical materialism which means social change is a result from class conflict Max Weber- used term “verstehen” which means understanding; wrote “The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism; emphasized subjectivity to be the base of interpretative sociology Emile Durkheim- founded positivist sociology; created the theory that social unity is sustained through the division of labor; conducted a suicide study to discover the effects of community, individual, and religion on individuals; used the term “anomie” which means normlessness Georg Simmel- worked with sociology of numbers called formal sociology; looked at how groups of two people is different from groups of three Divisions within Sociology Microsociology- focuses on nearby interactions, personal encounters, and collecting information through observations and interviews Macrosociology- focuses on social behaviors over complete societies or large parts using surveys and analyzing statistics Interpretive sociology- looks at the connotations people use with certain social events Positivist sociology- discovers social factors that contribute to social life by creating and testing hypotheses formed from theories; called “normal science” model of sociology Modern sociological theories include: o Functionalism o Conflict theory o Symbolic interactionism o Feminist theory o Postmodernism o Midrange theory o Social construction American Sociology Early American sociology stood out at the University of Chicago which became known as the “Chicago School” Chicago thinkers: o Jane Addams o W. E. B. DuBois o W. I. Thomas o George Herbert Mead o Charles Horton Cooley The Chicago School concentrated on empirical research and believed that people’s environments, both social and physical, determine their behavior and personality Double consciousness o Created by W. E. B. DuBois o People have two different ways of behaving, seeing the world as is and seeing the world through the opinions of prejudiced people Sociology tries to find patterns in different things to make a hypothesis about the functionality of societies Sociology observes how people and large and small groups interact with each other Chapter 3 What is culture? Culture is a way of life for a group of people It’s a set of beliefs, traditions, and practices The concept of culture is always changing and has evolved and expanded throughout history The oldest understanding of culture focuses on the distinction between: o Natural environment o Things to do with humans Ethnocentrism When we come into contact with other cultures, we think our culture is the best and knows everything and don’t want anything to do with any other culture Ethnocentrism o Judging other cultures based on superiority of own culture Cultural relativism Developed by Ruth Benedict in 1930s Idea to seek to understand where each culture comes from and to not judge their differences Subculture Everybody belongs to several different cultures We belong to smaller groups within society known as subcultures They have their own set of values, norms, and way of living Values and Norms Values are beliefs like right and wrong Norms are rules based on values Socialization is how we learn the values and norms of our culture in order to fit in as a member of that society Other terms from this chapter Nonmaterial culture o Values, norms, beliefs, and behaviors Material culture o Everything that is part of the constructed, physical environment we are a part of Ideology o How things relate to each other Cultural scripts o Types of behavior that is not the same across the world Reflection theory o The idea that culture is a projection of social relationships and structure Media o Anything that communicates a message Hegemony o When a group in power uses its superiority to get the masses to agree Consumerism o buying more things in order to fell happy Culture jamming o When media is turned against themselves Chapter 4 Agencies of Socialization Family Peers School Mass media Nature vs. Nurture Big debate Is it biological (your genes) or psychological (the way you were raised) Social Interaction Robert Merton o Is known for his role theory that gives a way to describe social interaction Statuses and Roles Status o Is a position in society with a set of expectations o Ascribed status You were born into it Have no control over o Achieved status You have earned or others have imposed on you Have control of Meritocracy o Where you can climb ladder to achieve high rank based on your merit Master status o One status that rises above all other statuses that you possess Roles o Are behaviors that go with a status o The expectations Role conflict o Roles of one status conflict with other status roles Role strain o When the roles of only one status conflict with each other Role exit o Giving up one role in order to be the other o Result of role conflict or role strain Social Construction of Reality Symbolic interactionalism o Learning society from family Erving Goffman o Came up with dramaturgical theory Social like is a play People are actors Harold Garfinkel o Created method for breaching the norm Charles Horton Cooley o Stated development of “self” comes from societal interaction with others George Herbert Mead o Observed infants and children and theorized children only know own needs o Their sense of self comes from family and others o Social self develops over course of childhood when they learn to notice others and can imagine themselves as others o Imitation, play, and games are important for social interaction and development of sense of others (learning roles) Eric Erickson o Made theory of psychosocial development that describes lifetime in eight stages Other vocab terms from the book Socialization o the process by which individuals internalize the values, beliefs, and norms of a given society and learn to function as members of that society Self o the individual identity of a person as perceived by that same person I o one's sense of agency, action, or power Me o the self as perceived as an object by the "I"; the self as one imagines others perceive one Other o someone or something outside of oneself Generalized other o an internalized sense of the total expectations of others in a variety of settings— regardless of whether we've encountered those people or places before Resocialization o the process by which one's sense of social values, beliefs, and norms are reengineered, often deliberately, through an intense social process that may take place in a total institution Total Institution o an institution in which one is totally immersed and that controls all the basics of day-to-day life; no barriers exist between the usual spheres of daily life, and all activity occurs in the same place and under the same single authority Status set o all the statuses one holds simultaneously Gender roles o sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as male or female Face o the esteem in which an individual is held by others Ethnomethodology o literally "the methods of the people"; this approach to studying human interaction focuses on the ways in which we make sense of our world, convey this understanding to others, and produce a shared social order Chapter 7 Stratification Refers to systematic inequalities in any given society between groups of people that come about intentional or unintentional consequences of social processes Views of Inequality Jean-Jacques Rousseau th o In the 18 century, argued that private property creates social inequality which leads to social conflict Thomas Malthus o Believed inequality is good because it creates motivation for social position growth o If a person has capabilities, they can climb the ladder of success which is called meritocracy o The best and brightest go to the top while the others stay at the bottom George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel o Proposed the master-slave dialectic o Ongoing cycle between thesis and antithesis where when a new thesis develops an antithesis follows soon after o Said most social relationships are based conflicts like master-slave model Forms of Stratification Karl Marx o Used Hegel’s ideas to come up with a two class system made up of Bourgeoisie The few top people who are the owners Proletariat The many bottom people who are the workers Erik Olin Wright o Said it is a lot more complicated than just two classes o Developed the concept of classes that fall in between the two extreme classes calling it contradictory class locations Inherited rich Nouveau rich Upper middle class Lower middle class Working class Underclass Max Weber o Adds value, religion, and social prestige to the system of stratification C. Wright Mills o Came up with the “power elite” or elite-mass dichotomy system o A handful of people move back and forth between decision making positions Other vocab terms Social equality o a condition in which no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on nonnatural conventions exist equality of opportunity o the idea that everyone has an equal chance to achieve wealth, social prestige, and power because the rules of the game, so to speak, are the same for everyone Bourgeois society o a society of commerce (modern capitalist society, for example) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive Equality of condition o the idea that everyone should have an equal starting point Equality of outcome o the idea that each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the "game" Free rider problem o the notion that when more than one person is responsible for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hope others will pull the extra weight Estate system o a politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility Caste system o a religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility Class system o an economically based hierarchical system characterized by cohesive, oppositional groups and somewhat loose social mobility Status hierarchy system o a system of stratification based on social prestige Socioeconomic status o an individual's position in a stratified social order Income o money received by a person for work, from transfers (gifts, inheritances, or government assistance), or from returns on investments Wealth o a family's or individual's net worth (that is, total assets minus total debts) Upper class o a term for the economic elite Middle class o a term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significantly more than the poverty line—though this is a highly debated and expansive category, particularly in the United States, where broad swathes of the population consider themselves middle class Social mobility o the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society Structural mobility o mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy Exchange mobility o mobility in which, if we hold fixed the changing distribution of jobs, individuals trade jobs not one-to-one but in a way that ultimately balances out Status-attainment model o approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specify the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations
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