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by: Emma Shoupe


Emma Shoupe
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This is forever long, and probably has WAY too much information, but this is EVERYTHING that could possibly be on the final.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Djibo Zanzot
Study Guide
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This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Shoupe on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Djibo Zanzot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.




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Date Created: 04/28/16
Biology 1030 FINAL STUDY GUIDE Dr. Zanzot Exam 1  Phylogeny – evolutionary history  Taxonomy- (taxon, taxa) science of naming; named group of organisms  Cladistics philosophy- clade; all descendants of a certain group of ancestors “birds are reptiles, a special case”  Evolutionary philosophy- “birds are not reptiles”  Monophyletic- a single common ancestor  Holophyletic- includes all descendants; sometimes interchangeable with monophyletic  Paraphyletic- on the side of; doesn’t include all descendants; most, but not all  Polyphyletic- evolved many times  Plesiomorphic- ancestor traits all evolved  Apomorphic- something that evolved later  Symplesiomorphic- shared ancestorial characteristics  Synapomorphic- shared derived characteristics  Autopomorphic- unshared derived characteristics  Homologous – structures similar based on ancestry  Homoplasy- appear to be homologous, but are not  Convergent evolution- (wings) evolved by commonality, and habitat, similarity in form  Parallel evolution- same traits evolving multiple trees, similarity not based on evolution  Dendrograms- tree diagram  Cladogram-basically same as dendrogram  Phylogram- another tree  Horotely- clock, timing of evolution  Tachytely- fast evolution  Bradytely- slow (horseshoe crabs) Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Prokaryote- lacks a nucleus o Prokaryotes are NOT a recognized biological taxon o Taxonomic clades are defined using synapomorphies o Lacking a nucleus is a symplesiomorphy o 2 Domains- Bacteria and Archaea o only limited morphological differences in prokaryotes o Dr. Carl Woese proposed splitting prokaryotes into 2 novel taxonomic groups above kingdom o Based on comparing DNA sequences of genes encoding ribosomal RNA o New group – Archaea – “ancient”  Found in extreme environments, reminiscent of ancient Earth  Extreme heat  Extreme pH  Extreme salt o However, DNA told a different story – Archaea may be a misnomer o Archaea and Eukarya form a monophyletic clade o Bacteria more ancient than Archaea o Prokaryotes share other ancestral characteristics o No nuclei o Unicellular or colonial o Cells very small (1-5 um) o No membrane- bound organelles o Cell morphology limited  Spherical – coccus (-i)  Rod – bacillus (-i)  Spiral – spirillum (-a)  Staphylo – cluster of grapes  Strepto – twisted chain o Most prokaryotes have cell walls o Chemically distinct from eukaryotic cell walls o Peptidoglycan- sandwiched between inner/outer membrane o Gram-staining – tells you about nature o Capsule- smooth bacteria – pathogenic o Fimbriae- means fringe; looks like cilia but NOT cilia o Pilus (-i) – sex pili- gene transfer o Flagella- different structure from eukaryotic flagella (both used for mobility) -Motility o Taxis – movement towards or away from a stimulus (positive or negative) o Positive phototaxis- movement towards light o Negative chemotaxis- movement away from a chemical signal -Genomic arrangement o No nucleus- single circular chromosome o Nucleoid- nucleus-like, genetic information stored o Plasmids- loops of DNA -Reproduction o Binary fission- no mitosis of meiosis o Asexual o Horizontal gene transfer – genetic information passed from one cell to another o Transformation- plasmids from environment o Conjugation- plasmids passed via pili o Transduction- virus-mediated -Endospores o Resistant form for bacteria o Shell forms around nucleoid Nutritional mode - Prokaryotic metabolic diversity >>> eukaryotic metabolic diversity - Heterotrophic- eat other things - Autotrophic- feed themselves - Photoautotrophic- sun, 2-part process, synthesis - Photoheterotrophic- ATP from sunlight, can’t fix C from atm - Chemoautotrophic- chemical energy to produce ATP - Not all organisms rely on sun for energy  bottom of ocean, thermal-use energy from magma Oxygen Relationships - Aerobic- some require oxygen - Anaerobic- some cannot live in the presence of oxygen - Facultative v. obligate (strict) – o Obligate- cannot live without something o Facultative- sort of opposite – okay without both- no oxygen or oxygen - Anaerobic organisms  S, NO3-, Mn, Fe, U, CO2 - Many different alternative terminal electron acceptors - Aerobic organisms  Oxygen forms water Ecological Relationships - Most famous bacteria are pathogenic - Free-living, not associated with a host - Mutualistic- benefits host, and organism - Biofilms- collections of groups of bacteria – so metabolically diverse – “division of labor” - Decomposers Endosymbiotic Theory - Eukaryotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria - Contain their own DNA and ribosomes - Extra membrane layer - Similarity to extant (still living) bacteria o M. –alphaproteobacteria o C.- cyanobacteria Diversity in Prokaryotes - How many speicies? Millions - Difficult to tell - How do we find new species? Culture and domestication - Metagenomic prospecting- human genome project- looking for a unique DNA Domain Archaea - 1-4 Kingdoms - gram-negative – lacking in peptidoglycans - extremophiles- found in conditions unlike others on earth o thermophiles- extreme heat o halophiles- extreme salt (9% saline!) o acidophiles- extreme pH (low pH) - Methanogens o Strict anaerobes, produce methane, swamp gas, decomposers - Non-extreme Archaea - 4 clades- o Korachalotes- “young man” hot springs o Euryarchaeotes- “broad” methanogens, halophiles o Crenarchaeotes- “spring (water)” thermophiles o Nanoarchaeotes- “dwarf” parasitic Domain Bacteria - 1 to many kingdoms - Kingdom Eubacteria - Proteobacteria - Chlamydias - Spirochetes - Cyanobacteria - Gram-positive - Each clade is broken down which leads to more kingdoms Eukarya & Protists  Cells with nuclei  Membrane bound organelles  Sexual life cycles  Linear chromosomes Evolutionary trends  Ancestral  derived  Unicellular  colonial  multicellular  Zygotic meiosis  gametic meiosis  sporic meiosis  Isomorphic  heteromorphic  Isogamy  anisogamy  oogamy  Gametophyte dominant  sporophyte dominant Meiosis  Sexually-reproducing (meiotic) organisms alternative between having one copy of the set of chromosomes (haploid) and having two copies of a set of chromosome (diploid)  Vary in when they grow (by mitosis) 1. Zygotic meiosis 2. Gametic meiosis – gametes produced by meiosis- going from diploid to haploid 3. Alternation of generations = sporic meiosis Kingdom of Protista  More of a dumping ground  Eukaryote, but not a plant, animal, or fungus Protists are-  Grouped by characteristics that are derived relative to Archaea and Bacteria  Also by the lack of certain derived characteristics relative to APF  Not holophyletic  Not a clade  One kingdom (for our purposes)  Made of several clades o Protist clades  Excavata & SAR clade – holophyletic  Archaeplastida (plants) & Unikonta (fungi and animals) – paraphyletic Clade Excavata  Phylum Diplomonadida o 2 equal sized nuclei o heterotrophic o free living and parasitic o 2, 4, or 8 flagella o lack mitochondria o most anaerobic o many live in gut of insects and vertebrates  EX- Giardia lamblia  Intestinal parasite of humans and other vertebrates  Phylum Parabasala o Parabasal body (large modified Golgi apparatus) o Heterotrophic o Axostyle o 4 to 1000’s of flagella o anaerobic o some with intra-cellular bacteria and surface attached spirochetes  EX- Trichomonas vaginalis  Human urogenital tract  Trichonympha  Termite gut  Phylum Kinetoplastida o Heterotrophs (mostly parasitic, part of Euglenozoa?) o Kinetoplast (mass of DNA within single large mitochondrion) o Trypanosomes  Trypanosoma brucei  African sleeping sickness, vector = tsetse fly trailing flagellum attached to cell by undulating membrane  Bodo saltans, not parasitic – free living kinetoplastid  Phylum Euglenophyta o Colorless heterotrophs and green photoautotrophs o Longitudinal binary fission  Euglena  2 flagella in flagellar reservoir  1 locomotory and 1 non emergent or short stigma  Paraflagellar body  Phototaxis  Euglenoid (peristaltic) movement  Chloroplast with 3 membranes  Peranema – one trailing and one leading flagellum (thickened by paraxial rod except at tip) o 2 flagella- transverse flagellum in circumferential groove, longitudinal flagellum in longitudinal groove  Theca o Plates of cellulose in alveoli  Palmella, bloom CLADE SAR Stramenopiles  Phylum Bacillariophyta o Photosynthetic o Marine, freshwater o Cell wall, siliceous frustule, 2 valves o Centric, pennate o Asexual reproduction with decrease in size o Gametic meiosis o Diatomaceous earth – natural dewarmer – ex. Get rid of bed bugs  Phylum Phaeophyta o Marine o Photosynthetic macroalgae o Kelp o Holdfast, stipe, thallus, blade, meristem (zones of cell division) o Align – protein that gives thallus its sponginess o Sporic meiosis Alveolates  Phylum Dinoflagellata o Marine and freshwater o Most free living, some endoparasites o Many photosynthetic o Chloroplasts of symbiotic origin o Red, brown, or golden pigments o Longitudinal fission o Ex – Gymnodinium, Ceratium, Noctiluca, Symbiodinium o 2 flagella o Transverse and longitudinal o Thecae- plates of cellulose in alveoli o Dino = whirling  Phylum Apicomplexa – sporozoans o Apical complex o Flagellated microgametes o Pellicle- 3 membranes (large alveolus) – little skin o Complex life cycle – haploid dominant  Sporozoite- from mosquito to human, bloodstream  liver, replicate  Trophozoite- formed in blood cells, feeding  Merozoite- formed in liver  Garmonts- micro and macrogametocytes  Micro and macrogametes  Oocyst- gametes fuse, bladder like o Symbiodinium- mutualistic relationship with corals, bleaching of corals o Ex- Plasmodium  Malaria- causal agent  Vector- anopheles o Ex- Toxoplasma gondii – parasite, mostly completely asymptomatic, 26% of people have it, cat litter, mother can pass to fetus and baby can’t defend themselves- issue for amino impaired people  Phylum Ciliophora o Freshwater, marine, soil o Heterotrophic o Most free-living, some parasites o Complex organelles, complex behavior o Oral groove, cytosome, cytopharynx, food vacuole, cytoproct o Contractile vacuole o Cilia, cirrus (-i), membranelle o Complex pellicle, and alveoli, extrusomes o Myoneme- found on vorticella o Paramecium multimicronucleatum, Didinium, Vorticella, Euplotes, rumen ciliates Rhizaria  Phylum Foraminifera o Mostly marine o Benthic or planktonic o Reticulopodia o Calcareous, chambered test o Mermaid’s pennies, large fossil species o White cliffs of dover  Phylum Radiolaria o Marine plankton, freshwater o Delicate siliceous tests with apertures o Axopodia- needle like pseudopods CLADE ARCHAEPLASTIDA – paraphyletic o Phylum Rhodophyta – red algae o Marine o Macroalgae o Most in deep, cold water (red pigments) o Carrageenan, agar o Porphyra tenera o Red because of deep water habitat, don’t absorb red light  Phylum Chlorophyta – green algae o Photosynthetic, chlorophyll o Motile and non-motile forms o Large cup-shaped chloroplast o Food storage as starch o Many colonial species o Chlamydomonas (eye spot, flagellated, research), Volvox (colonial), Hydrodictyon o Lots are planktons- microscopic, drift around CLADE UNIKONTA o Phylum Gymnamoeba- naked ameobas, sacrodines o Pseudopods o Marine, freshwater o Most- benthic, some planktonic o Amoeba  Parasitic forms  Entamoeba hystolytica, E. gingivalis  Phylum Myxogastrida- plasmodial slime molds o Plasmodium- multinucleate mass of protoplasm o “super cell” o heterotrophic o complex life cycle (sporic meiosis), sclerotium (resistance of resting) o Physarum polycephalum – yellow slime mold  Phylum Choanoflagellata o Sister group of metazoa o Marine and freshwater o Tiny cells (less than 10 micrometers) o Solitary or colonial, sessile or motile o Single flagellum within collar of microvilli o Filter feeding o Proterospongia “before sponges” Exam 2 Kingdom Plantae  Derived from Charophyta, a lineage of green algae  Multicellular  Terrestrial or aquatic  Photoautotrophic  Cell walls made of cellulose  Movement by growth  Embryo protected by gametophyte tissue “Embryophyta”  Sporic meiosis  Major plant groups- o Bryophytes (3 phyla) o Seedless vascular (4 phyla) o Gymnosperms (4 phyla) o Angiosperms (1 phylum)  Bryophytes o Nonvascular o 3 extant phyla o Dominant gametophyte generation o Small plants o Moist habitats o Water required for sperm disposal o 3 phyla-  Bryophyta  True mosses  Gametophyte  Meiospore- produced by meiosis  Protonema – 1 , thread like  Leafy shoots, rhizoids  Antheridium (-ia) male  Splash cup  Sperm  Archegonium (-ia) female  Egg  Sporophyte – always diploid  Capsule and seta  Placenta  Calyptra  Operculum  Peristome  Dispersal  hygroscopic  Hepatophyta  Liverworts  Dichotomously branching thallus  Gemma(-ae) within gemma cup  Antheridiophore – male  Archegoniophore – female  Sporophyte  Foot  Capsule  Elaters on spores  Anthocerophyta  Hornworts  Anthoceros (local genus)  Simple, charophyte-like thallus  Horn-like sporophyte: dehiscent  Photosynthetic sporophyte o Horn (looks like grass) = sporophyte o “green goo” = gametophyte Vascular tissue  Dominant sporophyte generation  Gametophytes variable o Photosynthetic/non-photosynthetic o Attached/unattached o Above/below ground  Larger plants, somewhat dryer habitats  Being taller  better access to light for photosynthesis  Series of tubes o 3 tissue systems-  Dermal tissue system  Outer covering layer, like skin  Similar to dermis  Prevents drying out o Vascular tissue system  Xylem- move water and nutrients from ground to plant body  Phloem- moves sugar to wherever needed o Ground tissue system  Fills space between dts and vts  Not root tissue necessarily  Used for storage and structure (stem)  Organs- o Roots o Stems o Leaves  Microphylls- 1 strand of vascular tissue/leaf  Megaphylls- 1 strand of branched vascular tissue  Growth and development o Apical meristems (meristem= zones of cell division)  Primary growth  Apex  Increase in height and depth o Lateral meristems  Secondary growth  Increase in girth (wider)  Evolutionary trends o Homospory  heterospory o Microspores  megaspores Seedless vascular  4 phyla  Pteridophyta o True ferns  Megaphylls= frond  Usually pinnately compound (pinna [-ae])  Feather-like; dissected leaflets of a big leaf  Circinate vernation  Circular unfolding  Fittleheads- look like violin, young leaf  Rhizome (root-like) and adventitious roots  Sorus (-i)  cluster of sporangia  Indusium (-ia)  covering over a sorus (not all have them)  Annulus (-i)  Little ring (part of sporangia, changes shape… when opened, releases spores)  Gametophyte  Protonema – 1 thread  Prothallus with antheridia and archegonia o Bisexual  Sporeling  Equisetophyta o Arthrophyta  Joint o Horsetails, scouring rushes, pot scrubbers o 1 extant genus o equisetum (“living fossils”) o Hollow ribbed stem, toughened with silica o Whorls of microphylls o Strobili (cones) with sporangiophores, sporophylls o Elaters function in spore dispersal  Psilophyta o Whisk ferns o Lacking true leaves and roots o Dichotomously branching stems o Sporangia borne on stem  Ancestors used to have leaves and roots  secondary loss  Lycophyta o Club mosses o Ground pine o Resurrection plant o Quillwort o Microphylls o Strobilus (-i)  Cluster of sporophylls o Some homosporus, some heterosporus  2 life cycles of spores  Or…. Monilophyta (super phylum) o Pteridophyta o Equisetophyta o Psilophyta  All separate clades- monophyletic – all share one clade  Lycophyta Seeds  Spores o Single, totipotent cell o Small, don’t require much to make o Very limited resources o Haploid cells  Seeds o Multicellular o Organs and tissue systems already developed – “a plant ready to go” o Telescoping of generations (diploid embryo) – seed coat protection o Nutrition for embryo o May have accessory tissues to aid in dispersal – elaters  A seed is “a baby in a lunchbox”  Embryo  Cotyledons – seed leaves (before developed)  Epicotyl – on top of  Hypocotyl – below, beneath (embryotic stem)  Radicle – a little root  Endosperm – food inside seeds; provides energy  Seed coat – protection o Fuel provided by fats from oils found in seeds  Gymnosperms – naked seeds o 4 extant phyla o Vascular tissue o Dominant sporophyte generation, larger plants o Sporophyte gets larger, gametophyte gets smaller o Reduction of gametophyte generation, no flagellated sperm o Heterospory – 2 types of spores (mostly a seed requirement) o Seeds o Don’t rely on water to reproduce o Air force  Phylum Gnetophyta o Welwitschia, Ephedra, Gnetum o 2 evergrowing leaves o Extremely dry habitat o Water absorbed by leaves  Phylum Ginkgophyta o “maidenhair tree” o monotypic (1 extant phyla) o Ginkgo biloba o Deciduous o Dichotomous venation o Dwarf branches o Dioecious  2 houses – male and female plants o Bilboed leaves  When large enough, leaf gets small crest in the middle o Leaf extract  Memory character o Fleshy, smelly seed coat (not a fruit)  Fatty acid  Caproic acid & Butyric acid  Result in a smell similar to dog feces  Male ginkgo trees don’t produce seeds so they don’t have the smell  Phylum Cycadophyta o Cycads (short, palm-like) o Dioecious o Microsporangiate strobilus (cone) o Megasporangiate strobilus o Herbivorous beetles feed in pollen cones  Precursor to zoophily or animal pollination  One of the most ancient lineages o Look like little palm trees  Phylum Coniferophyta o Pine, Yews, Firs, Spruces, Redwood, Juniper, Hemlock, Sequoia, Cedar o One of the oldest organisms (+ 5,000 years old) o One of the biggest trees – giant sequoia o One of the tallest trees- coast redwood (>300 feet) o Life cycle terms  Monoecious – 1 house  Both male and female in the same individual  Pollen cone  Microsporangium (little spores, 2n) – microsporocytes = cell to undergo meiosis  Ovulate cone  Pollen grains – (n) o released following meiosis of microsporocytes o microgametophyte o microsporocyte – starts alternations of generations o produces gametes (pollen grains themselves are not the gametes)  Megasporocyte (within megasporangium) 2n o Undergo meiosis o 4 cells, only 1 cell survives  Surviving megaspore o undergoes meiosis o no cell walls formed  Megagametophyte o female o archegonium o egg cell  “naked seed plant” o because it is not fully enclosed, so the pollen unites with female before it is “ready”  pollen tube from male gametophyte o pollen grains grow o only 1 will develop into a seed  sporophyte o product of fertilization o seed coat  came from female sporophyte o surrounded by megagametophyte o what remains of female gametophyte turns into food and nutrients for seed baby  seed o start developing into a new sporophyte  integuments o protective layer o seed coat  micropyle o gap where pollen enters o naked seed FLOWERS AND FRUITS Angiosperms – “covered seeds” o Phylum Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta o Flower o Determinate (fixed in its growth) sporophyll (leaves bear spores) bearing shoot o Peduncle  Subtended  Underneath  Modified stem o Receptacle  Borne  Held together  Most successful lineage of plants known o >250,000 species  Ancestral flower o 4 whorls o From outside to inside  Calyx – sepals  Corolla – petals  Calyx + corolla – perianth (around flowers)  Androecium – stamens – males  Gynoecium – carpels – females Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms  Gymnosperms - 4 cells; thousands of gametophytes  Angiosperms- From 4 cells to 2 cells (more reduction); Gametophyte has 7 cells, 8 nuclei; Don’t have an archegonium anymore  These plants are the most diverse, but successful because… o Vascular tissue makes them sporophyte dominant o Heterospory because they have seeds Perfect – has both male and female whorls in every flower  Complete – has all four whorls in every flower  Imperfect – male and female parts in different flowers  Incomplete – have lost a whorl (usually petals)  Monoecious – have male and female whorls/gametes produced on the same plant  Dioecious – have separate male and female gamete producing plants  Connation – fusion of segments of a single whorl – derived, but not uncommon  Adnation- fusion between different whorls – derived, but not as common  Inflorescence – an arrangement of flowers on a branch or stem o Spike o Raceme – oldest to newest o Panicle – branching off of branches o Umbel – peduncles same length, umbrella o Compound umbel o Head (capitulum)  Dandelion  Little tiny flowers that look like one bigger flower  Ray flower – edge  Disc flower – middle  Daisy, Chrysanthemum, Sunflower  Angiosperm diversity o Basal angiosperms- Include magnolias o Monocots - Monophyletic o Eudicots - True dicots & Paraphyletic MONOCOTS  Poaceae- The Grass Family o Wheat, Barley, Corn  Liliaceae- The Lily Family o Garlic, Asparagus, Onions  Arecaceae- The Palm Family o Coconuts, Dates, Palm oil  Orchidaceae- The Orchid Family o Vanilla  Iridaceae- The Iris Family o Saffron DICOTS  Asteraceae- The Sunflower Family o Artichoke, Lettuce, Chamomile  Fabaceae- The Pea Family o Peanuts, Chick peas, Garden peas  Rosaceae- The Rose Family o Plum, Apple, Nectarine  Brassiceae - The Nightshade Family o Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Kale  Solanaceae -The Mustard Family o Chili peppers, Tobacco, Potatoes  Lamiaceae -The Mint Family o Mint, Basil, Rosemary  Cucurbitaceae o Cucumbers, Cantaloupe, Honeydew  Monocot o 1 cotyledon o veins parallel (leaf) o vascular tissue scattered o root system fibrous (no main root) o pollen grain with 1 opening o floral organs in multiples of 3  Dicot o 2 cotyledons o veins usually netlike o vascular tissue usually arranged in a ring o root system with taproot (main root) o pollen grain with 3 openings o floral organs in multiples of 4 or 5 Life Cycles  alternation of generations – sporophyte dominant  (haploid) microspore  male gametophyte (generative cell, tube cell)  pollen grains  pollen tube (stigma, style)  egg nucleus  fertilization  (diploid) zygote (3n endosperm)  seed  mature flower on sporophyte plant  microsporangium OR  ovary with megasporangium  (n) meiosis  surviving megaspore (micropyle)  female gametophyte (antipodial cells, egg, syngergids)  egg nucleus  fertilization o double fertilization = major distinction of angiosperms Flowering Plants  Magnolia & Chamilia flower  Review of the life cycle – o Sporophyte dominant o Heterospory  Starting from the anther: microsporangium containing the microsporocyte – microsporocyte goes through meiosis to form the microspore  Microspore goes through mitosis to form the microgametophyte (1 round, also the pollen grain or male gametophyte)  A tube cell is formed to make the pollen tube  A generative cell is formed to go through meiosis and produce sperm  Back at the anther: the ovary has ovules containing the megasporangium which contains the megasporocytes who goes through meiosis  A megaspore is formed (only 1 survives) and it is surrounded by integuments with a micropyle (a gap for pollen)  The megaspore is divided by meiosis to form the megagametophyte (female gametophyte)  Reduced to 7 cells with 8 nuclei  Antipodal  2 polar nuclei  2 synergids  egg  pollen goes down through style, produces 2 sperm  double fertilization occurs-  one sperm fuses with the egg (forms a zygote)  one sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei to form a triploid cell (endosperm which feeds the embryo)  within the seed –  embryo surrounded by endosperm  seed coat Fruiting Plants  Fruit o A container for seeds o Develops from the ovary wall o Used to disperse seeds o Can be dry or fleshy  -phily = pollination o entomophily – insect pollination o anemophily – wind pollination o mellitophily – bee pollination  -chory = seed dispersal o –zoochory o endozoochory – inside o ectozoochory – outside o anemochory  Strawberries aren’t true berries o Aggregate o Achene o Accessory o “seeds” are actually little fruits that contain seeds inside of them  Multiple fruits – o each composed of an individual monocarpous pistil (gynoecium) o each seed-bearing drupelet from the ovary of one pistillate flower o pineapple = multiple flowers o berry = fleshy pericarp - tomatoes o Hesperidium - Lemons o Drupe - Stony endocarp - peach o Pome  Apple  Ovary surrounded by fleshy hypanthium  Ovary wall = pericarp  Accessory tissue is what we eat  Dry fruit = corn, strawberries  Blackberry/Raspberry = aggregates of drupelets o Each “bubble” was a carpel o Contains seeds o Dehiscent  Naturally split open Exam 3 a. Chytridomycota i. Aquatic, with flagellated zoospores ii. Freshwater iii. Killing amphibians b. Zygomycota i. Bread molds ii. Thick walled, dormant zygospores iii. Pilobolus c. Glomeromycota i. Endomycorrhizal fungi ii. Mutualistic root- inhabitants iii. Help fertilize plants & plant feeds carbon to fungi d. Ascomycota i. Sac fungi ii. Contains LSD iii. Mostly plant pathogens iv. Sexual spores (ascospores) v. Asexual spores (conidia) vi. Know the life cycle – important e. Basidiomycota i. Mushrooms ii. No asexual spores iii. Basidispores (sexual spores) iv. Amanita muscaria (know life cycle!!) f. Imperfect i. No sexual stage ii. Produce spores (mitosis) iii. Penicillium, aspergillus, rhizoctonia g. Lichens i. Mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and photosynthetic organism h. Porifera i. Sessile ii. Aquatic iii. Cellular level of organization iv. Filter feeders v. Be able to recognize and define the 4 cell types (choanocytes, amoebocytes, porocytes, & pinacocytes) vi. Parazoa vii. Know the 3 body plans – ascon (simple), sycon (multiple ascon), leucon (multiple leucon) 1. Class Calcarea a. Marine b. Calcareous c. Small 2. Class Hexactinellida a. Deep marine b. Siliceous c. Syncytium (cell fused) 3. Class Demospongiae a. Largest b. Marine and freshwater c. Siliceous d. Leucon i. Ctenophora i. Biradial ii. Colloblasts (gluey cells) iii. Iridescence iv. Bioluminescence v. Locomotion by comb jellies vi. Ctenes (8 rows of fused cilia) j. Cnidaria i. Hydras, jellyfish, corals, anemones ii. Radial iii. Polyp and medusa body types iv. Know terms such as gastrodermis (gut lining), tentacle, mesoglea (jelly substance), gastrovascular cavity, pedal disc (how polyp attaches) v. Know how it stings (nematocyst, cnidocyte) 1. Class Hydrozoa a. Hydra i. Budding ii. Completely mitotic iii. Asexual b. Obelia i. Know life cycle! c. Physalia (Portuguese man of war) i. Colonial medusa ii. Know terms such as pneumatophore, gonozoid, gastrozoid, dactylzoid 2. Class Scyphozoa a. True jellies b. Know life cycle of moon jellies 3. Class Cubozoa a. Dangerous sea wasps 4. Class Anthozoa a. Flower b. Sessile c. Corals, sea anemones d. Very important to marine habitat e. Know coral anatomy and importance of calcium carbonate skeleton k. Bilateria i. Triploblastic (3 layers, mesoderm) ii. acoelomate  pseudocoelomate  eucoelomate iii. bilateral symmetry  cephalization (formation of a head – head meaning moving with intention, or direction) iv. protosome 1. Phylum Platyhelminthes a. Flat worms b. Simple gut i. Class Turbellaria 1. Circular, longitudinal, parenchymal muscles 2. Regeneration 3. Pharynx 4. Ciliated epidermis ii. Class Cestoda 1. Tapeworms 2. No mouth or digestive system 3. Scolex; proglottid 4. Immature, mature, gravid 5. Life cycle iii. Class Trematoda 1. Primary & secondary host 2. Life cycle of liver fluke 3. Oral suckers 4. Huge number of offspring FINAL  Class Cephalopoda o Squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish o “head foot” o mantle forms body tube o arms and tentacles o pen (secreted by mantle) o chambered nautilus (external shell secreted by mantle) shell with siphuncle o chambered nautilus means it has “chambers” or rooms inside with each spiral o siphuncle – pumps gas into or out of the shell of the nautilus  used to go up and down Lophophorates  Phylum Phoronida o Marine o Chitinous tube dwelling o Wormlike o U- shaped gut  Phylum Ectoprocta o Marine and freshwater o “anus outside of ring” o AKA Bryozoa o “moss animals” o colonial o zooid within zooecia (s. zooecium (calcium carbonate structure))  Phylum Brachiopoda o “lampshells” o marine o 2 calcified shells – each symmetrical but upper different from lower o some with pedicel o many fossil species Superphylum: Ecdysozoa  Phylum Nematoda o Roundworms o Diverse, abundant, ubiquitous o Parasitic in plants and animals o Free-living and marine, freshwater, and terrestrial o Longitudinal muscles only o Vinegar eels o Most famous – Caenorhabditis elegans AKA C. elegans  Tiny (< 1 mm)  Simple; almost harmless  One of the first genomes to be mapped  Phylum Nematomorpha o Gordian worms, horsehair worms o From Gordian knot o Parasitic larvae o Non-feeding as adults o Vestigial digestive tract  Phylum Arthropoda o Largest, most diverse of all phyla, >80% of all species o Range from < 0.1 mm to 7 feet o Abundance and broad ecological distribution o Rich fossil record o Economic importance: food, pollination, honey, wax, silk, drugs, dyes o Parasites, disease transmission, agricultural and domestic pests o Protosome eucoelomates o Metameric “through parts” (segmented) o Tagmosis = body arrangement, parts = tagmata o Jointed appendages o Exoskeleton = complex cuticle o Protein + lipid + chitin (+ calcium carbonate) – secreted by epidermis o Ecdysis, exuvium – shell left behind (molting) o Complex musculature – smooth and striated o Circulatory system – heart, arteries, hemocoel, open o Nervous system – antennae, eyes (ocellus and compound) o Respiration – cutaneous, gills, book gills, book lungs, tracheae o Reproduction – dioecious, usually internal fertilization o Oviparous or ovoviviparous – lay eggs or eggs hatch inside of mother o Metamorphosis in some  Subphylum Trilobita o All extinct by end of Permian era (~ 250 MYA) o Tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen  3 lobed abdomen o Branched (biramous) appendages  Subphylum Chelicerata o Chelicerast  1 pair appendages  major mouth parts o ancestrally chelate (hand like), but maybe fangs, needle-like nd o 2 pair appendages = pedipalps o 4 pairs of legs o no antennae o tagmosis = cephalothorax, abdomen/ prosoma, opisthosoma  Class Merostomata  “living fossils”  similar to forms that existed over 200 MYA  simple and compound eyes  book gills  chelate, chelicerate, and other chelate appendages  telson (tail)  -Xiphosora (sword tail) o helps it flip when waves crash into it  AKA horseshoe crabs  Class Pycnogonida  “sea spiders”  all marine  predators and external parasites on Cnidarians  sucking proboscis  reduced abdomen, organs within legs  males carry eggs on modified legs (ovigers)  Class Arachnida  Spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, vinegaroons  Tailless whipscorpions, daddy long legs, pseudoscorpions  Most are predacious (parasites, detritivores)  Some are venomous o Order: Araneae  Spiders  Chelicerae = fangs with venom  Silk produced from spinnerets  Males mate with pedipalps o Order: Scorpiones  Scorpions  Chelate pedipalps  Metasoma with sting  Vaejovis carolinensis – only local species o Order: Acari  Mites o Order: Opiliones  Daddy long legs o Subphylum Crustacea  Marine, freshwater, terrestrial  2 pair antennae (unique)  branched appendages (biramous)  mandibles (jaw like mouth parts)  tagmosis = cepholothorax + abdomen  Class Crustacea o Order: Maxillopoda  Ostracods  Barnacles o Order: Malacostraca  Isopods  Amphipods  Krill  Decapods (crab, lobster, things we eat) o Subphylum Uniramia  Uniramous appendages  Mandibles  1 pair antennae  Class Chilopoda  Predaceous  Posion claws  1 pair legs/segment  tagmosis = head + trunk  Class Diplopoda  Detritivores  2 pairs of legs per diplosegment (fused together)  repugnatorial glands  Class Insecta  Over 1 million described species  Tagmosis = head + thorax + abdomen  0, 1, or 2 pair wings  3 pairs of walking legs  ametabolous – egg – immature - adult o silverfish, springtails, etc  hemimetabolous – egg – nymph (or naiad) – adult o bugs, grasshoppers, roaches, dragonflies  homometabolous – egg – larva – pupa – adult (imago) o flies, beetles, wasps, butterflies  wings and legs connect to thorax  dragonfly and butterfly not a true fly; house fly is a true fly (space, 2 words)  Seven big orders o Order: Odonata  Dragonflies and damselflies o Order: Orthoptera  Grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids o Order: Hemiptera  “true bugs”  X marks bug – X on thorax = wings partly hardened (overlapping) o Order: Coleoptera  Beetles  Wings used for protection, under wings more membraneous (meet in center) o Order: Diptera  Flies  1 pair of wings  halters – balance in flight (look like little drumsticks) o Order: Hymenoptera  Bees, wasps, ants  Care for young  Elaborate nests (colonies) o Order: Lepidoptera  Butterflies and moths  Scales (colors) – tiny projections  Phylum Cycliophora o Discovered in 1995 o Lobster parasites o Mouth ringed with cilia o Complex life cycle with strange dwarf male Echinodermata  Secondarily radially symmetric deuterostomes  “spiny skin”  all marine  pentamerous radial symmetry  endoskeleton formed of calcareous plates within integument = dermal ossicles  pedicellariae  oral/aboral axis (aboral surface usually up)  dermal branchiae (respiration)  little sensory development, no head  automy and regeneration  water vascular system  Class Asteroidea o Sea stars, starfish o 5 arms or multiples of 5 o most are predatory o pyloric and cardiac (eversible) stomachs o tube feet, within ambulacral groove, used for locomotion o pedicellariae o 1 arm plus 1/5 of central disc – can regenerate entire body o Asterias spp.  Class Ophiuroidea o Brittle stars, serpent stars, basket stars – largest class o Central disc o Long, slender arms o Closed ambulacral groove o Tube feet used in feeding o Grasp food with arms or filter feed o Locomote  Class Echinoidea o Urchins, sand dollars, sea biscuits o Dermal ossicles fused –test o Moveable spines o Pedicellariae o 5- holed sand dollar  Class Holothuroidea o Sea cucumbers, sea apple, etc. o Reduced dermal ossicles o Extended oral/aboral axis o Some bilateral symmetry o Spacious coelom o Feed with tentacles o Evisceration for defense (autonomy and regeneration)  Class Crinoidea o Sea lilies, sea feathers, etc. o Arms with pinnules (branched) o Filter feeder o Some sessile, some stalked, some motile  Class Concentricycloidea o Sea daisies o Most recently discovered o Deep ocean (>1000 m) from New Zealand o Simple structure o Small < 1 cm, disc shaped o Tube feet around periphery, no arms Phylum Chordata  Deuterosome, eucoelomate, bilateral symmetry  Big four- o Notochord – cartilaginous skeletal rod o Dorsal tubular nerve cord o Pharynx with gill slits o Post anal tail  Subphylum Urochordata o “Notochord in tail” o adults do not exhibit all 4 characteristics o covered with integument = tunic o sessile o terms to know-  incurrent siphon  excurrent siphon  tunic  atrium  coelom  pharynx with gill slits – water flows in and out through gills – food particles trapped in mucus  Subphylum Cephalochordata o “notochord in head” o exhibit all 4 characteristics o lancelet o mouth, pharynx, atrium, atriopore, anus, postanal tail, notochord, nerve cord  Subphylum Vertebrata o Superclass Agnatha  Cartilaginous fish without jaws o Superclass Gnathostomata  With jaw o Class Agnatha  Lamprey  Feed as ectoparasites  Rings of teeth around jawless mouth  Hagfish- slime production flexible bodies, cartilaginous skeletons  Tie body into knot and push body away to break a piece of food o Class Chondrichthyes  Sharks and rays  Spiracles- water enters to irrigate gills  Unique scales (placoid or dermal)  “endless teeth” = modified scales  mostly predaceous, but largest species, whale shark & basking shark are filter feeders  have to swim entire lives for gills o Class Osteichthyes  Bony fish  Coelacanth – lobe finned- muscular elements  Lung fish – gills & lungs, cocoon  Single loop circulatory system & 2 chambered heart  No separation between oxygenated and unoxygenated blood o Class Amphibia  Moist, glandular skin  Metamorphic life cycle  Quasi-terrestrial  Cutaneous respiration (skin)  3 chambered heart  double loop circulatory with partial separation  ectothermic and heterothermic = poikilothermic  orders:  Anura – without tail (frogs and toads)  Caudata- with tail (salamanders)  Gymnophiona – legless (caecilians)  Frogs have external fertilization o Class Reptilia  Dry, scaly skin  Lungs are more efficient, rely less on cutaneous respiration  Eggs hatch and develop on land  Amniotic egg – same membranes and fluids as bird eggs  Order: Testudines  Parts of skeleton fused to form a shell; covered with skin and epidermal scales  No teeth  Don’t hear well  Live well over 100 years  Turtles  Order: Squamata  Snakes, lizards  Order: Sphenodonta  Tuatara (3 eye)  Lizard-like animal- New Zealand  Order: Crocodilia  Crocodiles, alligators, caimans  4 chambered heart  don’t shed epidermal scales  highly predaceous o Class Aves  Keratinized feathers (similar to reptilian skin)  Related to reptiles (skin and heart)  Feathers necessary for flight as well as lack of bladder and air spaces between bones  Beak instead of teeth  4 chambered heart  control body temperature from within (endothermic)  ratites – flightless birds  kerinates o Class Mammalia  Hair- keratin  Mammary glands  4 chambered hearts  endothermic and homeothermic  oviparous- egg layers  marsupials- marsupium pouch  viviparous- placental, develop by mother’s bloodstream  Order: Monotremata  Duckbill or platypus, spiny anteater or echidna  Eggs released from cloaca  Young lap milk from mother’s fur  Order: Marsupialia  Koalas, wombats, kangaroos, opossum  Short gestation  Young born slightly developed o Migrate to marsupium and attach to nipple  Eutheria – placental mammals (19 orders)  Order: Rodentia o Largest class o Mice, squirrels  Order: Cetacea o Whales, dolphins o Predaceous – dolphin o Filter feeders – humpback whale o Largest animal- great blue whale  Order: Chiroptera o Bats  Order: Perissodactyla o Horses, zebra, rhino  Order: Carnivora o Lions, tigers, bears, dogs, sea lions  Order: Primates o Humans, monkeys, apes, lemurs


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