BIOLOGY FINAL STUDY GUIDE
BIOLOGY FINAL STUDY GUIDE BIOL 1030
Popular in Organismal Biology
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
BIO 120 (Principles of Biology)
verified elite notetaker
Human Biology 402
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 23 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Shoupe on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. Djibo Zanzot in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 191 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.
Reviews for BIOLOGY FINAL STUDY GUIDE
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/28/16
Biology 1030 FINAL STUDY GUIDE Dr. Zanzot Exam 1 Phylogeny – evolutionary history Taxonomy- (taxon, taxa) science of naming; named group of organisms Cladistics philosophy- clade; all descendants of a certain group of ancestors “birds are reptiles, a special case” Evolutionary philosophy- “birds are not reptiles” Monophyletic- a single common ancestor Holophyletic- includes all descendants; sometimes interchangeable with monophyletic Paraphyletic- on the side of; doesn’t include all descendants; most, but not all Polyphyletic- evolved many times Plesiomorphic- ancestor traits all evolved Apomorphic- something that evolved later Symplesiomorphic- shared ancestorial characteristics Synapomorphic- shared derived characteristics Autopomorphic- unshared derived characteristics Homologous – structures similar based on ancestry Homoplasy- appear to be homologous, but are not Convergent evolution- (wings) evolved by commonality, and habitat, similarity in form Parallel evolution- same traits evolving multiple trees, similarity not based on evolution Dendrograms- tree diagram Cladogram-basically same as dendrogram Phylogram- another tree Horotely- clock, timing of evolution Tachytely- fast evolution Bradytely- slow (horseshoe crabs) Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Prokaryote- lacks a nucleus o Prokaryotes are NOT a recognized biological taxon o Taxonomic clades are defined using synapomorphies o Lacking a nucleus is a symplesiomorphy o 2 Domains- Bacteria and Archaea o only limited morphological differences in prokaryotes o Dr. Carl Woese proposed splitting prokaryotes into 2 novel taxonomic groups above kingdom o Based on comparing DNA sequences of genes encoding ribosomal RNA o New group – Archaea – “ancient” Found in extreme environments, reminiscent of ancient Earth Extreme heat Extreme pH Extreme salt o However, DNA told a different story – Archaea may be a misnomer o Archaea and Eukarya form a monophyletic clade o Bacteria more ancient than Archaea o Prokaryotes share other ancestral characteristics o No nuclei o Unicellular or colonial o Cells very small (1-5 um) o No membrane- bound organelles o Cell morphology limited Spherical – coccus (-i) Rod – bacillus (-i) Spiral – spirillum (-a) Staphylo – cluster of grapes Strepto – twisted chain o Most prokaryotes have cell walls o Chemically distinct from eukaryotic cell walls o Peptidoglycan- sandwiched between inner/outer membrane o Gram-staining – tells you about nature o Capsule- smooth bacteria – pathogenic o Fimbriae- means fringe; looks like cilia but NOT cilia o Pilus (-i) – sex pili- gene transfer o Flagella- different structure from eukaryotic flagella (both used for mobility) -Motility o Taxis – movement towards or away from a stimulus (positive or negative) o Positive phototaxis- movement towards light o Negative chemotaxis- movement away from a chemical signal -Genomic arrangement o No nucleus- single circular chromosome o Nucleoid- nucleus-like, genetic information stored o Plasmids- loops of DNA -Reproduction o Binary fission- no mitosis of meiosis o Asexual o Horizontal gene transfer – genetic information passed from one cell to another o Transformation- plasmids from environment o Conjugation- plasmids passed via pili o Transduction- virus-mediated -Endospores o Resistant form for bacteria o Shell forms around nucleoid Nutritional mode - Prokaryotic metabolic diversity >>> eukaryotic metabolic diversity - Heterotrophic- eat other things - Autotrophic- feed themselves - Photoautotrophic- sun, 2-part process, synthesis - Photoheterotrophic- ATP from sunlight, can’t fix C from atm - Chemoautotrophic- chemical energy to produce ATP - Not all organisms rely on sun for energy bottom of ocean, thermal-use energy from magma Oxygen Relationships - Aerobic- some require oxygen - Anaerobic- some cannot live in the presence of oxygen - Facultative v. obligate (strict) – o Obligate- cannot live without something o Facultative- sort of opposite – okay without both- no oxygen or oxygen - Anaerobic organisms S, NO3-, Mn, Fe, U, CO2 - Many different alternative terminal electron acceptors - Aerobic organisms Oxygen forms water Ecological Relationships - Most famous bacteria are pathogenic - Free-living, not associated with a host - Mutualistic- benefits host, and organism - Biofilms- collections of groups of bacteria – so metabolically diverse – “division of labor” - Decomposers Endosymbiotic Theory - Eukaryotic organelles mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free-living bacteria - Contain their own DNA and ribosomes - Extra membrane layer - Similarity to extant (still living) bacteria o M. –alphaproteobacteria o C.- cyanobacteria Diversity in Prokaryotes - How many speicies? Millions - Difficult to tell - How do we find new species? Culture and domestication - Metagenomic prospecting- human genome project- looking for a unique DNA Domain Archaea - 1-4 Kingdoms - gram-negative – lacking in peptidoglycans - extremophiles- found in conditions unlike others on earth o thermophiles- extreme heat o halophiles- extreme salt (9% saline!) o acidophiles- extreme pH (low pH) - Methanogens o Strict anaerobes, produce methane, swamp gas, decomposers - Non-extreme Archaea - 4 clades- o Korachalotes- “young man” hot springs o Euryarchaeotes- “broad” methanogens, halophiles o Crenarchaeotes- “spring (water)” thermophiles o Nanoarchaeotes- “dwarf” parasitic Domain Bacteria - 1 to many kingdoms - Kingdom Eubacteria - Proteobacteria - Chlamydias - Spirochetes - Cyanobacteria - Gram-positive - Each clade is broken down which leads to more kingdoms Eukarya & Protists Cells with nuclei Membrane bound organelles Sexual life cycles Linear chromosomes Evolutionary trends Ancestral derived Unicellular colonial multicellular Zygotic meiosis gametic meiosis sporic meiosis Isomorphic heteromorphic Isogamy anisogamy oogamy Gametophyte dominant sporophyte dominant Meiosis Sexually-reproducing (meiotic) organisms alternative between having one copy of the set of chromosomes (haploid) and having two copies of a set of chromosome (diploid) Vary in when they grow (by mitosis) 1. Zygotic meiosis 2. Gametic meiosis – gametes produced by meiosis- going from diploid to haploid 3. Alternation of generations = sporic meiosis Kingdom of Protista More of a dumping ground Eukaryote, but not a plant, animal, or fungus Protists are- Grouped by characteristics that are derived relative to Archaea and Bacteria Also by the lack of certain derived characteristics relative to APF Not holophyletic Not a clade One kingdom (for our purposes) Made of several clades o Protist clades Excavata & SAR clade – holophyletic Archaeplastida (plants) & Unikonta (fungi and animals) – paraphyletic Clade Excavata Phylum Diplomonadida o 2 equal sized nuclei o heterotrophic o free living and parasitic o 2, 4, or 8 flagella o lack mitochondria o most anaerobic o many live in gut of insects and vertebrates EX- Giardia lamblia Intestinal parasite of humans and other vertebrates Phylum Parabasala o Parabasal body (large modified Golgi apparatus) o Heterotrophic o Axostyle o 4 to 1000’s of flagella o anaerobic o some with intra-cellular bacteria and surface attached spirochetes EX- Trichomonas vaginalis Human urogenital tract Trichonympha Termite gut Phylum Kinetoplastida o Heterotrophs (mostly parasitic, part of Euglenozoa?) o Kinetoplast (mass of DNA within single large mitochondrion) o Trypanosomes Trypanosoma brucei African sleeping sickness, vector = tsetse fly trailing flagellum attached to cell by undulating membrane Bodo saltans, not parasitic – free living kinetoplastid Phylum Euglenophyta o Colorless heterotrophs and green photoautotrophs o Longitudinal binary fission Euglena 2 flagella in flagellar reservoir 1 locomotory and 1 non emergent or short stigma Paraflagellar body Phototaxis Euglenoid (peristaltic) movement Chloroplast with 3 membranes Peranema – one trailing and one leading flagellum (thickened by paraxial rod except at tip) o 2 flagella- transverse flagellum in circumferential groove, longitudinal flagellum in longitudinal groove Theca o Plates of cellulose in alveoli Palmella, bloom CLADE SAR Stramenopiles Phylum Bacillariophyta o Photosynthetic o Marine, freshwater o Cell wall, siliceous frustule, 2 valves o Centric, pennate o Asexual reproduction with decrease in size o Gametic meiosis o Diatomaceous earth – natural dewarmer – ex. Get rid of bed bugs Phylum Phaeophyta o Marine o Photosynthetic macroalgae o Kelp o Holdfast, stipe, thallus, blade, meristem (zones of cell division) o Align – protein that gives thallus its sponginess o Sporic meiosis Alveolates Phylum Dinoflagellata o Marine and freshwater o Most free living, some endoparasites o Many photosynthetic o Chloroplasts of symbiotic origin o Red, brown, or golden pigments o Longitudinal fission o Ex – Gymnodinium, Ceratium, Noctiluca, Symbiodinium o 2 flagella o Transverse and longitudinal o Thecae- plates of cellulose in alveoli o Dino = whirling Phylum Apicomplexa – sporozoans o Apical complex o Flagellated microgametes o Pellicle- 3 membranes (large alveolus) – little skin o Complex life cycle – haploid dominant Sporozoite- from mosquito to human, bloodstream liver, replicate Trophozoite- formed in blood cells, feeding Merozoite- formed in liver Garmonts- micro and macrogametocytes Micro and macrogametes Oocyst- gametes fuse, bladder like o Symbiodinium- mutualistic relationship with corals, bleaching of corals o Ex- Plasmodium Malaria- causal agent Vector- anopheles o Ex- Toxoplasma gondii – parasite, mostly completely asymptomatic, 26% of people have it, cat litter, mother can pass to fetus and baby can’t defend themselves- issue for amino impaired people Phylum Ciliophora o Freshwater, marine, soil o Heterotrophic o Most free-living, some parasites o Complex organelles, complex behavior o Oral groove, cytosome, cytopharynx, food vacuole, cytoproct o Contractile vacuole o Cilia, cirrus (-i), membranelle o Complex pellicle, and alveoli, extrusomes o Myoneme- found on vorticella o Paramecium multimicronucleatum, Didinium, Vorticella, Euplotes, rumen ciliates Rhizaria Phylum Foraminifera o Mostly marine o Benthic or planktonic o Reticulopodia o Calcareous, chambered test o Mermaid’s pennies, large fossil species o White cliffs of dover Phylum Radiolaria o Marine plankton, freshwater o Delicate siliceous tests with apertures o Axopodia- needle like pseudopods CLADE ARCHAEPLASTIDA – paraphyletic o Phylum Rhodophyta – red algae o Marine o Macroalgae o Most in deep, cold water (red pigments) o Carrageenan, agar o Porphyra tenera o Red because of deep water habitat, don’t absorb red light Phylum Chlorophyta – green algae o Photosynthetic, chlorophyll o Motile and non-motile forms o Large cup-shaped chloroplast o Food storage as starch o Many colonial species o Chlamydomonas (eye spot, flagellated, research), Volvox (colonial), Hydrodictyon o Lots are planktons- microscopic, drift around CLADE UNIKONTA o Phylum Gymnamoeba- naked ameobas, sacrodines o Pseudopods o Marine, freshwater o Most- benthic, some planktonic o Amoeba Parasitic forms Entamoeba hystolytica, E. gingivalis Phylum Myxogastrida- plasmodial slime molds o Plasmodium- multinucleate mass of protoplasm o “super cell” o heterotrophic o complex life cycle (sporic meiosis), sclerotium (resistance of resting) o Physarum polycephalum – yellow slime mold Phylum Choanoflagellata o Sister group of metazoa o Marine and freshwater o Tiny cells (less than 10 micrometers) o Solitary or colonial, sessile or motile o Single flagellum within collar of microvilli o Filter feeding o Proterospongia “before sponges” Exam 2 Kingdom Plantae Derived from Charophyta, a lineage of green algae Multicellular Terrestrial or aquatic Photoautotrophic Cell walls made of cellulose Movement by growth Embryo protected by gametophyte tissue “Embryophyta” Sporic meiosis Major plant groups- o Bryophytes (3 phyla) o Seedless vascular (4 phyla) o Gymnosperms (4 phyla) o Angiosperms (1 phylum) Bryophytes o Nonvascular o 3 extant phyla o Dominant gametophyte generation o Small plants o Moist habitats o Water required for sperm disposal o 3 phyla- Bryophyta True mosses Gametophyte Meiospore- produced by meiosis Protonema – 1 , thread like Leafy shoots, rhizoids Antheridium (-ia) male Splash cup Sperm Archegonium (-ia) female Egg Sporophyte – always diploid Capsule and seta Placenta Calyptra Operculum Peristome Dispersal hygroscopic Hepatophyta Liverworts Dichotomously branching thallus Gemma(-ae) within gemma cup Antheridiophore – male Archegoniophore – female Sporophyte Foot Capsule Elaters on spores Anthocerophyta Hornworts Anthoceros (local genus) Simple, charophyte-like thallus Horn-like sporophyte: dehiscent Photosynthetic sporophyte o Horn (looks like grass) = sporophyte o “green goo” = gametophyte Vascular tissue Dominant sporophyte generation Gametophytes variable o Photosynthetic/non-photosynthetic o Attached/unattached o Above/below ground Larger plants, somewhat dryer habitats Being taller better access to light for photosynthesis Series of tubes o 3 tissue systems- Dermal tissue system Outer covering layer, like skin Similar to dermis Prevents drying out o Vascular tissue system Xylem- move water and nutrients from ground to plant body Phloem- moves sugar to wherever needed o Ground tissue system Fills space between dts and vts Not root tissue necessarily Used for storage and structure (stem) Organs- o Roots o Stems o Leaves Microphylls- 1 strand of vascular tissue/leaf Megaphylls- 1 strand of branched vascular tissue Growth and development o Apical meristems (meristem= zones of cell division) Primary growth Apex Increase in height and depth o Lateral meristems Secondary growth Increase in girth (wider) Evolutionary trends o Homospory heterospory o Microspores megaspores Seedless vascular 4 phyla Pteridophyta o True ferns Megaphylls= frond Usually pinnately compound (pinna [-ae]) Feather-like; dissected leaflets of a big leaf Circinate vernation Circular unfolding Fittleheads- look like violin, young leaf Rhizome (root-like) and adventitious roots Sorus (-i) cluster of sporangia Indusium (-ia) covering over a sorus (not all have them) Annulus (-i) Little ring (part of sporangia, changes shape… when opened, releases spores) Gametophyte Protonema – 1 thread Prothallus with antheridia and archegonia o Bisexual Sporeling Equisetophyta o Arthrophyta Joint o Horsetails, scouring rushes, pot scrubbers o 1 extant genus o equisetum (“living fossils”) o Hollow ribbed stem, toughened with silica o Whorls of microphylls o Strobili (cones) with sporangiophores, sporophylls o Elaters function in spore dispersal Psilophyta o Whisk ferns o Lacking true leaves and roots o Dichotomously branching stems o Sporangia borne on stem Ancestors used to have leaves and roots secondary loss Lycophyta o Club mosses o Ground pine o Resurrection plant o Quillwort o Microphylls o Strobilus (-i) Cluster of sporophylls o Some homosporus, some heterosporus 2 life cycles of spores Or…. Monilophyta (super phylum) o Pteridophyta o Equisetophyta o Psilophyta All separate clades- monophyletic – all share one clade Lycophyta Seeds Spores o Single, totipotent cell o Small, don’t require much to make o Very limited resources o Haploid cells Seeds o Multicellular o Organs and tissue systems already developed – “a plant ready to go” o Telescoping of generations (diploid embryo) – seed coat protection o Nutrition for embryo o May have accessory tissues to aid in dispersal – elaters A seed is “a baby in a lunchbox” Embryo Cotyledons – seed leaves (before developed) Epicotyl – on top of Hypocotyl – below, beneath (embryotic stem) Radicle – a little root Endosperm – food inside seeds; provides energy Seed coat – protection o Fuel provided by fats from oils found in seeds Gymnosperms – naked seeds o 4 extant phyla o Vascular tissue o Dominant sporophyte generation, larger plants o Sporophyte gets larger, gametophyte gets smaller o Reduction of gametophyte generation, no flagellated sperm o Heterospory – 2 types of spores (mostly a seed requirement) o Seeds o Don’t rely on water to reproduce o Air force Phylum Gnetophyta o Welwitschia, Ephedra, Gnetum o 2 evergrowing leaves o Extremely dry habitat o Water absorbed by leaves Phylum Ginkgophyta o “maidenhair tree” o monotypic (1 extant phyla) o Ginkgo biloba o Deciduous o Dichotomous venation o Dwarf branches o Dioecious 2 houses – male and female plants o Bilboed leaves When large enough, leaf gets small crest in the middle o Leaf extract Memory character o Fleshy, smelly seed coat (not a fruit) Fatty acid Caproic acid & Butyric acid Result in a smell similar to dog feces Male ginkgo trees don’t produce seeds so they don’t have the smell Phylum Cycadophyta o Cycads (short, palm-like) o Dioecious o Microsporangiate strobilus (cone) o Megasporangiate strobilus o Herbivorous beetles feed in pollen cones Precursor to zoophily or animal pollination One of the most ancient lineages o Look like little palm trees Phylum Coniferophyta o Pine, Yews, Firs, Spruces, Redwood, Juniper, Hemlock, Sequoia, Cedar o One of the oldest organisms (+ 5,000 years old) o One of the biggest trees – giant sequoia o One of the tallest trees- coast redwood (>300 feet) o Life cycle terms Monoecious – 1 house Both male and female in the same individual Pollen cone Microsporangium (little spores, 2n) – microsporocytes = cell to undergo meiosis Ovulate cone Pollen grains – (n) o released following meiosis of microsporocytes o microgametophyte o microsporocyte – starts alternations of generations o produces gametes (pollen grains themselves are not the gametes) Megasporocyte (within megasporangium) 2n o Undergo meiosis o 4 cells, only 1 cell survives Surviving megaspore o undergoes meiosis o no cell walls formed Megagametophyte o female o archegonium o egg cell “naked seed plant” o because it is not fully enclosed, so the pollen unites with female before it is “ready” pollen tube from male gametophyte o pollen grains grow o only 1 will develop into a seed sporophyte o product of fertilization o seed coat came from female sporophyte o surrounded by megagametophyte o what remains of female gametophyte turns into food and nutrients for seed baby seed o start developing into a new sporophyte integuments o protective layer o seed coat micropyle o gap where pollen enters o naked seed FLOWERS AND FRUITS Angiosperms – “covered seeds” o Phylum Magnoliophyta or Anthophyta o Flower o Determinate (fixed in its growth) sporophyll (leaves bear spores) bearing shoot o Peduncle Subtended Underneath Modified stem o Receptacle Borne Held together Most successful lineage of plants known o >250,000 species Ancestral flower o 4 whorls o From outside to inside Calyx – sepals Corolla – petals Calyx + corolla – perianth (around flowers) Androecium – stamens – males Gynoecium – carpels – females Differences between gymnosperms and angiosperms Gymnosperms - 4 cells; thousands of gametophytes Angiosperms- From 4 cells to 2 cells (more reduction); Gametophyte has 7 cells, 8 nuclei; Don’t have an archegonium anymore These plants are the most diverse, but successful because… o Vascular tissue makes them sporophyte dominant o Heterospory because they have seeds Perfect – has both male and female whorls in every flower Complete – has all four whorls in every flower Imperfect – male and female parts in different flowers Incomplete – have lost a whorl (usually petals) Monoecious – have male and female whorls/gametes produced on the same plant Dioecious – have separate male and female gamete producing plants Connation – fusion of segments of a single whorl – derived, but not uncommon Adnation- fusion between different whorls – derived, but not as common Inflorescence – an arrangement of flowers on a branch or stem o Spike o Raceme – oldest to newest o Panicle – branching off of branches o Umbel – peduncles same length, umbrella o Compound umbel o Head (capitulum) Dandelion Little tiny flowers that look like one bigger flower Ray flower – edge Disc flower – middle Daisy, Chrysanthemum, Sunflower Angiosperm diversity o Basal angiosperms- Include magnolias o Monocots - Monophyletic o Eudicots - True dicots & Paraphyletic MONOCOTS Poaceae- The Grass Family o Wheat, Barley, Corn Liliaceae- The Lily Family o Garlic, Asparagus, Onions Arecaceae- The Palm Family o Coconuts, Dates, Palm oil Orchidaceae- The Orchid Family o Vanilla Iridaceae- The Iris Family o Saffron DICOTS Asteraceae- The Sunflower Family o Artichoke, Lettuce, Chamomile Fabaceae- The Pea Family o Peanuts, Chick peas, Garden peas Rosaceae- The Rose Family o Plum, Apple, Nectarine Brassiceae - The Nightshade Family o Broccoli, Brussel sprouts, Kale Solanaceae -The Mustard Family o Chili peppers, Tobacco, Potatoes Lamiaceae -The Mint Family o Mint, Basil, Rosemary Cucurbitaceae o Cucumbers, Cantaloupe, Honeydew Monocot o 1 cotyledon o veins parallel (leaf) o vascular tissue scattered o root system fibrous (no main root) o pollen grain with 1 opening o floral organs in multiples of 3 Dicot o 2 cotyledons o veins usually netlike o vascular tissue usually arranged in a ring o root system with taproot (main root) o pollen grain with 3 openings o floral organs in multiples of 4 or 5 Life Cycles alternation of generations – sporophyte dominant (haploid) microspore male gametophyte (generative cell, tube cell) pollen grains pollen tube (stigma, style) egg nucleus fertilization (diploid) zygote (3n endosperm) seed mature flower on sporophyte plant microsporangium OR ovary with megasporangium (n) meiosis surviving megaspore (micropyle) female gametophyte (antipodial cells, egg, syngergids) egg nucleus fertilization o double fertilization = major distinction of angiosperms Flowering Plants Magnolia & Chamilia flower Review of the life cycle – o Sporophyte dominant o Heterospory Starting from the anther: microsporangium containing the microsporocyte – microsporocyte goes through meiosis to form the microspore Microspore goes through mitosis to form the microgametophyte (1 round, also the pollen grain or male gametophyte) A tube cell is formed to make the pollen tube A generative cell is formed to go through meiosis and produce sperm Back at the anther: the ovary has ovules containing the megasporangium which contains the megasporocytes who goes through meiosis A megaspore is formed (only 1 survives) and it is surrounded by integuments with a micropyle (a gap for pollen) The megaspore is divided by meiosis to form the megagametophyte (female gametophyte) Reduced to 7 cells with 8 nuclei Antipodal 2 polar nuclei 2 synergids egg pollen goes down through style, produces 2 sperm double fertilization occurs- one sperm fuses with the egg (forms a zygote) one sperm fuses with 2 polar nuclei to form a triploid cell (endosperm which feeds the embryo) within the seed – embryo surrounded by endosperm seed coat Fruiting Plants Fruit o A container for seeds o Develops from the ovary wall o Used to disperse seeds o Can be dry or fleshy -phily = pollination o entomophily – insect pollination o anemophily – wind pollination o mellitophily – bee pollination -chory = seed dispersal o –zoochory o endozoochory – inside o ectozoochory – outside o anemochory Strawberries aren’t true berries o Aggregate o Achene o Accessory o “seeds” are actually little fruits that contain seeds inside of them Multiple fruits – o each composed of an individual monocarpous pistil (gynoecium) o each seed-bearing drupelet from the ovary of one pistillate flower o pineapple = multiple flowers o berry = fleshy pericarp - tomatoes o Hesperidium - Lemons o Drupe - Stony endocarp - peach o Pome Apple Ovary surrounded by fleshy hypanthium Ovary wall = pericarp Accessory tissue is what we eat Dry fruit = corn, strawberries Blackberry/Raspberry = aggregates of drupelets o Each “bubble” was a carpel o Contains seeds o Dehiscent Naturally split open Exam 3 a. Chytridomycota i. Aquatic, with flagellated zoospores ii. Freshwater iii. Killing amphibians b. Zygomycota i. Bread molds ii. Thick walled, dormant zygospores iii. Pilobolus c. Glomeromycota i. Endomycorrhizal fungi ii. Mutualistic root- inhabitants iii. Help fertilize plants & plant feeds carbon to fungi d. Ascomycota i. Sac fungi ii. Contains LSD iii. Mostly plant pathogens iv. Sexual spores (ascospores) v. Asexual spores (conidia) vi. Know the life cycle – important e. Basidiomycota i. Mushrooms ii. No asexual spores iii. Basidispores (sexual spores) iv. Amanita muscaria (know life cycle!!) f. Imperfect i. No sexual stage ii. Produce spores (mitosis) iii. Penicillium, aspergillus, rhizoctonia g. Lichens i. Mutualistic symbiosis between fungi and photosynthetic organism h. Porifera i. Sessile ii. Aquatic iii. Cellular level of organization iv. Filter feeders v. Be able to recognize and define the 4 cell types (choanocytes, amoebocytes, porocytes, & pinacocytes) vi. Parazoa vii. Know the 3 body plans – ascon (simple), sycon (multiple ascon), leucon (multiple leucon) 1. Class Calcarea a. Marine b. Calcareous c. Small 2. Class Hexactinellida a. Deep marine b. Siliceous c. Syncytium (cell fused) 3. Class Demospongiae a. Largest b. Marine and freshwater c. Siliceous d. Leucon i. Ctenophora i. Biradial ii. Colloblasts (gluey cells) iii. Iridescence iv. Bioluminescence v. Locomotion by comb jellies vi. Ctenes (8 rows of fused cilia) j. Cnidaria i. Hydras, jellyfish, corals, anemones ii. Radial iii. Polyp and medusa body types iv. Know terms such as gastrodermis (gut lining), tentacle, mesoglea (jelly substance), gastrovascular cavity, pedal disc (how polyp attaches) v. Know how it stings (nematocyst, cnidocyte) 1. Class Hydrozoa a. Hydra i. Budding ii. Completely mitotic iii. Asexual b. Obelia i. Know life cycle! c. Physalia (Portuguese man of war) i. Colonial medusa ii. Know terms such as pneumatophore, gonozoid, gastrozoid, dactylzoid 2. Class Scyphozoa a. True jellies b. Know life cycle of moon jellies 3. Class Cubozoa a. Dangerous sea wasps 4. Class Anthozoa a. Flower b. Sessile c. Corals, sea anemones d. Very important to marine habitat e. Know coral anatomy and importance of calcium carbonate skeleton k. Bilateria i. Triploblastic (3 layers, mesoderm) ii. acoelomate pseudocoelomate eucoelomate iii. bilateral symmetry cephalization (formation of a head – head meaning moving with intention, or direction) iv. protosome 1. Phylum Platyhelminthes a. Flat worms b. Simple gut i. Class Turbellaria 1. Circular, longitudinal, parenchymal muscles 2. Regeneration 3. Pharynx 4. Ciliated epidermis ii. Class Cestoda 1. Tapeworms 2. No mouth or digestive system 3. Scolex; proglottid 4. Immature, mature, gravid 5. Life cycle iii. Class Trematoda 1. Primary & secondary host 2. Life cycle of liver fluke 3. Oral suckers 4. Huge number of offspring FINAL Class Cephalopoda o Squid, octopus, nautilus, cuttlefish o “head foot” o mantle forms body tube o arms and tentacles o pen (secreted by mantle) o chambered nautilus (external shell secreted by mantle) shell with siphuncle o chambered nautilus means it has “chambers” or rooms inside with each spiral o siphuncle – pumps gas into or out of the shell of the nautilus used to go up and down Lophophorates Phylum Phoronida o Marine o Chitinous tube dwelling o Wormlike o U- shaped gut Phylum Ectoprocta o Marine and freshwater o “anus outside of ring” o AKA Bryozoa o “moss animals” o colonial o zooid within zooecia (s. zooecium (calcium carbonate structure)) Phylum Brachiopoda o “lampshells” o marine o 2 calcified shells – each symmetrical but upper different from lower o some with pedicel o many fossil species Superphylum: Ecdysozoa Phylum Nematoda o Roundworms o Diverse, abundant, ubiquitous o Parasitic in plants and animals o Free-living and marine, freshwater, and terrestrial o Longitudinal muscles only o Vinegar eels o Most famous – Caenorhabditis elegans AKA C. elegans Tiny (< 1 mm) Simple; almost harmless One of the first genomes to be mapped Phylum Nematomorpha o Gordian worms, horsehair worms o From Gordian knot o Parasitic larvae o Non-feeding as adults o Vestigial digestive tract Phylum Arthropoda o Largest, most diverse of all phyla, >80% of all species o Range from < 0.1 mm to 7 feet o Abundance and broad ecological distribution o Rich fossil record o Economic importance: food, pollination, honey, wax, silk, drugs, dyes o Parasites, disease transmission, agricultural and domestic pests o Protosome eucoelomates o Metameric “through parts” (segmented) o Tagmosis = body arrangement, parts = tagmata o Jointed appendages o Exoskeleton = complex cuticle o Protein + lipid + chitin (+ calcium carbonate) – secreted by epidermis o Ecdysis, exuvium – shell left behind (molting) o Complex musculature – smooth and striated o Circulatory system – heart, arteries, hemocoel, open o Nervous system – antennae, eyes (ocellus and compound) o Respiration – cutaneous, gills, book gills, book lungs, tracheae o Reproduction – dioecious, usually internal fertilization o Oviparous or ovoviviparous – lay eggs or eggs hatch inside of mother o Metamorphosis in some Subphylum Trilobita o All extinct by end of Permian era (~ 250 MYA) o Tagmata – head, thorax, abdomen 3 lobed abdomen o Branched (biramous) appendages Subphylum Chelicerata o Chelicerast 1 pair appendages major mouth parts o ancestrally chelate (hand like), but maybe fangs, needle-like nd o 2 pair appendages = pedipalps o 4 pairs of legs o no antennae o tagmosis = cephalothorax, abdomen/ prosoma, opisthosoma Class Merostomata “living fossils” similar to forms that existed over 200 MYA simple and compound eyes book gills chelate, chelicerate, and other chelate appendages telson (tail) -Xiphosora (sword tail) o helps it flip when waves crash into it AKA horseshoe crabs Class Pycnogonida “sea spiders” all marine predators and external parasites on Cnidarians sucking proboscis reduced abdomen, organs within legs males carry eggs on modified legs (ovigers) Class Arachnida Spiders, scorpions, mites, ticks, vinegaroons Tailless whipscorpions, daddy long legs, pseudoscorpions Most are predacious (parasites, detritivores) Some are venomous o Order: Araneae Spiders Chelicerae = fangs with venom Silk produced from spinnerets Males mate with pedipalps o Order: Scorpiones Scorpions Chelate pedipalps Metasoma with sting Vaejovis carolinensis – only local species o Order: Acari Mites o Order: Opiliones Daddy long legs o Subphylum Crustacea Marine, freshwater, terrestrial 2 pair antennae (unique) branched appendages (biramous) mandibles (jaw like mouth parts) tagmosis = cepholothorax + abdomen Class Crustacea o Order: Maxillopoda Ostracods Barnacles o Order: Malacostraca Isopods Amphipods Krill Decapods (crab, lobster, things we eat) o Subphylum Uniramia Uniramous appendages Mandibles 1 pair antennae Class Chilopoda Predaceous Posion claws 1 pair legs/segment tagmosis = head + trunk Class Diplopoda Detritivores 2 pairs of legs per diplosegment (fused together) repugnatorial glands Class Insecta Over 1 million described species Tagmosis = head + thorax + abdomen 0, 1, or 2 pair wings 3 pairs of walking legs ametabolous – egg – immature - adult o silverfish, springtails, etc hemimetabolous – egg – nymph (or naiad) – adult o bugs, grasshoppers, roaches, dragonflies homometabolous – egg – larva – pupa – adult (imago) o flies, beetles, wasps, butterflies wings and legs connect to thorax dragonfly and butterfly not a true fly; house fly is a true fly (space, 2 words) Seven big orders o Order: Odonata Dragonflies and damselflies o Order: Orthoptera Grasshoppers, crickets, and katydids o Order: Hemiptera “true bugs” X marks bug – X on thorax = wings partly hardened (overlapping) o Order: Coleoptera Beetles Wings used for protection, under wings more membraneous (meet in center) o Order: Diptera Flies 1 pair of wings halters – balance in flight (look like little drumsticks) o Order: Hymenoptera Bees, wasps, ants Care for young Elaborate nests (colonies) o Order: Lepidoptera Butterflies and moths Scales (colors) – tiny projections Phylum Cycliophora o Discovered in 1995 o Lobster parasites o Mouth ringed with cilia o Complex life cycle with strange dwarf male Echinodermata Secondarily radially symmetric deuterostomes “spiny skin” all marine pentamerous radial symmetry endoskeleton formed of calcareous plates within integument = dermal ossicles pedicellariae oral/aboral axis (aboral surface usually up) dermal branchiae (respiration) little sensory development, no head automy and regeneration water vascular system Class Asteroidea o Sea stars, starfish o 5 arms or multiples of 5 o most are predatory o pyloric and cardiac (eversible) stomachs o tube feet, within ambulacral groove, used for locomotion o pedicellariae o 1 arm plus 1/5 of central disc – can regenerate entire body o Asterias spp. Class Ophiuroidea o Brittle stars, serpent stars, basket stars – largest class o Central disc o Long, slender arms o Closed ambulacral groove o Tube feet used in feeding o Grasp food with arms or filter feed o Locomote Class Echinoidea o Urchins, sand dollars, sea biscuits o Dermal ossicles fused –test o Moveable spines o Pedicellariae o 5- holed sand dollar Class Holothuroidea o Sea cucumbers, sea apple, etc. o Reduced dermal ossicles o Extended oral/aboral axis o Some bilateral symmetry o Spacious coelom o Feed with tentacles o Evisceration for defense (autonomy and regeneration) Class Crinoidea o Sea lilies, sea feathers, etc. o Arms with pinnules (branched) o Filter feeder o Some sessile, some stalked, some motile Class Concentricycloidea o Sea daisies o Most recently discovered o Deep ocean (>1000 m) from New Zealand o Simple structure o Small < 1 cm, disc shaped o Tube feet around periphery, no arms Phylum Chordata Deuterosome, eucoelomate, bilateral symmetry Big four- o Notochord – cartilaginous skeletal rod o Dorsal tubular nerve cord o Pharynx with gill slits o Post anal tail Subphylum Urochordata o “Notochord in tail” o adults do not exhibit all 4 characteristics o covered with integument = tunic o sessile o terms to know- incurrent siphon excurrent siphon tunic atrium coelom pharynx with gill slits – water flows in and out through gills – food particles trapped in mucus Subphylum Cephalochordata o “notochord in head” o exhibit all 4 characteristics o lancelet o mouth, pharynx, atrium, atriopore, anus, postanal tail, notochord, nerve cord Subphylum Vertebrata o Superclass Agnatha Cartilaginous fish without jaws o Superclass Gnathostomata With jaw o Class Agnatha Lamprey Feed as ectoparasites Rings of teeth around jawless mouth Hagfish- slime production flexible bodies, cartilaginous skeletons Tie body into knot and push body away to break a piece of food o Class Chondrichthyes Sharks and rays Spiracles- water enters to irrigate gills Unique scales (placoid or dermal) “endless teeth” = modified scales mostly predaceous, but largest species, whale shark & basking shark are filter feeders have to swim entire lives for gills o Class Osteichthyes Bony fish Coelacanth – lobe finned- muscular elements Lung fish – gills & lungs, cocoon Single loop circulatory system & 2 chambered heart No separation between oxygenated and unoxygenated blood o Class Amphibia Moist, glandular skin Metamorphic life cycle Quasi-terrestrial Cutaneous respiration (skin) 3 chambered heart double loop circulatory with partial separation ectothermic and heterothermic = poikilothermic orders: Anura – without tail (frogs and toads) Caudata- with tail (salamanders) Gymnophiona – legless (caecilians) Frogs have external fertilization o Class Reptilia Dry, scaly skin Lungs are more efficient, rely less on cutaneous respiration Eggs hatch and develop on land Amniotic egg – same membranes and fluids as bird eggs Order: Testudines Parts of skeleton fused to form a shell; covered with skin and epidermal scales No teeth Don’t hear well Live well over 100 years Turtles Order: Squamata Snakes, lizards Order: Sphenodonta Tuatara (3 eye) Lizard-like animal- New Zealand Order: Crocodilia Crocodiles, alligators, caimans 4 chambered heart don’t shed epidermal scales highly predaceous o Class Aves Keratinized feathers (similar to reptilian skin) Related to reptiles (skin and heart) Feathers necessary for flight as well as lack of bladder and air spaces between bones Beak instead of teeth 4 chambered heart control body temperature from within (endothermic) ratites – flightless birds kerinates o Class Mammalia Hair- keratin Mammary glands 4 chambered hearts endothermic and homeothermic oviparous- egg layers marsupials- marsupium pouch viviparous- placental, develop by mother’s bloodstream Order: Monotremata Duckbill or platypus, spiny anteater or echidna Eggs released from cloaca Young lap milk from mother’s fur Order: Marsupialia Koalas, wombats, kangaroos, opossum Short gestation Young born slightly developed o Migrate to marsupium and attach to nipple Eutheria – placental mammals (19 orders) Order: Rodentia o Largest class o Mice, squirrels Order: Cetacea o Whales, dolphins o Predaceous – dolphin o Filter feeders – humpback whale o Largest animal- great blue whale Order: Chiroptera o Bats Order: Perissodactyla o Horses, zebra, rhino Order: Carnivora o Lions, tigers, bears, dogs, sea lions Order: Primates o Humans, monkeys, apes, lemurs
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'