Final Study Guide
Final Study Guide FNR 251
Popular in Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds
Popular in Agriculture and Forestry
This 49 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FNR 251 at Purdue University taught by Rod N. Williams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Ecology And Systematics Of Amphibians, Reptiles, And Birds in Agriculture and Forestry at Purdue University.
Reviews for Final Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/28/16
OUTLINE: DISPERSAL & SPECIATION • 1. Conservation minute: PARIDS & RELATED GROUPS. • 2. GENE FLOW • 3. DISPERSAL PATTERNS. • 4. SPECIATION. Suggested readingsSteenhof, K. and J. Heath. 2013. Local recruitment and natal dispersal distances of American Kestrel. Condor 115:584- 592. FAMILIES: PARIDAE, SITTIDAE, CERTHIDAE, TROGLODYTIDAE Four families linked by winter flocking behavior: chickadees, nuthatches, creepers, wrens. CONSERVATION ISSUES • Most species are common, familiar yard birds. Readily come to feeders, so are popular. • SECONDARY CAVITY NESTERS: SNAG RETENTION: Chwrensees, nuthatches, some • BEWICK’S WREN has mostly disappeared from eastern states GENE FLOW & SPECIATION • Gene flow reduces variation. • Movement of breeding individuals • Dispersal is a critical process in determining whether populations are linked. DISPERSAL DEFINITIONS • NATAL DISPERSAL – Distance moved by young birds from natal site to site of first breeding attempt. • BREEDING DISPERSAL – Distance moved by older birds to change breeding sites. DISPERSAL PATTERNS • 1. Females move greater distances than males. [Opposite pattern than most vertebrates] • 2. Natal dispersal is greater than adult breeding dispersal. [Exceptions occur, especially to first point] DISPERSAL = “BLACK HOLE” • Very poor natural history info on dispersal. Think of geometry. • RADIOTELEMETRY is giving some results. Example: Western Screech 5 km 5 km Natal territory SPECIATION Can happen when dispersal ends & populations become isolated. COMMON ROUTES: 1. Islands. 2. “Vicariance” = original range broken by barriers. SPECIATION AS A PROCESS • 1. Populations change while isolated (especially. When ranges contract). • 2. “Secondary contact.” Populations during late range expansion • 3. “Positive assortative mating.” Considered separate species POSITIVE ASSORTATIVE MATING Western Grebe Clark’s Grebe Birds of North America online HYBRID ZONES • Sometimes, when populations come back into secondary contact, they don’t show positive assortative mating. Instead, they produce hybrids. “Red-shafted Flicker” “Yellow-shafted Flicker” Hybridize in Great Plains – now considered subspecies of “NORTHERN FLICKER” STABLE HYBRID ZONES If hybridization is stable over time (not increasing or decreasing), then not considered evidence that forms are the same species. So hybrids can be evidence for or against speciation. OUTLINE: CONSERVATION • 1. FAMILIES: THRUSHES & RELATIVES • 2. CONSERVATION HISTORY. • 3. BASIC PATTERNS OF AVIAN EXTINCTIONS. Suggested Readings: Weidensaul, S. 2003. The ghost with trembling wings. North Point Press. Families: Thrushes and Mimic Thrushes Two families often confused THRUSHES: include robins, bluebirds MIMIDS: mockingbird, catbird, thrashers Bluebirds (thrushes) Confusion: Thrushes vs thrashes Gray Catbird – a mimid CONSERVATION • Wood Thrush (& others) heavily parasitized by cowbirds. • Bluebirds (esp. Eastern) supported with nest boxes (in part due to competition with exotics). • Cozumel Thrasher: Off coast of Mexico, may have gone extinct due to Hurricane Wilma in 2005. AVIAN CONSERVATION • Long history in Europe and USA for management & conservation of bird populations. • But these efforts historically have focused on relatively few taxonomic groups. Waterfowl Neotropical migrants Charismatic Upland (most recent) megafauna, such game GENERAL PATTERNS • @10,000 species worldwide • @1000 of these are endangered / threatened (but recent climate change studies suggest up to 1/3 of all species may be threatened). • 10 countries support >400 of the threatened species with restricted ranges. TOP 10 NATIONS Indonesia Brazil, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador Philippines USA China, India Mexico Recent analysis of North American birds undergoing population declines • Species % decline habitat Rusty Blackbird 97.9% boreal forest Henslow’s Sparrow* 96.4 grassland Common Tern 90.6 wetland Verdin 85.6 desert Sprague’s Pipit 83.8 grassland Pinyon Jay 82.5 pine woodlands Short-eared Owl 80.3 grassland Cerulean Warbler* 79.6 forest Black-throated Sparrow 79.6 desert Loggerhead Shrike* 77.1 grassland Grasshopper Sparrow* 77.1 grassland *Indiana breeder DOMINANT CAUSES OF EXTINCTION • 1. ISLANDS 90% of all extinctions since 1600 were island species. Examples: Dodo St. Stephens Island Wren John Keulemans (1895)y Dodo EXTINCTION CAUSES • 2. LOSS OF CRITICAL HABITATS • Single biggest factor for 90% of species on U.S. Endangered Species List. • EXAMPLES: Wetlands, Atlantic Forest of Brazil Arizona wetlands EXTINCTION CAUSES • 3. LIVE BIRD TRADE. In most years, 2-5 million birds exported by developing countries. In 2007, European Union banned imports of all exotic birds (worries about avian flu). EXTINCTION CAUSES • 4. PESTICIDES, POLLUTANTS. Considered major problem in past (DDT, Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring). Less important now (although DDT still sold abroad & conservatives are now attacking Rachel Carson as a mass murderer). (See Oreskes & Conway. 2010. Merchants of Doubt) CURRENT ISSUES: Flame retardants now in California falcon eggs. Lead in California Condor EXTINCTION CAUSES • 5. HUMAN EXPLOITATION • Hunting was major issue in past, illegal now to use native birds for commercial markets in USA. • EXAMPLES: “bushmeat” crisis, netting of migrants in Malta. OUTLINE: CONSERVATION CASE STUDIES • 1. Conservation minute: 9-PRIMARIED OSCINES. • 2. CALIFORNIA CONDOR (HANDOUT) • 3. KIRTLAND’S WARBLER Suggested readings: Kirtland’s Warbler acct in Birds of North America series. Calif. Condor: see handout. FAMILIES: WARBLERS & RELATIVES • “New World nine- primaried oscines” Black-throated • Most passerines have 10 Gray Warbler primaries on each wing • Once found in one huge family “Emberizidae” Red-winged Blackbird Indigo Bunting CONSERVATION ISSUES • POPULARITY: Warblers group in spring • Neotropical migrants, Black-throated Blue Warbler cowbird issues • • ENDANGERED LISTS: Kirtland’s Warbler, Golden-cheeked Warbler Golden-cheeked Warbler AVIAN CASE STUDIES • SPOTTED OWL • RED-COCKADED WOODPECKER • MARBLED MURRELET • KIRTLAND’S WARBLER • GOLDEN-CHEEKED WARBLER • CALIFORNIA GNATCATCHER • CALIFORNIA CONDOR • WHOOPING CRANE • PEREGRINE FALCON CALIFORNIA CONDOR handout KIRTLAND’S WARBLER • “OUR” endangered species: most prominent federally listed bird in Midwest. Occasionally seen in migration here in Indiana. • BREEDS: almost exclusively in Lower Peninsula, Michigan. WINTERS: in Bahamas. • Has always seemed to be rare – nest not found until 19.0s KIRTLAND’S WARBLER • Very specialized habitat: jack pine stands 6-20 years old on sandy soils. Natural stands form after large fires. • During most of 20 Century (era of fire suppression), young jack pine stands were increasingly rare. KIRTLAND’S WARBLER • POPULATION ESTIMATES: – 1951: 432 singing males – 1971: 201 singing males – 1974: 167 singing males response: 3 large management areas set aside in 1957, but population continued to decline. KIRTLAND’S WARBLER • One problem identified: • Cowbird parasitism – 1972, 55-70% of all nests parasitized Cowbird control started in 1972. Parasitism dropped to 3% of nests, but population did not rebound. KIRTLAND’S WARBLER • MORE RECENT SURVEYS: – 1980: 242 singing males – 1985: 216 singing males – 1990: 265 singing males IN 1980: huge fire burned 10,000 ha. Thought to be major setback, but population increased when habitat became suitable. – 1996: 750 singing males KIRTLAND’S WARBLER • Current management: areas are now burned regularly to provide constant supply of new habitat. • Current population: is >1830 pairs, recovery goal is >1000. • Also breeding in Wisconsin, Michigan’s Upper Peninsula; found In Ontario. REMAINING ISSUE • Climate change – some projections show that suitable climate for jack pine will shift north of current soil type. • “Conservation reliant” species. Will always need active management. Wording of E.S.A. implies recovery only when species needs no management. NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS • 1. FAMILIES: 9-PRIMARIED OSCINES, II • 2. POPULATION DECLINES: EVIDENCE • 3. POSSIBLE CAUSES: WINTER, BREEDING, MIGRATION. Suggested readings: Terborgh, J. 1989. Where have all the birds gone? Princeton Univ. Press. FAMILIES: MORE 9-PRIMARIED OSCINES Additional families in New World: New World sparrows, cardinals (does not include House Sparrow) Swamp Sparrow Field Sparrow Northern Cardinal (different family) MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS • CONICAL BILLS: found in at least some species in these families including cardinals (& grosbeaks) & sparrows • Used to crack seeds. Black-headed Grosbeak CONSERVATION ISSUES • Sparrows are typical of many grassland species – declining more than forest birds. • Henslow’s Sparrow is endangered in state. attracted to reclaimed coal mines. NEOTROPICAL MIGRANTS Species that breed in USA & Canada, and have substantial populations that winter south of USA-Mexico border. Especially forest birds. Hooded Warbler Generally not applied to hawks (like this Swallow-tailed Kite), shorebirds, waterfowl, although they fit definition. Scarlet Tanager EVIDENCE ON POPULATION DECLINES in NEOTROP. MIGRANTS • 1. CHRISTMAS BIRD COUNTS – (1900 – present, National Audobon Society) Long- term data set, but not useful for migrants, since they are not heer in winter. • 2. BREEDING BIRD SURVEYS: (1966 – Present, U.S. Geological Survey). Standardized roadside survey done by volunteers. Does cover breeding birds, but mostly roadside species BBS DATA – ALL SPECIES DARK AREAS: MORE THAN 50% DECLINING BBS DATA: FOREST SPECIES EVIDENCE • Unique source of data: weather radar. • 1965,66,67: migration event recorded on 90-100% of days with good migration weather. 1997, 1998, 1999; 36-53% POSSIBLE CAUSES • 1. WINTERING GROUNDS – Habitat loss in Latin America. • 2. BREEDING GROUNDS – Habitat loss here in North America – Habitat fragmentation (cowbird parasitism, corvid predation) • 3. MIGRATORY STOPOVER HABITATS. - Increased mortality while migrating, coastal development • 4. NONE OF THE ABOVE • - Could be long-term pattern that we don’t understand IMPACTS OF FRAGMENTATION COWBIRD ABUNDANCE NEST PREDATION Stopover habitat
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'