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Exam III review

by: Alexi Martin

Exam III review CHEM 1200

Alexi Martin
GPA 3.58

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About this Document

this covers what will be on exam III including hints from Dr. MA
Chemistry II
Dr. Alexander Ma
Study Guide
inorganic, Chemistry, nuclear, coordination
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexi Martin on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1200 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Dr. Alexander Ma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Chemistry II in Chemistry at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
Exam III Review   *blue notes question on exam*      Electrochemistry  Nuclear chemistry  Inorganic chemistry   total  easy  2  1  4  7  medium  5  4  5  14  hard  2  1  1  4  total  9  6  10  25    Electrochemistry   ● Balance redox reactions 2​?  ● Galvanic cells 1  ● Standard electrode potentials ​  ●  Cell potential gibbs free energy & cell potential and equilibrium const​ t 2 ● Electrolytic and electrolysis and electroplati​  2 ● Batteries (why they work) ​  Balance redox reaction  ­oxidation number  ­separate two half reactions  ­balance in acidic conditions then in basic  ­balance overall reaction  1. Mass balance, atoms other than H and O balance O by adding water, balance H with H+  2. Balance add e­  3. Make sure e­ gain= e­ loss  4. Add two half reactions (this is balanced in acidic conditions)  5. Balance in basic by adding OH­ to both sides to neutralize H+  Galvanic cell  ­ Ecell nought >0  ­ Spontaneous  ­ Anode (­) oxidation  ­ Cathode (+) reduction  ­ Standard cell notation* anode left|ion||ion|cathode right, || indicates salt bridge   ­ Salt bridge balances charges in both half cells  Standard electrode potentials  ­half cells connected  ­larger (+) Enought red acquire e­ (reduction)  ­lower Enought red (more ­) donates e­, forced in reverse : oxidation  ­subtract ­ number galvanic cell always +  ­measuring cell potential Enought cell * 1  ­+number spontaneous redox reaction  Ecell=Enoughtred(reduced)­Enoughtred(oxidation)    [reduction values can be given]  Gibbs free energy   Delta G= ­nFEnoughtcell *​  ­F=96,485 C, balance redox yields number of e­  ­standard conditions 298 K   Equilibrium constant  Ecell=RT/nF ­ lnKc  Cell potential and concentration*  Ecell=Enoughtcell­ RT/nF  lnQ  Electolytic vs. Galvanic Cells  ­ Electrolytic not spontaneous  ­ Electrolytic cell: cathode ­ anode + nonspontaneous, needs battery  ­ Galvanic cell: cathode + anode ­ spontaneous is a battery  ­ Both + ions move from cathode to anode  ­ Attracted electrolytic by charges  Battery question­ is not a lithium ion battery   Electrolysis in aq conditions  ­complex  ­other competing reactions, consider oxidation and reaction or solute and redox of water  *­compare potentials of electrodes give against H reduction and O oxdiation  Cathode 2H2O+2e­ ­>H2+2OH­ E= ­0.83 V  Anode O2+4H+ +4e­ ­>2H2O E= 1.23 V  Electrolysis and electroplating   Fardays equation q​=It=nF   ­ Can include gas being reduced, mass of the gas, volume of gas PV=nRT * ​  ­ Addresses kinetic aspects of electrochemical cells  ­ Keep track of units, s to min or vice versa     Nuclear Chemistry   ­ Types of radioactivity, balancing nuclear equations​2  ­ Valley of stability , kinetics of radioactive de​ y 2 ­ Mass defect and nuclear binding energy, Fission and fusion 2​  ­ Effects of radiation  Types of radioactive decay (see powerpoints for equations)  ­ Alpha decay   ­ Beta decay N/Z decreases  ­ Gamma N/Z decreases * ​  ­ Positron emission N/Z increases  ­ Electron capture N/Z increases  Nuclear equation  ­ Mass number and atomic number considered   ­ Determine identity or mode of decay  2  Valley of Stabilit​ * ­ N/Z ratio  ­ N/Z increases neutrons­>protons via beta decay   ­ *N/Z decreases prtons ­> neutrons via positron emission or electron capture  ­ Z= 1­20 N/Z=1 stable  ­ Z= 20­40 N/Z=1.25 stable  ­ Z=40­80 N/Z=1.5 stable  ­ Z>83 no stable nuclei   ­ *decay series  1.count aplha and beta decay 1.mass number ­4 for each alpha 3.atomic number ­2  alpha +1 for beta  Kinetic radioactive decay ​  ­rate=kN N number of radioactive nuclei   ­t1/2=0.693/k  ­shorter the half life the more hot the reactiolnmt/m0= ­kt  ­1st order reaction kinetics  Mass defect and binding energy ​ *  ­ fission , element +ion­> element+element+neutron+E  ­ Fusion, element+particle­>element+proton    Inorganic Chemistry   ­properties of transition metals (trends), coordination compounds 6  ­crystal field theory on bonding​  ­chemistry of metals, chemistry of inorganic C 1  Properties transition metals   ­ E­ configuration cation  ­ Cations no s orbital e­ only d  ­atomic trends: radius  Coordination complexes  Number and geometry * ​  ­ 6 octahedral   ­ 4 tetrahedral, square planar (d8 or higher)​  ­ 2 linear  Ligands and chelating * ​  ­lewis acid/base reactions (coordinate bonds)  ­ligands have to have lone pairs (neutral or anions)  ­monodentate vs. polydentate (chelating agents) such as EDTA poly>bi>mono  Nomenclature​ *  ­ Identify complex ion (anion end with ­ate)  ­ Identify ligands  ­ Identify oxidation state of central atom (metal)  Isomers​ *  ­ Coordination ligands: swap between ligand and center ion, swap cation and anion  3  ­ Linkage isomers: change in attraction central atom on either side   * ­geometric isomers:cis/trans (mA2B4) fac/mer(mA3B3)  *­optical isomers (nonsuperimposable mirror images) cannot be square planar  Crystal Field Theory *​  ­field splitting  ­see powerpoint for diagrams  ­know octahedral split most energy and least energy for all and why  Field Strength​*  ­ Strong field NH3>NO2­>CN­ large delta oct low spin complex large split  ­ Weak field H2O>OH­>F­>Cl­>Br­>I­ small delta oct high spin small split  Chemistry of metals​ *  ­ Metallurgical processes  ­ Pyrometallurgy:calcination, roasting,smelting  ­ Hydrometallurgy:leaching  ­ electrometallurgy:Al and Cu  Metal structures and alloys  ­ Alloy and phase diagram, substitutional vs. interstitial alloys  ­ Octahedral AB every A2B half   ­ Tetrahedral AB2  Chemistry of inorganic C  ­sp3 diamond  ­graphene  ­bucky balls  ­nanotubes  ­C black   ­coal and coke  ­glossy C  4 


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