Exam III review
Exam III review CHEM 1200
Popular in Chemistry II
Popular in Chemistry
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alexi Martin on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1200 at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute taught by Dr. Alexander Ma in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Chemistry II in Chemistry at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Exam III Review *blue notes question on exam* Electrochemistry Nuclear chemistry Inorganic chemistry total easy 2 1 4 7 medium 5 4 5 14 hard 2 1 1 4 total 9 6 10 25 Electrochemistry ● Balance redox reactions 2? ● Galvanic cells 1 ● Standard electrode potentials ● Cell potential gibbs free energy & cell potential and equilibrium const t 2 ● Electrolytic and electrolysis and electroplati 2 ● Batteries (why they work) Balance redox reaction oxidation number separate two half reactions balance in acidic conditions then in basic balance overall reaction 1. Mass balance, atoms other than H and O balance O by adding water, balance H with H+ 2. Balance add e 3. Make sure e gain= e loss 4. Add two half reactions (this is balanced in acidic conditions) 5. Balance in basic by adding OH to both sides to neutralize H+ Galvanic cell Ecell nought >0 Spontaneous Anode () oxidation Cathode (+) reduction Standard cell notation* anode left|ion||ion|cathode right, || indicates salt bridge Salt bridge balances charges in both half cells Standard electrode potentials half cells connected larger (+) Enought red acquire e (reduction) lower Enought red (more ) donates e, forced in reverse : oxidation subtract number galvanic cell always + measuring cell potential Enought cell * 1 +number spontaneous redox reaction Ecell=Enoughtred(reduced)Enoughtred(oxidation) [reduction values can be given] Gibbs free energy Delta G= nFEnoughtcell * F=96,485 C, balance redox yields number of e standard conditions 298 K Equilibrium constant Ecell=RT/nF lnKc Cell potential and concentration* Ecell=Enoughtcell RT/nF lnQ Electolytic vs. Galvanic Cells Electrolytic not spontaneous Electrolytic cell: cathode anode + nonspontaneous, needs battery Galvanic cell: cathode + anode spontaneous is a battery Both + ions move from cathode to anode Attracted electrolytic by charges Battery question is not a lithium ion battery Electrolysis in aq conditions complex other competing reactions, consider oxidation and reaction or solute and redox of water *compare potentials of electrodes give against H reduction and O oxdiation Cathode 2H2O+2e >H2+2OH E= 0.83 V Anode O2+4H+ +4e >2H2O E= 1.23 V Electrolysis and electroplating Fardays equation q=It=nF Can include gas being reduced, mass of the gas, volume of gas PV=nRT * Addresses kinetic aspects of electrochemical cells Keep track of units, s to min or vice versa Nuclear Chemistry Types of radioactivity, balancing nuclear equations2 Valley of stability , kinetics of radioactive de y 2 Mass defect and nuclear binding energy, Fission and fusion 2 Effects of radiation Types of radioactive decay (see powerpoints for equations) Alpha decay Beta decay N/Z decreases Gamma N/Z decreases * Positron emission N/Z increases Electron capture N/Z increases Nuclear equation Mass number and atomic number considered Determine identity or mode of decay 2 Valley of Stabilit * N/Z ratio N/Z increases neutrons>protons via beta decay *N/Z decreases prtons > neutrons via positron emission or electron capture Z= 120 N/Z=1 stable Z= 2040 N/Z=1.25 stable Z=4080 N/Z=1.5 stable Z>83 no stable nuclei *decay series 1.count aplha and beta decay 1.mass number 4 for each alpha 3.atomic number 2 alpha +1 for beta Kinetic radioactive decay rate=kN N number of radioactive nuclei t1/2=0.693/k shorter the half life the more hot the reactiolnmt/m0= kt 1st order reaction kinetics Mass defect and binding energy * fission , element +ion> element+element+neutron+E Fusion, element+particle>element+proton Inorganic Chemistry properties of transition metals (trends), coordination compounds 6 crystal field theory on bonding chemistry of metals, chemistry of inorganic C 1 Properties transition metals E configuration cation Cations no s orbital e only d atomic trends: radius Coordination complexes Number and geometry * 6 octahedral 4 tetrahedral, square planar (d8 or higher) 2 linear Ligands and chelating * lewis acid/base reactions (coordinate bonds) ligands have to have lone pairs (neutral or anions) monodentate vs. polydentate (chelating agents) such as EDTA poly>bi>mono Nomenclature * Identify complex ion (anion end with ate) Identify ligands Identify oxidation state of central atom (metal) Isomers * Coordination ligands: swap between ligand and center ion, swap cation and anion 3 Linkage isomers: change in attraction central atom on either side * geometric isomers:cis/trans (mA2B4) fac/mer(mA3B3) *optical isomers (nonsuperimposable mirror images) cannot be square planar Crystal Field Theory * field splitting see powerpoint for diagrams know octahedral split most energy and least energy for all and why Field Strength* Strong field NH3>NO2>CN large delta oct low spin complex large split Weak field H2O>OH>F>Cl>Br>I small delta oct high spin small split Chemistry of metals * Metallurgical processes Pyrometallurgy:calcination, roasting,smelting Hydrometallurgy:leaching electrometallurgy:Al and Cu Metal structures and alloys Alloy and phase diagram, substitutional vs. interstitial alloys Octahedral AB every A2B half Tetrahedral AB2 Chemistry of inorganic C sp3 diamond graphene bucky balls nanotubes C black coal and coke glossy C 4
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