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by: Susannah Foos


Marketplace > Pennsylvania State University > Communication > COMM 320 > COMM 320 EXAM 4 STUDY GUIDE
Susannah Foos
Penn State
GPA 3.89

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About this Document

Here is the study guide for the final exam for intro to advertising including notes on the pages that the professor told us to read
Intro To Advertising
Dr. Anghelcev
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Susannah Foos on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 320 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Anghelcev in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Intro To Advertising in Communication at Pennsylvania State University.

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Date Created: 04/28/16
• Programmatic: automatic transaction by software through algorithms, provides the tools to buy media with precision amid fragmentation ; allows for data fusion, allows someone to look up info about consumer and make personalized profile, helps making buy decisions by linking data about consumers with data about media and matching them • Programmatic direct: ads on websites are paid in advance by the advertisers or agencies but served only to the targeted consumer: Location more important than viewer; screens out uninterested people o User on site publisher profiles user  ad server finds campaign  right ad is delivered (start again) • Real-Time Bidding: user on site publisher profiles user (from data management platform)  publisher requests bid via supply side platform  Demand side platform bid on an Ad exchange AUCTION TAKES PLACE  ad exchange ( online market place where bidding takes place)chooses winning bid  ad server sends ad to browser  browser serves the right ad o WHO SEES THE AD IS MORE IMPORTANT • Data Fusion: combines data together with personal cookied information Chapter 7 • Projective techniques: designed to allow consumers to “project” their thoughts and feelings onto a “blank” / neutral “surface” o Dialogue Balloons: fill in the dialogue of cartoon like stories, done with product in situation o Story Construction:ask consumers to tell a story about people depicted in a scene or picture o Sentence completion: respondents asked to complete a sentence o Zaltman metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET): small number of informants recruited, instructed to take collection of pictures that illustrate perception of the value of advertising in general / the value of brand PROCEDURE • Storytelling – about each picture • Missed images – would you like a picture of __ • Construct elicitation – relating pictures together and differences • Sensory images • The script/ vignette – ask them to direct the topic (stories about pictures) • The summary image – arrange images only way you could understand • Field work: research at the point of consumption • Ethnographic research: type of qualitative research focused on observing behaviors in its natural environment (1 observe 2 follow up with questions) • Copy Research: research on preliminary/finished ad, measures cognitive (attention, comprehension, memory, persuasion) and behavior o Communication Tests: seek to discover whether a message is communicating something close to what the advertiser desires.Does the audience “get” the ad. o Cognitive residue: pieces of the ads mixed with the consumer’s own thoughts and reactions o Thought Listings: research that tries to identify specific thoughts that were generated during an ad. Tests of knowledge, cognitive impact, lesser degree = feelings and emotions o Recall Tests: objective is to see how much the viewer of the ad remembers of the message – generally for tv ads • Unaided recall: remember brand name without having it mentioned • Aided recall: where brand name mentioned o Recognition: the audience members indicate that they have seen an ad before– usually for print – problem is people say they saw ad when really they didn’t • Starch Readership Services: subscribers contacted asked for an interview, must have glanced at issue to qualify, conducted few days after current issue becomes available o Feelings and Emotions: 3 distinct properties that make them powerful in reaction to ads 1. Consumers monitor and access feelings quickly 2. More agreement in how consumers feel about ad and brand 3. Feelings are good predictors of thought o Resonance Tests: to determine to what extent the message resonates or rings true with target audience members o Frame-by-Frame tests: emotional component is key, consumers turn dials (like/dislike) while viewing tv commercials in theater setting; measures emotion, interests, liking (depends on instruction) o Physiological assessment: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)s show which parts of the brain “light up” during exposure to various stimuli, to understand what is happening when they light up; tracks heart rate, skin, etc o Eye-Tracking System: monitor eye movement across print ads. o Attitude Tests: measure change in attitudes during ad • Design thinking: non-designers thinking like designers Chapter 10 • Message strategy: defines the goal of the advertiser • Objectives 1. Promote Brand Recall  Remember brand name quicker =elicit set  Repetition: repeating brand name within the ad itself; things said more are more easily remembered– verbal and visual pairing  Slogan: linguistic device that link a brand name to something memorable by means of the slogan’s simplicity meter, rhyme, etc.  Jingle: same thing as a slogan but set to a melody 2. Link Key Attribute(s) to Brand Name  Unique selling proposition (USP): emphasizing one and only one brand attribute 3. Persuade The Consumer  Logical arguments to an engaged consumer – high engagement advertising  Convince consumer through arguments that the ad brand is the right choice  Reason-Why Ads: give reason why, but let consumer make the conclusion on their own • Hard-Sell Ads: reason why with urgency, high pressure, create a sense of urgency so consumer acts quickly  Comparison Ads: try to demonstrate a brand’s ability to satisfy consumers by comparing features to competitors  Testimonials: advocacy position is taken by a spokesperson in an advertisement • Celebrity - attractiveness • Expert - credibility • Average user – identification/in-group  Demonstration: product features can be demonstrated  Infomercials: 5-60mins of tv time and runs an information/entertainment program that is really an extended ad 4. Affective Association  work through affective (feeling) association or pre-decision distortion;  Feel-Good Ads: positive feelings, advters will lead consumers to associate positive feelings with ad brand, higher probability of purchase  Humor Ads: create in the receivera pleasant and memorable association with brand  Sex-Appeal Ads: feelings-based ads directed toward humans require arousal and affect (feelings) , context is if it fits, it makes sense 5. Scare into Action  Fear-Appeal Ad: highlights the risk of harm or negative consequences of not using the ad brand or not taking recommended action 6. Change Behavior by Inducing Anxiety  Lasts longer  Anxiety ads: demonstrate why you should be anxious and what you can do to alleviate the anxiety • Social Anxiety Ads: danger is negative social judgment Chapter 12 • Media Planning: determines where and when ad money is psent • Media plan: specifies the media which ad messages will be placed to reach the desired audience • Media class/type: media platform; broad category (tv, newspaper, radio, magz) • Media vehicle: a particular option for placement within a media class (Magz  Oprah) • Media Mix: describes how the advertising budget is split across types of media; percent of money each type of media spent in overall brand Media Mix = brand medium expenditure X 100 Brand total expenditure • Reach: percent of people in a target audienceexposed to a campaign at least 1 time during a given period of time Reach = # of people exposed to campaign at least once X 100 Total # of people in target segment • Frequency: the average number of times an individual within target audience is exposed to a media vehicle in a given period of time *REACH AND FREQUENCY ARE LIKE A SCALE* • Duplication: when the audiences of media vehicles partiallyoverlap • Between-vehicle duplication: duplication among audience of different vehicles New New audience= Overlap = Audience = reach frequency reach • Within-vehicle duplication: duplication among audience of the same vehicle • Ratings: number used to estimate the percent of target consumers who were exposed to the ads placed in a particular TV program o Use Program rating instead because represents the percent of target consumers who had a chance to be exposed to the media vehicles carrying the ad Rating(actual formula) = # of people exposed to program X 100 Total # of people in target seg • Share of Voice: calculation of any 1 advertisers brand expenditures relative to the overall spending in a category SOV= 1brand’s advting expenditures in a medium X 100 Total product category advting expenditures in medium Chapter 13 • Media decisions important bc 1) advertisers need media to reach audiences in need of info 2) advertisers choose media ultimately determine which media companies earn money • Newspaper o Display advertising: standard components of print – headline, body copy, illustrations o Co-op advertising: manufactures pay part of media bill when local merchant features the manufactures’ brand in ad o Inserts: folded into newspaper before distribution  Preprinted Inserts: ad delivered to newspaper fully printed and ready for insertion into paper  Free-standing insert (FSI):contains cents-off coupons for a variety of products , high quality o Classified advertising: newspaper ads that appear as all-copy messages under categories o Hyper-localism: people get their global and national news from the web but turn to local papers for sale on paintat local hardware store o Pay-for-inquiry Advertising model: medium gets paid by advertisers based solely on the inquiries an advertiser receivesin response to an ad o Advantages  Geographic selectivity  Timeliness  Creative opportunities  Credibility  Audience interest and demographics  Cost o Disadvantages  Limited segmentation  Creative constraints bc poor quality and unidimensional  Cluttered environment  Short life – read quick and discarded • Magazines o Advantages  Audience selectivity –Psychographic selectivity  National coverage  Audience interest – attract audience because of content  Creative opportunities  Long life – pass-along readership o Disadvantages  Limited reach and frequency  Clutter  Long Lead times – submit ad 90 days before date publication  Cost • Television o Diversity of communication for creative expression of brand value o Disseminated to millions of consumers through multiple channels o Network TV: broadcasts programming over airwaves to affiliate stations under a contract agreement o Spot TV: local unaffiliated TV stations help with sport emphasis in national campaigns o Cable TV: transmits a wide range of programming to subscribers through wires, willing to invest in original programming o Syndicated TV: original programming or programming that first appeared on network TV  Off-network syndication: programs that were previously run in network prime time (Seinfeld)  First-run syndication: programs developed specificallyfor sale to individual stations (Star Trek)  Barter Syndication: both off-network and first-run syndication shows and offer them free or at reduced rate to local tv sation with some national ad presold within the program o Local TV: completely independent stations air old movies, sitcoms, kids programs o Program Rating: % of TV households that are in a market and are tuned to program during a specific time o Rating point: indicates the 1 percent of all the TV households in an area were tuned to the program measured o Advantages  Creative opportunity  Coverage, reach, repetition  Cost per contact  Audience selectivity – narrowcasting o Disadvantages  Fleeting message  High absolute cost  Poor geographic selectivity  Poor audience attitude and attentiveness  Clutter • Radio o Networks: deliver programming via satellite to affiliate stations o Syndication: provides complete programs to stations on a contract basis o AM: use amplitude modulation, 540-1600, focus on local community broadcasting o FM: frequency modulation, higher quality o Satellite Radio: transmitted from satellites circling earth; 10$ per month for subscription o Internet/Mobile Radio: access and build station to music preference; no fee o Local spot radio advertising: ad placed directly with individual station rather than network or syndicated o Network Radio Advertising: ad placed within national network program o National spot radio Advertising: opportunity to place ad in nationallysyndicated radio programming o Advantages  Cost  Reach and frequency  Target audience selectivity- dayparts (times during the day)  Flexibility and timeliness  Creative opportunities (theater of mind) o Disadvantages  Poor audience attentiveness (verbal wallpaper)  Creative limitations  Fragmented audience  Chaotic procedures


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