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Music Appreciation Study Guide for Final: May 3
What to Study:
—This study guide
—any past notes/study guides you created
—online slides and terms
Listening guide for this final:
02, 12, 13, 16, 20, 22, 26, 33 (Morning Mood), 35, 37, 40, 42, 57
1. Refresh your memory of the following composers/musicians:
Pope Gregory: from Middle Ages; developed the calendar and came up with the idea of putting music on lines and spaces.
Hildegard of Bingen: from Middle Ages: nun from Germany; very influential in sacred music. She was the first woman’s voice of western music. He had dreams which allowed her to write her music which included “Alleluia”
Bach: From Baroque Period; born in Germany, at 10 he went to live with his brother and memorized all of his music books; worked many jobs at once and would tell you that he was a great organist. Went blind as he got older; was a mast of polyphonic composition and developed the “equal temperament” method of tuning. His music was lost when he died. Handel: Baroque Period: born in Germany; father wanted him to become a lawyer, became a composer in the court of the king of England; wrote “The Messiah” and “Water Music” Haydn: from Classical Period: born in Austria, lived in poverty, self taught music, he went on tour and became popular, known as the “Father” of the symphony
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Beethoven: Classical Period/Romantic Period: known as a transitional composer; admired Napoleon but later changed his mind, went deaf but gave his las performance, Ode to Joy, before he went completely deaf. Wrote only one opera, and 9 symphonies, sonatas including “Moonlight Sonata”
Mozart: Classical Period: Austrian born, father was a musician, was a child prodigy, wrote symphonies, concertos, operas, and a lot of chamber music. He went broke when his father died and he died while working on his “Requiem”
Richard Rodgers&Oscar Hammerstein: together wrote Sound of Music, Cinderella. Rodgers wrote the music which Hammerstein wrote the lyrics, most of the time they were on opposite sides of the country.
Wagner: Romantic period; synonymous for the opera. Very large sets for the stage; some of his operas include “Lohengrin” and “The Flying Dutchman”
Vivaldi: from Baroque Period; born in Italy, renowned violinist, wrote over 700 works and one of them included “The Four Seasons” Don't forget about the age old question of When a water bearing rock readily transmits water to wells and springs what is it called?
Tchaikovsky: Romantic period; known for his ballets, “Swan Lake” and “Nutcracker” John Williams: film composer; known as a great composer, conductor and classical guitarist as well as for being a composer of film: scores include: Jaws, ET, Home Alone, Star Wars, Harry Potter Don't forget about the age old question of What is considered drastic weight loss?
Debussy: Impressionist movement: born in France; well-known piano teacher of his day, considered the “father” of impressionistic music
Liszt: Romantic period; took the piano and turned it into a concert instrument Johnny Cash: wrote “I walk the Line”
The Carter Family: country family; sang “Can the Circle be Unbroken”
Stravinsky: Impressionist movement: Russian, his father didn’t want him to study music, he orchestrated “The Firebird” and “Rite of Spring” and composed almost until the end of his life Leonard Bernstein: American composer: known as both conductor and composer, promoted classical music to children through his “young People’s concerts” on CBS; wrote “Candide” and “West Side Story”
Andrew Lloyd Webber: wrote “Phantom of the Opera” If you want to learn more check out What is the weapon focus effect?
Max Steiner: the “father” of the film score
Aaron Copland: American composer: born in brooklyn, he incorporation many American folk songs into his compositions; his works include: “Fanfare for the Common Man” and “Appalachian Spring”
2. From previous test notes:
Concert Etiquette: know that you should be on time, shouldn’t have electronics out, not hats or sunglasses, no food or drinks; at intermission, feel free to stand and walk around but be back in time for the next session. You applaud only after the andantino.
Elements of Music
melody: musical line or the tune of the music; contour-up and down movement; range lowest to highest pitch; interval-distance between pitches (conjunct and disjunct); phrase-units of melody with a “resting place” at the end Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the only ones who moved out of the old world?
rhythm: moves the music forward in time; beat-basic unit of rhythm; measures-organize the beat; downbeat-strop beginning of each measure
harmony: pitches sounded together vertically; chord-3 or more tones; tonality-major/ minor; dissonance and consonance
form: the basic organizing principle in music; strophic-repeated music for each stanza of the song; binary-2 part; ternary-3 part; theme and variation; call and response; improvisation texture: the way melody and harmony are woven together; monophonic-unison melody with no accompaniment; homophonic-one melody with accompaniment; polyphony-many voiced texture with one line set against the other; imitation-a melodic idea is “re-stated” like in a round musical expression: tempo-speed at which the music moves; and dynamics-the volume of the music
Musical Terms Don't forget about the age old question of What does deterrence mean?
1. tempo- the speed at which music moves
2. adagio- somewhat slow
3. allegro- fast, lively
4. andante- moderately slow (walking pace)
5. accelerando- getting faster
6. ritardando- getting slower
7. dynamics- relating to the volume of music
8. forte- loud
9. fortissimo- very loud
10. piano- soft
11. pianissimo- very soft
12. crescendo- gradually getting louder
13. de crescendo- gradually getting softer
14. symphony- a piece of music in four movements written for orchestra OR can be another name for the orchestra
15. improvisation- creating music “on the spot” or as it is being
16. movement- a section from a large musical composition
17. tonality- referring to the “major” or “minor” quality of music
18. sacred- referring to religious music
19. secular- referring to non-religious music
Instruments of the Orchestra
The Brass Family: trumpet, horn, trombone and tuba
The Keyboard Family: harpsichord, piano, pipe organ and all electronic keyboards String: violin, viola, cello and double bass; harp
Woodwinds: flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, saxophone
Percussion: snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, timpani, xylophone, orchestra bells, marimba
Types of performing groups
Large ensembles: symphony orchestra, symphonic band, marching band Small ensembles: woodwind quintet, brass choir, string quartet, percussion ensemble
Large: choir, chorus, massed choir
Small: show choir, quartet, bluegrass band, rock/pop band
Periods of Music History: The middle Ages, Renaissance, Baroque, Classical, Romantic, Impressionist
Life in the Middle Ages (secular vs. sacred): sacred music was played for Roman Catholic Church and was mostly a cappella, based on the mass; secular: played for the court, they enjoyed traveling musicians and performers, mostly love songs.
Characteristics of Baroque Music: “overdone” or highly decorated with ornamentation; centered in Germany, increased conflicts between the church and monarchy, churches began employing musicians full time
Characteristics of Classical Music: less ornamentation, trend toward less and less employing of composers full time by the church, so they were commissioned for special occasions and most of them worked for aristocracy and monarchy. “Age of Enlightenment” emphasized the importance of the individual
Romanticism: age of program music and the rise of nationalism in music became important too; literature, philosophy and architecture influenced the musical industry. Music was very lyrical, “free expression” was the rule of the day; composers were working less for the church or court/became self supporting
Impressionist Movement: began in Paris; abstractionism, expressionism became a big deal during this period and musicians started putting expression and emotion into their music
3. From “new” or most recent material:
American Musical Theater: rooted in European “operetta” which is like an opera but with spoken dialogue and song and dance; but is American. Musicals feature: romantic plots, comic moments, appealing melodies, large ensembles and dance numbers, lavish set and costume designs. Some great musicals include: “The sound of Music”, “Oklahoma” “My Fair Lady” “Wicked” and “Phantom of the Opera”
Music for Films: started in the silent era, music can set the mood or identify a character as well as set the time and place, written for piano.
Underscoring- music comes from an “unseen” source
• Source music- can function as part of the story, for example if someone turns on a radio in a scene and is inspired to sing
• Leitmotif- when a musical theme is used to identify a character
• Thematic transformation- indicates a “change” in the character’s mood
• Musical biopic- movie about a famous composer or musician/group Ex: “Amadeus”, “Coal Miners Daughter”
Country Music: all-American; some early forms of “old country” include bluegrass, gospel, old time radio shows. None of the music was written down, they played by ear. Bluegrass music was from Ireland and Scotland. It usually told stories and related some personal experience like a lost love. Used only acoustic instruments with no musical notation. Gospel music had roots in mainstream denominations where more formal music was not possible. Also played by ear, Used tight harmonies with instrumental accompaniments that include bluegrass music instruments
Some Old Country stars included: Loretta Lynn, Hank Williams, Patsy Cline, and Dolly Parton
Some Young Country stars include: Alan Jackson, Brad Paisley, Carrie Underwood, Kelly Clarkson, Kenny Chesney, Taylor Swift
Some Duos and Groups include: Thompson Square, The Carter Family, Rascal FLatts, Band Perry, Lady Antebellum