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OK STATE / Engineering / HIST 1113 / Who created the converter?

Who created the converter?

Who created the converter?


School: Oklahoma State University
Department: Engineering
Course: Survey of American History
Professor: Peter nadeau
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: history, american, and Lecture Notes
Cost: 25
Name: History Study Guide for Final
Description: Here is the identifications for the final, I omitted the ones on the sheet that he said were NOT going to be on the exam. Remember Final is monday at 8pm and to bring a blue book. Study hard!! :)
Uploaded: 04/29/2016
11 Pages 28 Views 6 Unlocks

History Final Study Guide

Who created the converter?

1. Bessemer Converter

o Who- Sir Henry Bessemer was the engineer who created the converter o What- The first industrial process for the mass production for steel.  From the molten pig iron.

o When- 1856

o Where- London

o Why – To quickly mass produce steel, since it was the best material to  use at the time

o How- The removal of impurities from the iron by oxidation with air  being blown through the molten iron

2. Vertical / Horizontal Integration

o Who

o What- A horizontal integration consists of companies that acquire a  similar company in the same industry, while a vertical integration  consists of companies that acquire a company that operates either  before or after the acquiring company in the production process.

Horizontal integration refers to what?

o When a company wishes to grow through a horizontal integration, it is  seeking to increase its size, diversify its product or service, achieve  economies of scale, reduce competition, or gain access to new  customers or markets. To do this, one company acquires another  company of similar size and operations, in the same industry. Two great examples of a horizontal integration are the acquisition of Pixar by  Disney or the acquisition of Instagram by Facebook.

o When a company wishes to grow through a vertical integration, it is  seeking to strengthen its supply chain, reduce its production costs,  capture upstream or downstream profits, or access downstream  distribution channels. To do this, one company acquires another  company that is either before or after it in the supply chain process. A  great example of a vertical integration is when Verizon and AT&T  opened their own retail locations through acquisition.

What is the meaning of taylorism?

o When it comes to a vertical integration, a company can either  integrate forward in a forward integration or backward in a backward  integration. A backward integration occurs when a company decides to own another company that makes an input product to the acquiring  company's product. An example of this is if a car manufacturer  acquires a tire manufacturing company. A forward integration occurs  when a company decides to take control of the post-production  process. An example of this is if the same car manufacturer acquires  an automotive dealership. The vertical integration examples above  with Verizon and AT&T are also forward integrations Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of negative feedback in organism?
We also discuss several other topics like What is the content of lincoln’s 10% plan?

3. Taylorism

o "Taylorism" is the scientific management, encouraged the development of mass production techniques and the assembly line, led to a  revolution in American education of social science.

4. Gospel of Wealth

o “ The Gospel of Wealth", is an article written by Andrew Carnegie in  June of 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the  new upper class of self-made rich.

5. Andrew Carnegie

o Creates Carnegie Steel. Gets bought out by banker JP Morgan and  renamed U.S. Steel. Andrew Carnegie used vertical integration by  buying all the steps needed for production. Was a philanthropist. Was  one of the "Robber barons"

6. Samuel Gompers

o United States labor leader (born in England) who was president of the  American Federation of Labor from 1886 to 1924 (1850-1924) 7. Homestead Strike

o 1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel  Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was  brought in to force an end to the strike.

8. Tammany Hall We also discuss several other topics like Does the warsaw ghetto still exist?

o a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city  (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption  and bossism

o William Magear Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878) – often  erroneously referred to as William Marcy Tweed (see below), and widely known as "Boss" Tweed – was an American politician most notable for  being the "boss" of Tammany Hall, the Democratic Party political  machine that played a major role in the politics ... If you want to learn more check out Which pr agency was one of the first to have a global presence?

9. Progressivism

o is a broad philosophy based on the Idea of Progress, which asserts that advancement in science, technology, economic development, and  social organization are vital to improve the human condition.

o A political attitude favoring or advocating changes or reform.  Progressivism is often viewed in opposition to conservative or  reactionary ideologies.

10.Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

o This fire in New York City on March 25, 1911, was the deadliest  industrial disaster in the history of the city of New York and resulted in  the fourth highest loss of life from an industrial accident in U.S. history.  The fire caused the deaths of 146 garment workers, who either died  from the fire or jumped to their deaths.

11.Lincoln Steffens

o An American journalist, lecturer, and political philosopher, and one of  the most famous practitioners of the journalistic style called  


12.Jane Addams

o a middle-class woman dedicated to uplifting the urban masses; college educated (one of first generation); established the Hull House in  Chicago in 1889 (most prominent American settlement house, mostly  for immigrants); condemned war and poverty; won the Nobel Peace  Prize in 1931

13.Ida Tarbell

o A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption  of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil. o was an American teacher, author and journalist. She was one of the  leading "muckrakers" of the progressive era of the late 19th and early  20th We also discuss several other topics like What does the federal election campaign act of 1974 state?


o One who seeks to expose corruption of businesses or government to  the public. The term originates with writers of the Progressive  movement within the United States who wanted to expose corruption  and scandals in government and business.

15.Square Deal

o The Square Deal was President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic  program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural  resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. These  three demands are often referred to as the "three C's" of Roosevelt's  Square Deal. Thus, it aimed at helping middle class citizens and  involved attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time  protecting business from the most extreme demands of organized  labor. A progressive Republican,[2] Roosevelt believed in government  action to mitigate social evils, and as president denounced "the  representatives of predatory wealth” as guilty of “all forms of iniquity  from the oppression of wage workers to defrauding the public." Don't forget about the age old question of What is multisystemic theory?

o Within his second term, he tried to extend his Square Deal further.  Roosevelt pushed for the courts, which had been guided by a clearly  delineated standard up to that point, to yield to the wishes of the  executive branch on all subsequent anti-trust suits. In 1903, with  Roosevelt's support, Congress passed the Elkins Act. This stated that  railroads were not allowed to give rebates to favored companies any  longer. These rebates had treated small Midwestern farmers unfairly by not allowing them equal access to the services of the railroad. The  Interstate Commerce Commission controlled the prices that railroads  could charge.

o Legislation was passed which specified that meat had to be processed  safely with proper sanitation. Foodstuffs and drugs could no longer be  mislabeled, nor could consumers be deliberately misled. Roosevelt also fought strongly for land conservation, and safeguarded millions of  acres of wilderness from commercial exploitation.[3] Roosevelt’s  conservation efforts were driven by practicality as well as by a love for  nature. Influenced by early wise-use advocates like Gifford Pinchot,  Roosevelt believed that nature existed to benefit humanity. In a  conserved wilderness, water could be taken to irrigate farmland, sport  could be had, and timber could be harvested. Acting on these beliefs,  Roosevelt set up the federal Reclamation Service in 1902. The agency,  through the use of dams and irrigation, created arable land in areas  that had been too dry to farm, and the Reclamation Service eventually  brought millions of acres of farmland into service. During Roosevelt's

time in office, 24 reclamation projects were set up, and 150 national  forests were created.

16.Great White Fleet

o was the popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that  completed a circumnavigation of the globe from December 16, 1907,  to February 22, 1909, by order of United States President Theodore  Roosevelt.

o Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability. Hoping to enforce treaties and protect  overseas holdings, the United States Congress appropriated funds to  build American sea power. Beginning with just 90 small ships, over  one-third of them wooden, the navy quickly grew to include new  modern steel fighting vessels. The hulls of these ships were painted a  stark white, giving the armada the nickname "Great White Fleet". 17.Federal Reserve Act

o The act of Congress that created the Federal Reserve System, the  central banking system of the United States of America, which was  signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson.

o established in december 1913. it is the act that created the federal  reserve system, the central banking system of the united states, which was signed into law by woodrow wilson. it regulated banking to help  smaller banks stay in business.

18.Election of 1912

o Between Roosevelt and William Howard Taft

o Roosevelt's decision to challenge Taft for the Republican nomination in  1912 was most difficult. Historians disagree on his motives. Defenders  of Roosevelt insist that Taft betrayed the progressive platform. When  Roosevelt returned to the United States, he was pressured by  thousands of progressives to lead them once more. Roosevelt believed  that he could do a better job uniting the party than Taft. He felt a duty  to the American people to run.

o Critics of Roosevelt are not quite so kind. Roosevelt had a huge ego,  and his lust for power could not keep him on the sidelines. He stabbed  his friend in the back and overlooked the positive sides of Taft's  Presidency. Whatever the motive, the election of 1912 would begin  with two prominent Republican candidates.

o The two former friends hurled insults at each other as the summer of  1912 drew near. Taft had the party leadership behind him, but  Roosevelt had the people. Roosevelt spoke of a NEW NATIONALISM — a broad plan of social reform for America. Rather than destroying every  trust, Roosevelt supported the creation of a FEDERAL TRADE  COMMISSION to keep a watchful eye on unfair business practices. He  proposed a minimum wage, a workers' compensation act, and a child  labor law. He proposed a government pension for retirees and funds to  assist Americans with health care costs. He supported the women's  suffrage amendment. The time of laissez faire was over. The

government must intervene to help its people. Taft and his supporters  disagreed, and the battle was left for the delegates to decide. 19.Zimmerman Note

o was an internal diplomatic communication issued from the German  Foreign Office in January, 1917 that proposed a military alliance  between Germany and Mexico in the event of the United States'  entering World War I against Germany.

o In the telegram, intercepted and deciphered by British intelligence in  January 1917, Zimmermann instructed the ambassador, Count Johann  von Bernstorff, to offer significant financial aid to Mexico if it agreed to  enter any future U.S-German conflict as a German ally. If victorious in  the conflict, Germany also promised to restore to Mexico the lost  territories of Texas, New Mexico and Arizona.

o U.S. President Woodrow Wilson learned of the telegram’s contents on  February 26; the next day he proposed to Congress that the U.S.  should start arming its ships against possible German attacks. He also  authorized the State Department to make public the Zimmermann  Telegram. On March 1, the news broke. Germany had already aroused  Wilson’s ire—and that of the American public—with its policy of  unrestricted submarine warfare and its continued attacks against  American ships. Some of those in the United States who still held out  for neutrality at first claimed the telegram was a fake. This notion was  dispelled two days later, when Zimmermann himself confirmed its  authenticity.

o Public opinion in the United States now swung firmly toward American  entrance into World War I. On April 2, Wilson went before Congress to  deliver a message of war. The United States formally entered the  conflict four days later.


o On May 7, 1915, less than a year after World War I (1914-18) erupted  across Europe, a German U-boat torpedoed and sank the RMS  Lusitania, a British ocean liner en route from New York to Liverpool,  England. Of the more than 1,900 passengers and crew members on  board, more than 1,100 perished, including more than 120 Americans.  Nearly two years would pass before the United States formally entered  World War I, but the sinking of the Lusitania played a significant role in  turning public opinion against Germany, both in the United States and  abroad.


o Central-nation compensation that weakened the US economy and left  countries without source with which to repay loans

22.Treaty of Versailles

o World War I officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Versailles  on June 28, 1919. Negotiated among the Allied powers with little  participation by Germany, its 15 parts and 440 articles reassigned  German boundaries and assigned liability for reparations. After strict  enforcement for five years, the French assented to the modification of

important provisions. Germany agreed to pay reparations under the  Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, but those plans were cancelled in  1932, and Hitler’s rise to power and subsequent actions rendered moot the remaining terms of the treaty.

o The treaty, negotiated between January and June 1919 in Paris, was  written by the Allies with almost no participation by the Germans. The  negotiations revealed a split between the French, who wanted to  dismember Germany to make it impossible for it to renew war with  France, and the British and Americans, who did not want to create  pretexts for a new war. The eventual treaty included fifteen parts and  440 articles. Part I created the Covenant of the New League of Nations, which Germany was not allowed to join until 1926. Part II specified  Germany’s new boundaries, giving Eupen-Malm[eacute]dy to Belgium,  Alsace-Lorraine back to France, substantial eastern districts to Poland,  Memel to Lithuania, and large portions of Schleswig to Denmark. Part  III stipulated a demilitarized zone and separated the Saar from  Germany for fifteen years. Part IV stripped Germany of all its colonies,  and Part V reduced Germany’s armed forces to very low levels and  prohibited Germany from possessing certain classes of weapons, while  committing the Allies to eventual disarmament as well. Part VIII  established Germany’s liability for reparations without stating a  specific figure and began with Article 231, in which Germany accepted  the responsibility of itself and its allies for the losses and damages of  the Allies “as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the  aggression of Germany and her allies.” Part IX imposed numerous  other financial obligations upon Germany.

o The German government signed the treaty under protest. Right-wing  German parties attacked it as a betrayal, and terrorists assassinated  several politicians whom they considered responsible. The U.S. Senate  refused to ratify the treaty, and the U.S. government took no  responsibility for most of its provisions.

o For five years the French and the Belgians tried to enforce the treaty  quite rigorously, leading in 1922 to their occupation of the Ruhr. In  1924, however, Anglo-American financial pressure compelled France to scale down its goals and end the occupation, and the French, assented  to modifying important provisions of the treaty in a series of new  agreements. Germany in 1924 and 1929 agreed to pay reparations  under the Dawes Plan and the Young Plan, but the depression led to  the cancellation of reparations in 1932. The Allies evacuated the  Rhineland in 1930. Germany violated many disarmament provisions of  Part V during the 1920s, and Hitler denounced the treaty altogether in  1935. From March 1937 through March 1939, Hitler overturned the  territorial provisions of the treaty with respect to Austria,  Czechoslovakia, and Memel, with at least the tacit consent of the  western powers. On September 1, 1939, he attacked Poland to alter  that frontier, as well.

o One can never know whether either rigorous Franco-British  enforcement of the original treaty or a more generous treaty would  have avoided a new war. Certainly the British and American  

governments after 1945 sought to avoid many of the problems that  had been raised by the Treaty of Versailles, especially regarding  reparations, and the division of Germany and the Cold War enabled  them generously to rebuild the western zones and to integrate them  into a western alliance without renewing fears of German aggression.  Meanwhile, they deferred certain fundamental issues for so long that  no formal peace treaty was ever written to end World War II.

23.Fourteen Points

o U.S. President Woodrow Wilson discusses the aims of the United States  in World War I and outlines his famous “Fourteen Points” for achieving  a lasting peace in Europe.

o The peace proposal, based on Wilson’s concept of peace without  victory, called for the victorious Allies to set unselfish peace terms,  including freedom of the seas, the restoration of territories conquered  during the war and the right to national self-determination in such  contentious regions as the Balkans. Most famously, Wilson called for  the establishment of a general association of nations—what would  become the League of Nations—to guarantee political independence to and protect the territorial lines of great and small States alike.

o Wilson’s principal purpose in delivering the speech was to present a  practical alternative both to the traditional notion of an international  balance of power preserved by alliances among nations—belief in the  viability of which had been shattered by the Great War—and to the  Bolshevik-inspired dreams of world revolution that at the time were  gaining ground both within and outside of Russia. Wilson hoped also to  keep a conflict-ridden Russia in the war on the Allied side. This effort  met with failure, as the Bolsheviks sought peace with the Central  Powers at the end of 1917, shortly after taking power. In other ways,  however, Wilson’s Fourteen Points played an essential role in world  politics over the next several years. The speech was translated and  distributed to the soldiers and citizens of Germany and Austria Hungary and contributed significantly to their decision to agree to an  armistice in November 1918.

o Like the man himself, Wilson’s Fourteen Points were liberal, democratic and idealistic—he spoke in grand and inspiring terms but was less  certain of the specifics of how his aims would be achieved. At  Versailles, Wilson had to contend with the leaders of the other  victorious nations, who disagreed with many of the Fourteen Points and demanded stiff penalties for Germany. The terms of the final peace  treaty—including an ineffectual League of Nations convention that  Wilson could not even convince his own Congress to ratify—fell far  short of his lofty visions and are believed by many to have ultimately  contributed to the outbreak of a second world war two decades later. 24.League of Nations

o 1920’s

o On January 10, 1920, the League of Nations formally comes into being  when the Covenant of the League of Nations, ratified by 42 nations in  1919, takes effect.

o In 1914, a political assassination in Sarajevo set off a chain of events  that led to the outbreak of the most costly war ever fought to that  date. As more and more young men were sent down into the trenches,  influential voices in the United States and Britain began calling for the  establishment of a permanent international body to maintain peace in  the postwar world. President Woodrow Wilson became a vocal  advocate of this concept, and in 1918 he included a sketch of the  international body in his 14-point proposal to end the war.

o In November 1918, the Central Powers agreed to an armistice to halt  the killing in World War I. Two months later, the Allies met with  conquered Germany and Austria-Hungary at Versailles to hammer out  formal peace terms. President Wilson urged a just and lasting peace,  but England and France disagreed, forcing harsh war reparations on  their former enemies. The League of Nations was approved, however,  and in the summer of 1919 Wilson presented the Treaty of Versailles  and the Covenant of the League of Nations to the U.S. Senate for  ratification.

o Wilson suffered a severe stroke in the fall of that year, which prevented him from reaching a compromise with those in Congress who thought  the treaties reduced U.S. authority. In November, the Senate declined  to ratify both. The League of Nations proceeded without the United  States, holding its first meeting in Geneva on November 15, 1920.

o During the 1920s, the League, with its headquarters in Geneva,  incorporated new members and successfully mediated minor  international disputes but was often disregarded by the major powers.  The League’s authority, however, was not seriously challenged until  the early 1930s, when a series of events exposed it as ineffectual.  Japan simply quit the organization after its invasion of China was  condemned, and the League was likewise powerless to prevent the  rearmament of Germany and the Italian invasion of Ethiopia. The  declaration of World War II was not even referred to by the then virtually defunct League.

o In 1946, the League of Nations was officially dissolved with the  establishment of the United Nations. The United Nations was modeled  after the former but with increased international support and extensive machinery to help the new body avoid repeating the League’s failures. 25.Harlem Renaissance

o was the name given to the cultural, social, and artistic explosion that  took place in Harlem between the end of World War I and the middle of the 1930s. During this period Harlem was a cultural center, drawing  black writers, artists, musicians, photographers, poets, and scholars. 26.Flappers

o 20’s

o a fashionable young woman intent on enjoying herself and flouting  conventional standards of behavior.

27.Bonus Army

o The Bonus Army was the popular name of an assemblage of some  43,000 marchers—17,000 World War I veterans, their families, and  affiliated groups—who gathered in Washington, D.C., in the summer of  1932 to demand cash-payment redemption of their service certificates. 28.Fireside Chats

o an informal conversation.

o one of a series of radio broadcasts made by President Franklin Delano  Roosevelt to the nation, beginning in 1933.

29.Civilian Conservation Corps

o (CCC) was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the  United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the  New Deal. 


o The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is an independent  agency of the United States (U.S.) federal government that preserves  public confidence in the banking system by insuring deposits. 31.Wagner Act

o Also known as the Wagner Act, this bill was signed into law by  President Franklin Roosevelt on July 5, 1935. It established the National Labor Relations Board and addressed relations between unions and  employers in the private sector.


o Proposed in late 1940 and passed in March 1941, the Lend-Lease Act  was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign  nations during World War II

o The Lend-Lease Act was the principal means for providing U.S. military  aid to foreign nations during World War II. It authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress  appropriated money to “the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.” By  allowing the transfer of supplies without compensation to Britain,  China, the Soviet Union and other countries, the act permitted the  United States to support its war interests without being overextended  in battle.

33.D-Day, Jun 6, 1948

o During World War II (1939-1945), the Battle of Normandy, which lasted  from June 1944 to August 1944, resulted in the Allied liberation of  Western Europe from Nazi Germany’s control. Codenamed Operation  Overlord, the battle began on June 6, 1944, also known as D-Day, when some 156,000 American, British and Canadian forces landed on five  beaches along a 50-mile stretch of the heavily fortified coast of  France’s Normandy region. The invasion was one of the largest  amphibious military assaults in history and required extensive  planning. Prior to D-Day, the Allies conducted a large-scale deception

campaign designed to mislead the Germans about the intended  invasion target. By late August 1944, all of northern France had been  liberated, and by the following spring the Allies had defeated the  Germans. The Normandy landings have been called the beginning of  the end of war in Europe.


o By dawn on June 6, thousands of paratroopers and glider troops were  already on the ground behind enemy lines, securing bridges and exit  roads. The amphibious invasions began at 6:30 a.m. The British and  Canadians overcame light opposition to capture beaches codenamed  Gold, Juno and Sword, as did the Americans at Utah Beach. U.S. forces  faced heavy resistance at Omaha Beach, where there were over 2,000  American casualties. However, by day’s end, approximately 156,000  Allied troops had successfully stormed Normandy’s beaches.According  to some estimates, more than 4,000 Allied troops lost their lives in the  D-Day invasion, with thousands more wounded or missing.

o Less than a week later, on June 11, the beaches were fully secured and over 326,000 troops, more than 50,000 vehicles and some 100,000  tons of equipment had landed at Normandy.

o For their part, the Germans suffered from confusion in the ranks and  the absence of celebrated commander Rommel, who was away on  leave. At first, Hitler, believing the invasion was a feint designed to  distract the Germans from a coming attack north of the Seine River,  refused to release nearby divisions to join the counterattack.  Reinforcements had to be called from further afield, causing delays. He also hesitated in calling for armored divisions to help in the defense.  Moreover, the Germans were hampered by effective Allied air support,  which took out many key bridges and forced the Germans to take long  detours, as well as efficient Allied naval support, which helped protect  advancing Allied troops.

o In the ensuing weeks, the Allies fought their way across the Normandy  countryside in the face of determined German resistance, as well as a  dense landscape of marshes and hedgerows. By the end of June, the  Allies had seized the vital port of Cherbourg, landed approximately  850,000 men and 150,000 vehicles in Normandy, and were poised to  continue their march across France.

34.Dwight D. Eisenhower

o a Republican, was the popular 34th President of the United States,  serving two terms from 1953 to 1961. Prior to his presidency,  Eisenhower was a lifelong military man, commanding the D-Day  invasion while serving as Supreme Allied Commander in Europe during  World War II.

35.G.I Bill 1944

o Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a  business, cash payments of tuition and living expenses to attend  university, high school or vocational education, as well as one year of  unemployment compensation. It was available to every veteran who

had been on active duty during the war years for at least one-hundred  twenty days and had not been dishonorably discharged; combat was  not required.[1] By 1956, roughly 2.2 million veterans had used the G.I. Bill education benefits in order to attend colleges or universities, and  an additional 5.6 million used these benefits for some kind of training  program.

36.Berlin Airlift

o 1948–1949. At the end of the Second World War, U.S., British, and  Soviet military forces divided and occupied Germany. Also divided into  occupation zones, Berlin was located far inside Soviet-controlled  eastern Germany.

37.Marshall Plan

o The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was  an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United  States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar  value as of March 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western  European economies after the end of World War ...


o each of a series of Soviet artificial satellites, the first of which  (launched on October 4, 1957) was the first satellite to be placed in  orbit.

39.Cuban Missile Crisis

o A confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union in  1962 over the presence of missile sites in Cuba; one of the “hottest”  periods of the cold war.

40.Domino Theory

o the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar  events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire  row of upended dominoes to fall.


o a U.S. policy during the Vietnam War of giving the South Vietnamese  government responsibility for carrying on the war, so as to allow for the withdrawal of American troops.

42.Reagan Revolution

o The Reagan Era or Age of Reagan is a periodization of recent American  history used by historians and political observers to emphasize that the conservative "Reagan Revolution" led by President Ronald Reagan in  domestic and foreign policy had a permanent impact.

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