Social Psychology: Final Review Guide
Social Psychology: Final Review Guide PSYC 314
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Nora on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 314 at The College of William & Mary taught by Brandy Burkett in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at The College of William & Mary.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Textbook Vocabulary Chapter 2 Affordance: opportunities and threats provided by a situation Attention: consciously focusing on what’s going on around you Attitudes: evaluation of something: a person, object, event, or idea Automaticity: ability of a behavior/thought process to operate w/o conscious guidance Chronically Accessible: being easily activated or primed for use Counterfactual Thinking: imagining alternative ‘might have been’ versions of events Descriptive Norm: defines what is commonly done in a given situation Emotions: intense feelings, marked by arousal and complex thoughts Goal: something you wish to achieve Injunctive Norm: rules that define what’s approved/disapproved of in a situation (what people should do) Moods: long-lasting, diffuse feelings Motivation: the force that moves people towards their desired outcomes Motive: high-level goal necessary for social survival Person-situation fit: how compatible a person and situation are Pluralistic Ignorance: people misperceive what others think because those others are acting inconsistently with their actual beliefs Priming: activating knowledge/goals Reflected Appraisal Process: people understand themselves by observing/imagining how others view them Schema: knowledge that represents generalized information (exemplars) Scripted Situation: certain events are expected to occur in a specific sequence Self-concept: representation of our beliefs about ourselves Self-esteem: attitude towards ourselves Self-perception process: observing your own behavior to infer about your internal characteristics Self-presentation: how we try to control how others perceive us Self-regulation: selecting/monitoring/adjusting strategies to try and reach your goal Social Comparison: people understand themselves through social comparison with others Socialization: process- a culture teaches its members about its customs, beliefs, etc. Chapter 6 Bait-and-switch technique: get a commitment to an arrangement, then make it unavailable and offer a costlier arrangement Compliance: change in behavior due to a direct request Conformity: change in behavior to match others Disrupt-then-reframe technique: increase compliance by disrupting an original resistance-filled view of a request by reframing it in more favorable terms Door-in-the-face technique: increase compliance by beginning w/a large favor, then retreating to a small one Expert power: being able to influence others due to your presumed wisdom/knowledge Foot-in-the-door technique: increase compliance with a large request by getting compliance w/a smaller, related request Injunctive norm: defines what behaviors are usually approved/disapproved Labeling technique: label a person, then request a favor consistent with that label Low-ball technique: get a commitment by offering a good deal, then raise the cost of carrying out the deal Norm of reciprocity: requires that we pay others w/the types of behavior they give us Obedience: compliance in response to a directive from an authority figure Personal commitment: anything that connects your identity w/a position or course of action Reactance theory: react against threats to freedom by doing the opposite of what we’re told to reassert said freedom Social influence: change in your behavior from real/imagined pressure from others Social validation: interpersonal way of finding and validating the right choice That’s-not-all technique: increase compliance by sweetening an offer with more benefits Chapter 11 Authoritarianism: tendency to submit to those with authority and denigrate those w/o Discrimination: behaviors directed towards an individual based on their group membership Disidentify: to reduce the relevance of a domain to one’s self-esteem Ingroup bias: tendency to benefit members of your own group versus others Minimal intergroup paradigm: experiment w/arbitrary groups created to explore the foundations of prejudice, stereotyping and discrimination Perceived outgroup homogeneity: overestimating how similar other group’s members are to each other Prejudice: general attitude toward members of a particular social group Realistic group conflict theory: intergroup conflict, negative prejudices, and stereotypes emerge from group competition over resources Scapegoating: process of blaming members of other groups for your own frustrations/failures Social dominance orientation: extent to which one want their group to be socially/materially superior to other groups Social identity: beliefs/feelings we have towards groups that we belong to Stereotype: general belief about members of a particular social group Stereotype Threat: fear that you might confirm negative stereotypes held by others about your group Stereotyping: categorizing someone as a part of a group and assigning characteristics typically associated with that group to the individual in question Chapter 12 Cohesiveness: strength of the bonds between members (whether interpersonal or task-focused) Communication network: pattern of information flow through a group Deindividuation: losing a sense of personal identity, making it easier to act in ways inconsistent w/norms Dynamical system: A system (group) made of interacting elements (people) that change over time Group: broadly, 2+ individuals who influence each other. More specifically, when members become interdependent, share an identity, and have structure Groupthink: driven by members’ desire to get along than to think of alternative views Group polarization: group discussion leads members to make decisions more on one side of the issue than the group originally favored Minority influence: when minorities persuade others of their views Role: expectation of the group how individual members should behave (particular) Social Facilitation: presence of others increases arousal and dominant responses. Leads to better job on mastered tasks and worse job on un- mastered tasks Social Loafing: reducing one’s personal efforts in a group Status hierarchy: ranking of members by power and influence Transactive memory: knowledge held by individual group members and ways to spread said information to other members via communication Transformational leadership: change the motives, outlooks, and behaviors of followers, making it easier to reach the group’s goals Lecture Vocabulary Major Themes throughout the Semester evolution natural selection adaptations byproducts/spandrals noise adaptive problems common misunderstandings of evolutionary theory functional specialization domain specificity levels of explanation ultimate vs. proximate explanations theory of mind parental investment sexual selection instinct blindness Social Categorization and Coalitional Psychology social categorization: concerns the processes we use to categorize individuals into social groups in-group vs. out-group psychology: intergroup conflict, dependent on categorization of the social world; In-group bias: tendency to benefit members of own groups over members of other groups minimal intergroup paradigm: By Tajfel, created short-term and arbitrary groups to show in-group bias Robbers Cave experiment: Experiment with two groups of boys in a camp atmosphere-pitted against each other as an example of group conflict. out-group homogeneity and in-group heterogeneity: The tendency to view people in out-groups as similar and homogeneous, whereas people within your group are individualized and heterogeneous what an evolutionary perspective can bring to social categorization and how it applies to race: race based stereotypes are easily activated and inactivated. No genetic basis for divisions. Hypothesis: race tracking is a by-product for detecting coalitions/alliances coalitional psychology – how do we track alliances: Cognitive program that would track alliances should be sensitive to two factors: patterns of coordinated action, cooperation, and competition, and cues that predict political alliances—detect correlations between appearance and allegiance memory confusion paradigm: confusion concerning who said what is used to see how individuals are encoding - underlying biases. People recognize coalition over race Prejudice and Stigma Prejudice: generalized attitudes Stereotypes: generalized beliefs (things we believe to be true about a person based on their group classification) (positive stereotypes can have negative affects—woman is ‘supportive’ limit her possible jobs) Discrimination: behaviors directed to the people based on group membership jigsaw classroom: when diverse groups collaborate in the classroom. Each student has a part to play. It decreases negative stereotypes, increases positive feelings towards each other, and decreases out-group hostility stigmatization – including what groups tend to be stigmatized: when a person is negatively evaluated based on characteristics that distinguish them from other members of society (mentally ill/retarded, obese, homosexuals, ill people) social exclusion – evidence from both nonhumans and humans: a type of discrimination. People avoid interactions that may have fitness costs (avoid people who look ill). Nonhumans use territoriality, Status hierarchies, social ostracism (stickleback fish, lemurs, chimps). Origins: dyadic cooperation (avoid cheaters), coalitional exploitation, parasite avoidance. Putting the “brakes” on sociality: We can’t interact with every organism we come in contact with. Three domains: dyadic cooperation, coalitional exploitation (excluding people from gaining the benefits of group membership), and parasite avoidance pathogens and parasite avoidance: avoidance of those carrying pathogens->we discriminate against others based on cues that may show illness immune system: an adaptation to deal with pathogen threat. Detection- >Initial Defense Response->Threat Specific Response behavioral immune system: an adaptation to deal with pathogen threat. Detect Cues->Functionally Appropriate Affect and Cognition->Functionally Appropriate Behavior false sick vs. false healthy and why they are not symmetrical errors: a false sick error is < than a false healthy. If you make a false sick error, the only cost is social resources, whereas if you make a false healthy error the cost can be illness, mates, and even death Studies done by Lesley Duncan to address these issues: subjects are manipulated to look sick or healthy, those who looked healthy were less associated with disease *studies using the Implicit Association Task Lecture 10 The Stanford Prison Experiment: Aim: to test if inherent personality traits of guards/prisoners are the key to understanding abusive prison situations (Abu Graib). Results supported the situational attribution of behavior. It was criticized as being unethical and unscientific-not a real experiment. Milgram Obedience studies: Aim: to test why people are obedient. It was also criticized for being unethical. It produced stress (accused of being an intended outcome). Kitty Genovese: Exemplifies the importance of primary source info-the textbook description is not supported by available evidence. Ethical Guidelines: we now have and Institutional Review Board (IRB), in response to the Tuskegee Syphilis Study Emotions classical view of emotions: Feelings that prevent rational thought and interfere with cognition evolutionary view of emotions -- activation of clusters of mechanisms that are relevant to solve a particular problem; emotional systems detect what kind of situation a person is in and activate the appropriate emotions. decisional opacity of the environment: there are many behaviors an organism could engage in, however, a small subset would be adaptive responses to particular features of the environment (puppy aversion to a cliff). Decisional opacity says that if you just look at the environment, it is not clear which behaviors would be adaptive. Kinds of programs emotions can mobilize (you don’t have to memorize all of them but be familiar enough to be able to answer a short answer question asking to name and describe a few and give examples as they relate to a particular emotion): Goals, motivations, information gathering, shifts in attention/perception. With fear: goals, safeguard becomes priority (hunger less important); info gathering, where’s my baby/is there someone who can protect me/can I use this as a weapon; attention/perception, hear with better clarity/attending to rustles and cracks. Ekman’s basic emotions: fear, anger, sadness, happiness, surprise, disgust, contempt (FASHS DS), identifiable facial expressions, has cross- cultural universality evidence of cross-cultural universality of emotions and cultural influences on the expression of emotions: Blind people make the same gestures/use the same expressions for the Ekman emotions. Emotions are withheld in collectivist cultures unless in the home or with friends and family. Facial Action Coding System (FACS): Anatomically bases system for measuring all visually discernable facial movements what an action unit (au) is: AUs are fundamental actions of individual muscles or groups of muscles what can be coded with FACS: Intensity of action on a five-point scale, timing of facial expressions, events difference between Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles: an enjoyment smile with movement of the muscles surrounding the eye vs. non- enjoyment smile where the muscle does not move. macro and micro expressions: normal facial expressions vs. very fast facial movements that produce leakage about what a person is really feeling deception and how it relates to facial expression of emotion: There is no single behavioral clue that tells you someone is lying. However, behavioral signs can contradict what they’re saying (for example, no engagement of the eyes or forehead when sad, leakage of micro expressions, etc.) emblems: very specific meaning in a culture (giving someone the finger, a shoulder shrug) an emblematic slip is when the expression of the feeling is unconscious. display rules effects of botox on emotion: Botox interferes with how we read feelings (done by mimicking facial expressions. Botox dulls the perception and interpretation of others’ feelings Aggression Langur Monkeys - infanticide – under what circumstances would it have been selected for? Also know the evidence that supports these hypotheses: Langur monkey tribes have a resident adult male that’s unrelated to the females. This male is unseated every 27 months or so. When a new male takes control it systematically murders all weaning infants from the past resident male. The male is constrained by the fertility of the troop females—when the male kills nursing infants it makes the mother available for insemination again. Step vs. biological parents: The risk of child abuse increases with a non- related parent in the household. Two main hypotheses: conflict because the child rejects the nonparent vs. conflict from nonparent being around a child that requires large levels of PI. Second is supported by data Trivial Altercations: Disputes started over petty issues; Philadelphia homicides; Men escalate battle over status Culture of Honor: Societal norms: people, particularly men, are ready to defend their honor if necessary. Regional differences, a Northerner being shoved vs. a Southerner.
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