Bio 152 Dr O'Quin Final Exam Study Guide
Bio 152 Dr O'Quin Final Exam Study Guide Bio 152
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alena Comley on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 152 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr. O'Quin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
BIO 152 Final Exam Study Guide UNIT 1 Type of Lipid Distinguishing Characteristic Fat Three fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol Steroids Bulky four ring structure Phospholipids Glycerol linked to two hydrocarbon chains Molecule Type Example Permeability Small, nonpolar molecule O 2 CO2, N2 High Small, uncharged polar glycerol Medium-High molecules Large, uncharged polar Glucose, sucrose Medium-low molecules Ions Cl , K , Na Low Characteristic Type Permeability Fluidity Bond saturation Saturated Low Low Unsaturated High High Tail Length Short High High Long Low Low Cholesterol Presence Reduces In cold temps, increases fluidity, at warm temps, decreases fluidity Absence Increases N/A Temperature High Increases Increases Low Decreases Decreases Solution Cell Placed Into Change in the Cell Hypertonic Cell shrivels and shrinks Hypotonic Cell swells and can possibly burst Isotonic Remains the same Diffusion Facilitated Active transport Diffusion Description Passive Passive Active movement movement of movement of..... of.... small, uncharged Ions or molecules Ions or molecules molecules along that cannot cross against their an the readily along concentration electrochemical a concentration gradient gradient, through gradient a membrane Proteins None Channel proteins Pumps involved or carrier proteins Steps of What occurs Enzyme Catalysis Initation Reactants bind to the active site in a specific orientation, forming an enzyme-substrate complex. Transition-state Interactions between enzyme and substrate lower the facilitation activation energy needed Termination Products have lower affinity for active site and are released. Enzymes is unchanged after the reaction. UNIT 2 Glycolysis Pyruvate Citric Acid Electron Processing Cycle Transport Chain Locatio Cytoplasm Matrix of Matrix of Inner Membrane of n in the mitochondria mitochondria Mitochondria Cell What Glucose Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Protons in the form goes in 2 molecules of of NADH and FADH 2 ATP O 2as final electron acceptor What 4 molecules of Acetyl CoA ATP (or GTP) ATP-produced by comes ATP CO 2 NADH flow of hydrogens out 2 NADH NADH FADH 2 through ATP 2 molecules of CO 2 synthase pyruvate H O-from oxygen 2 accepting electrons Where ATP-to cell for Acetyl CoA to ATP-cell for Most of the ATP is do the energy the Citric Acid energy produced here and product NADH-electron Cycle NADH & goes to the rest of s go transport chain NADH to the FADH 2electron the cell electron transport chain transport chain CO 2s exhaled CO 2s exhaled How is Feedback Phosphorylation Feedback Not discussed in it inhibition on the of enzymes inhibition class-regulation regulat phosphofructokina usually occurs ed se enzyme before this point Lactic Acid Alcohol Fermentation Fermentation Organism it occurs in Humans Yeast Products ATP, Lactate, NAD+ ATP, ethanol, CO2, and NAD+ When does fermentation occur? When the final electron accepter for cellular respiration is unavailable A photosystem is composed of the following two components: 1) Antenna Complex 2) Reaction Center Fill in the table to indicate if the statement describes photosystem I, II, or both Statement Photosystem I or II Transports protons, producing an Photosystem II electrochemical gradient Produces NADPH Photosystem I Electrons for reaction center Photosystem II replenished by water Requires an input of photons Both Located in membranes exterior to the Photosystem I grana Produces oxygen as a biproduct Photosystem II Plastoquinone shuttles electrons from itPhotosystem II to the electron transport chain Sends products to the Calvin Cycle Both Produces ATP Photosystem II Electrons for reaction center Photosystem I replenished by other photosystem Fill in the table below to indicate what portion (or portions) of the Calvin Cycle the following events take place in. Answer should be fixation, reduction, or regeneration. Carbon dioxide enters the cycle Fixation Uses ATP Reduction and Regeneration RuBP is produced again Regeneration A three-carbon sugar is produced Reduction NADPH is used Reduction UNIT 3 Plant System Function Root System Anchors the plant and takes in water and nutrients from the soil Shoot System Harvests light and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to produce sugars Primary Plant Function of Type of Cells Function of cells Tissue Primary Plant that make up that make up the Tissue this tissue tissue Dermal Tissue Serves as the Epidermal Cells Secrete the waxy interface between cuticle; form the the organism and stomata for gas the environment; exchange; form helps protect the trichomes which shoots and helps in help in protection water an nutrient and reducing water absorption in the loss roots. Ground Tissue Produces and stores Parenchyma Most abundant and valuable molecules, versatile-“workhors such as pigments, e cells”—pretty horomones, and much do toxins for defense everything in the plant-alive at maturity Collenchyma Provide structural support to growing regions of shoots Cells alive at maturity Sclerenchyma Sclereids and fibers: Support stem and other structures after growth has ceased; cells dead at maturity Vascular Tissue To transport water Xylem Tracheids and from the roots to vessel elements; the shoots have perforations that help transport water; dead at maturity To transport sugar Phloem Companion cells either from roots to and sieve-tube shoots or shoots to elements; sieve roots, depending on tube elements the location of transport the sources and sinks phloem sap; companion cells provide support to the sieve tube elements Type of Growth Increases plant… Involves the …. Primary Length Apical Meristem Secondary Width Cambium Water Potential Positive, Negative, or What does a positive Component Both or negative value mean Solute potential Negative There is more solute present compared to pure water. Pressure Potential Both A positive value indicates a pushing on the water; a negative value indicates pulling on the water (tension) Hypothesis for Water Brief description of Distance water is able Transport what happens to move Root Pressure Solutes are still pumped Low lying plants only, like into the roots at night, grasses which causes water to flow into the plant and eventually push up the plant and out of the leaves Capillary Action Based on the tendency of About a meter water to move up a small tube; adhesion helps bind water molecules to the side of the tube; cohesion links water molecules to each other, transmitting adhesion and tension forces; tension reduces the surface area at the air water interface, which helps pull up against gravity Cohesion-Tension Water is pulled to the To the top of very tall tops of trees along a trees water-potential gradient, via forces generated by transpiration at leaf surfaces; tension created at the leaves menisci is transmitted to the rest of the plant by cohesion Sugar Location How is pressure generated Source Sugar is transported into the phloem, which causes a low solute potential. As a result, water flows passively from the xylem into the phloem. The increase in water causes an increase of turgor pressure. Sink Sugar is removed from the phloem, which moves the solute potential closer to 0. This causes the water to flow passively back into the xylem. The water leaving the phloem reduces the turgor pressure. UNIT 4 Type of Nutrient Importance to the Examples Plant Essential Nutrient Necessary for plant Macronutrients-needed growth and for plant to in large quantities complete their life cycleMicronutrients-need in small quantities Macronutrient Availability limits plantPhosphorus, potassium, growth nitrogen Micronutrient Serves as cofactors for Copper, Zinc enzymes to function properly Type of Ion Type of Membrane Proton Pump Protein Utilized important for transport to occur Cation Ion channel Yes Anion Cotransporter Yes Mutalistic Type of What the plant What the Relationship Organism that is provides to the organism part of organism provides to the symbiosis plant Mycorrhizae Fungus Sugars and Amino acids photosynthetic (nitrogen) products Phosphorus Other macromolecules Rhibozome Bacteria Carbohydrates Nitrogen in the and protection form of ammonia Type of Ion Method of Brief Description Exclusion Exclusion Passive Blocked entry to The symplast lacks the necessary symplast membrane proteins for those ions to enter the membrane Casparian Strip Ions that move along the apoplastic route will eventually get re-routed because of the Casparian strip; they are unable to enter the other routes because those membrane proteins are not present Active Metallothioniens These proteins bind to the metals and makes them unavailable for causing issues to the plant Tonoplast exclusion Harmful compounds are pumped into the vacuole via antiporters located in the tonoplast membrane Response Receptor Hormone Mechanism for plant Involved Involved response Phototropism to PHOT1 Auxin Acid growth hypothesis; blue light Cells on the dark side of the plant elongate in response to the presence of the hormone, which causes the plant to bend in the direction of the light Germination- Phytochrome N/A Red light promotes Red/Far-Red light germination; Far-red light inhibits it Stem Elongation- Phytochrome N/A Red light deficiency causes Red/Far-Red Light plants to grow higher in an effort to reach sunlight Flowering-Red/Far Phytochrome Florigen Hormone moves from leaf Red Light to apical meristem and causes flowering Gravitropism Amyloplasts Auxin Cells in the lower portion of serve as the root elongate more statoliths and slowly compared to cells in activate the upper portion, resulting pressure in bending. receptors Mechanical N/A N/A NOT RESPONSIBLE FOR stress/thigmotropi KNOWING—DID NOT GET TO sm IN CLASS UNIT 5 Adult Tissue Type Description CPart of Homeostatic System Functionat are loosely arranged in a liquid, jellylike, or solid matrix. Section of the Kidney What occurs thered several types of Renal Corpuscle Size based filtration occurs when Muscle Tissue Helps in the movement of bones, the wator internal environmentss through the pores of the capillaries andd the Organismon How it maintains balanceits.tive system Sharksthelial Tissue They osmoconform by keeping high, lines Radiation transfer of heat between two bodies Proximal Tubule levneeded for homeostasisl have high levels of salt enter the gills; this is Evaporationr when liquid water becomes a gasTPasethe desired internal condition Organism Problem pProblem Resolved by....assium in. Saltwater Fish Lose water by 2Drink large quantities of seawater osmosis gradient through a cotransporter and carries Cl and K with it against their - Loop of Henle Gain electrolytes by gActively transport electrolytes out concentration gradient into the lumen drinking and of the rectal gland. 4) Na+ moves diffusion down their electrochemical gradient Freshwater Fish Gain water by into the lumen of the rectal gland. osmosis actively pumped out)ink Distal Tubulenge from fresh to The filtrate moves into the distalelp saltwater move ions either in or out of the gills, Lose electrolytes by tActively move electrolytes inurea and diffusion other wastes, while having a lownt Insects concentration of ions.m a filtrate, which flows to the hindgut. If the TerrestrialDuct Water loss by TReplaced by eating and drinkingbeer dilute or concentrated based on the animals evaporation, pee, circumstances of hydration. ADH and sweating causes concentrated urine.id behind. UNIT 6 Feeding Strategy How They Feed Suspension feeder Filter small organisms or organic debris from water via cilia Deposit feeder swallow sediment and other types of deposited material rich in organic matter Fluid feeder Suck up or lap up fluids Mass feeder seize and manipulate food by using jaws, teeth, or special toxin injecting organs Part of the What occurs Enzymes and Hormones digestive tract there what it breaks involved and down function Mouth Physical Salivary N/A processing of amylase-digests food by chewing; starch chemical digestion starts Lingual lipase- digests-lipids Esophogus Connects the N/A N/A mouth to the stomach; muscular contractions called peristalsis move the food down the esophagus Stomach Muscular Pepsin-protein Gastrin-triggers contractions digestion secretion of HCl cause mechanical breakdown; protein digestion Part of the What occurs Enzymes and Hormones digestive tract there what it breaks involved and down function Small Intestine Digestion is Proteases-protein Secretin- Induces completed, water digestion a flow of and nutrients are bicarbonate that absorbed Nucleases- neutralizes the breaks down stomach acid DNA and RNA Amylases-digests Cholecystokinin- carbohydrates stimulates the secretion of Lipase-breaks digestive down complex enzymes from fats into fatty the pancreas and acids and small molecules that lipids help process lipids from the gall bladder Large Intestine Compact the N/A N/A wastes that remain and to absorb enough water to form feces Type of Problem Cause of Treatment Diabetes problem Type 1 Diabetes Do not synthesize Autoimmune insulin injections sufficient insulin disease where the and attention to insulin-producing diet cells of the pancreas is destroyed Type 2 Diabets resistant to insulin receptors diet, exercise, insulin, meaning not longer maintaining blood that insulin does functioning glucose levels, not effectively correctly or they and activate its are reduced in by drugs that receptor in target number, with increase cellular cells obesity being the responsiveness to primary factor for insulin development UNIT 7 Step of Gas Exchange What Occurs Ventilation The movement of air or water through a specialized gas exchange organ. Gas exchange The diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air or water and the blood at the respiratory surface Circulation Transport of dissolved oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body via the circulatory system Cellular respiration The cell uses oxygen and produces carbon dioxide Factors that affect gas solubility in Description solution Solubility of a gas in water Some gases don’t dissolve well in water, for example, oxygen has low solubility in water which is why a carrier molecule is used to hold it in the blood. Temperature of water As the temperature of water increases, the amount of gas that dissolves in it decreases. Presence of other solutes Solutions that have a higher concentration of solutes hold less dissolved gas. Partial pressure of gas in contact with If the partial pressure in a liquid water exceeds that in the adjacent gas, the gas will bubble up out of the liquid. Conditions to maximize gas What it actually means exchange according to Fick’s law A is large There is a large area available for gas exchange. D is small The respiratory surface is extremely thin. P2-P1 is large The partial pressure gradient of the gas across the surface is large. Organism Respiratory Method of Any special Organ Ventilation features Fish Gills Opening and Countercurrent closing of mouth exchange and operculum Insects Tracheae Contraction of Large insects will the body also increase musculature tracheae diameter Frogs Lungs Positive pressure N/A ventilation-push air into the lungs Humans Lungs Negative Alveoli are the pressure location of gas ventilation- exchange; there contraction of rib is dead space muscles and diaphragm lower pressure, allowing air to flow in Birds Lungs Negative Presence of air pressure sacs, one-way ventilation airflow, crosscurrent gas exchange; less dead space; gas exchange during both inhalation and exhalation Homeostatic control of ventilation: During exercise, the partial pressure of oxygen _________drops_______, the partial pressure of carbon dioxide _____________rises__________, and the pH of the blood _______drops________.
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