History 112 Final Exam
History 112 Final Exam History 112
Popular in American History Since 1865
Popular in History
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sequoia Brown on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 112 at University of South Carolina taught by Foxworth in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see American History Since 1865 in History at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
History 112 Final Study Guide Possible Short Answer Topics for Final Exam 1. Eisenhower and Modern Republicanism - Page 716 o Dwight D. Eisenhower preached “modern republicanism” Means resisting additional federal intervention in economic and social life, but not turning the clock back to the 1920’s o He claimed to not attempt to abolish social security and eliminate labor laws and farm programs Democratic control of Congress after the election of 1954 further contributed to Eisenhower’s moderate approach o Eisenhower attempted to distance himself from the anti-communist fervor 2. Kitchen Debate IMPORTANT EVENT in the 1950s Kitchen Debate 7/24/59 - Vice President Nixon (under President Eisenhower) and Soviet Premier Nikiti Khrushchev met at American National Exhibit Moscow in 1959 - Nikki opposes Stalon (who he replaced) and a new kind of leader - The 2 leaders in the Cold war have open exchange about the merit system o Nixon tries to build his image over seas o Makes history- goes to Moscow in 1959 o He shows off how American technology has improved in the post WWI era He insisted to Khrushchev that the US outstripped the Soviets in consumer goods - Discussed merits of capitalist vs communist systems in the context of postwar prosperity - Capitalist: the Soviets appreciated women’s contributions to the economy, not their domesticity o Nixon linked capitalism with democracy Asserting that the array of products represented “what freedom means to us…our right to choose” - Cultural exchange in the midst of the Cold War - Called the “Kitchen debate” because the 2 leader were talking and that’s where the TV was set up to catch them talking o It becomes standard to have a TV in their home They will have a different type of access of the news ***Important because this is even being able to happen during the Cold War o See a brief moment of diplomacy o Civil encounter o Diplomatic and Nixon is coming off to be a candidate to run for President 3. Betty Friedan - Book o Women gained protection from the employment discrimination through Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the extension of affirmative action to women by piggybacking onto civil right measures o They soon grew impatient when the government failed to take these new policies seriously o Determining the need for an NAACP for men, to put pressure on the government and other institutions, Betty Friedan, and several others founded the (NOW) - Notes o 1966: National Organization for Women (NOW) Created by Betty Friedan and Gloria Steinem Gloria Steinem (journalist): goes undercover as a waitress and investigates some on the claims that women make “good money” Found that the job did not pay or protected from harassment, constant threat for theft Does not go over well with America 4. Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 Book o Kennedy strengthened the American nuclear dominance o He upped the number of nuclear weapons based in Europe from 2,500 to 7,200 and multiplied fivefold the supply of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) o Concerned that this build up would enable the US to launch a first strike and wipe out Soviet missile sites before they could respond, the Soviet Union stepped up its own ICBM program Began the most intense arms race in history the Super powers came very close to using their weapons during the Cuban Missile Crisis o Khrushchev decided to install nuclear missiles in Cuba to protect Castro’s regime from further US attempts at intervention and to balance the US missiles aimed at the Soviet Union from Europe - October 22, Kennedy caught sight of missile launching sites under construction in Cuba, and he announced that the military was on full alert - He warned that any attack launched from Cuba would trigger a full nuclear assault Results - The Soviets removed the missiles and pledged not to introduce new offensive weapons into Cuba. - The US promised not to invade the island Notes Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 - Operation Mongoose- CIA still wants to Castro ‘removed’ - Cubans look to Soviet Union for defensive arms - Soviets interested in nuclear weapons in Western Hemisphere- shipped in missiles by boat to Cuba - JFK addresses US on TV to explain situation; presents ultimatum to Soviet Union- it works 5. Voting Rights Act of 1965 - Book page 746 o Banned literacy tests, which were often impossibly complicated in order to disqualify black voters, and authorized federal intervention to ensure access to the voting booth - Notes Black people were not able to vote because being kept from the poles Federal government can intervene if black people are being help from the poles 6. Phyllis Schlafly - Book page 793 o Wanted the US to do more than just contain communism o Wanted to cut bac the federal government, especially its role in providing social welfare and enforcing civil rights o She added new agenda to the conservative agenda cultivating a grassroots movement that would redefine the Republican Party and American politics into the 21 century - Notes o Support Barry Goldwater campaign in A Choice Not an Echo o Criticized ‘Me too’ Republicans, like Eisenhower, for not standing up for conservative principles o Chiefly concerned with anticommunist politics o Influential in Goldwater’s Republican nomination 7. Black Power Movement - Book page 753 o Although Urban riots of the mid-1960s erupted spontaneously, which were triggered by specific incidents of alleged police mistreatment, horrified whites blamed black power militants o By 1966, 85 percent of the white population, thought that African Americans were pressing for too much too quickly **Malcom X symbolic figure for this movement Takes idea of self-protection - Economic self-determination - Black ownership of governing institutions - Urban-focused o Poverty is not greatly solved o Residential segregation is still here o Police brutality done in urban area - Rejection of nonviolence - Increased value of African heritage o Black art does have to be the same as white art - Black is Beautiful Movement o Emphases black beauty o Women stop relaxing hair and wearing it natural o Dark skin is beauty o Black cosmetics starts to come about - Black Panther Party in Oakland, CA (1966) o ADVOCATE self-defense to 1 and 2 Amendments rights - 1966: Black panther “What we want what we believe” o Want freedom- the power to determine our own destiny o Full employment Jobs: discrimination in employment holds black people back o End to Economic exploitation o Housing Fit for human beings o End to police brutality and oppression Set up self-defense groups to defend themselves o Fair trials for black defendants Idea of trial by jury Black people should be on the jury as well o Arrest of Huey Newton energizes and divides Found guilty o Movement prompted considerable backlash Leaders arrested: which up rises protesters o Provided youth programs for children Community empowerment 8. Presidential Election of 1968 - Notes o George Wallace – former Alabama governor; staunch segregationist and champion of massive resistance against Civil Rights Movement; third party candidate (American Independent Party) o Hubert Humphrey – Democrat; LBJ’s Vice President; nomination uncertain before Robert Kennedy’s assassination; Democratic National Convention drama in Chicago damages party image o Richard Nixon – Republican; Eisenhower’s Vice President appealed to the “silent majority” those in Middle America whose voices had not been prominent in the 1960s campaign for law and order to signal transition from previous decade’s disorder had vocal support from Billy Graham America’s most famous evangelist and ardent anti-communist hoped to gain the popularity among religious conservatives who opposed liberal 1960s movements - Book page 782 o The election revealed deep cracks in the coalition that had maintained Democratic dominance in Washington for the previous 30 years o Johnson’s liberal policies on race shattered a century of Democratic Party rule in the South, which delivered all its electoral votes to Wallace and Nixon o Large numbers of blue collar workers broke with labor’s traditional alliance with the Democrats to vote for Wallace or Nixon - Result o Nixon edged out Humphreys by just a half million popular votes but won 301 electoral college votes to Humphreys 191 and Wallace’s 46 o Democrats maintained control of Congress 9. Détente - Book page 783 o As Nixon and Kissinger had hoped, the warming of US-Chinese relations furthered their strategy of détente Their term for easing conflict with the Soviet Union o Détente did not mean abandoning containment Instead it focused on issues of common concern, such as arms control and trade Containment would now be achieved not by just military threat but also by ensuring that the Soviets and Chinese had stakes in a stable international order o Nixon’s goal was a stronger healthy US, Europe, Soviet Union, China, Japan, each balancing each other - Notes o Kissinger’s (Nixon’s Secretary of State) plan for international relations suggests to reopen relations with People’s Republic of China; Nixon in China after “ping pong diplomacy” détente – focusing on issues of common concern to ease political tension; Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT) in the early 1970s between the US and Soviet Union agreed to limit antiballistic missiles to two 10. Pentagon Papers - Book Page 786 o After the Spring of 1971, there were fewer antiwar demonstrations, but opposition to the war continued Public attention focused on the court-material of Lieutenant William Colley, which began in November 1970 During the trial, Americans learned that in March 1968 Calley’s company had killed every inhabitant of the hamlet of My Lai, even thought it had encountered no enemy forces and the 400 villagers were nearly old men, women, and children The military covered up the massacre for more than a year before a journalist exposed it o June 27: Administration policy suffered a blow when the New York Times published portions of the Pentagon Papers A secret internal study of the way begun in 1967 o Nixon sent government lawyers to court to stop further publication in part out of fear that other information would be leaked - Results o 12 officers and enlisted men were charged with murder or assault but only Calley was convicted o The Supreme Court ruled that suppression of the publication violated the First Amendment o Subsequent circulation of the Pentagon Papers which revealed pessimism among officials even as they made rosy promises, heightened disillionment with the war by casting doubts on the government’s credibility 11. Reagan Doctrine Notes - Supported large scale military buildup: “Peace through Strength” - Force the Soviet Union to cripple their economy through outlandish military expenditures to prop up proxies in third world countries o US aids local “freedom fighters” in these areas - 1983: Strategic Defense Initiative SDI as new nuclear buildup Deploy missiles in the air to destroy anything that is coming towards US to kill us o Put stress on Soviet Union to build up their military unless they will lose the war o Soviet government and economy does not have enough $$ to build military and sustain life of the people Reagan calls SSR evil - National debt grows from $994 billion in 1980 to $2.8 trillion in 1989 ** defeat is the primary goal 12. Iran Contra Scandal Notes - Conspiracy to sell weapons to Iran as part of a scheme for the release of US hostages - Funding anti-communist fighter in Nicaragua o Why does US care about Nicaragua in the first place? Dictator- Somoza Son takes over in the 1960s and is really popular Group of socialist rise up against his son Sandinistassocialist, Soviet Union group of people o Are encouraging other governments to overthrow government and want to spread socialists movement and sends weapons to other countries to do so The US oppose the Sandinistas because they are Soviet friendly Contras- counter revolutionaries – 1981-82 o Wants to put down the Sandinistas o Supporters of the original Somoza’s Really gain the sympathy of the US bc the US wants the Sandinistas out US supplies weapons for the Contras to overthrows the Sandinistas o 1982 media links Contras to drug trafficking, etc So Congress Passes Boland Amendment 1982 Book page 816 - Began in 1985 when officials of the National Security Council and CIA covertly arranged to sell arms to Iran, then in the midst of an 8 year war with Iraq, even while the US openly supplied Iraq with funds and weapons - The purpose was to get Iran to pressure Hezbollah to release American hostages being held in Lebanon o Funds from the arms sales were then channeled through Swiss bank accounts to aid the Nicaraguan Contras o Reagan approved the arms sales to Iran, but the 3 subsequently denied knowing that the proceeds were diverted to the Contras Results o When news broke out, the Reagan administration faced serious charges o Investigation led to a trial in which 7 individuals pleaded guilty or were convicted of lying to the Congress and destroying evidence o No evidence that Reagan broke the law, but concluded that he had known about the diversion of funds to the Contras 13. Mikhail Gorbachev - Book Page 816 o Assumed power in 1985 determined to revitalize an economy incapable of satisfying basic consumer needs o Hoping to stimulate production and streamline distribution of consumer goods, he introduced some elements of free enterprise and proclaimed a new era of glasnost (greater freedom of expression) Allowing contested elections and challenges to Communist rule o In 1988, he reduced tension between the US by announcing a gradual with drawl from Afghanistan - Notes o Michael Gorbachev assumed Soviet leadership March 1985 o Wanted to end the Cold War, reduce defense spending to allocate funds to domestic expenses o Proposes missile cuts to Reagan; removes troops from Afghanistan o December 1987: Missile reduction treaty signed with Reagan o Indicates that he will not utilize force to enforce division in Berlin after wall gates opened End of the Cold War o 1989: Soviet Union holds elections to Parliament; will not use force to back pro- Soviet satellites o Gorbachev visited US in 1990 to negotiate end of Cold War with Pres. Bush; issued a joint statement that it was officially over o June 1991: Boris Yeltsin wins democratic election; becomes 1 popularly elected president o Gorbachev disbands Communist Party, December 1991; activities suspended o United States continues to face unrest I Middle East after conflict ends with former USSR o
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