NUTRI 2000 Final Exam Study Guide (Vines)
NUTRI 2000 Final Exam Study Guide (Vines) Nutrition 2000
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This 66 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Notetaker on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Nutrition 2000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Katie Vines in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 152 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) Dietary Recommendations/Guidelines • Recommended dietary allowances (RDA): meets 98% of the needs of healthy people. • Adequate intake (AI): is information taken from the intakes of people who appear to be healthy. • Estimated energy requirements (EER): are not set higher than average needs and takes into account gender, age, height, etc. • Tolerable upper level (UL): the highest amount, which is not going to have a major impact on your health. • Daily value (DV): is based on a 2000-calorie diet. • My plate is a visual representation of how a healthy plate looks - Fruits and vegetables: ½ your plate - Grains: ¼ your plate - Protein: the remaining portion of your plate - Dairy: 1 cup • Your daily total sodium intake should be less than 2400 mg • Carbohydrate recommendations - RDA for carbohydrates in adults is about 130 grams. - Sugar intake recommendations o A moderate intake of added sugars is about 10% a day of the caloric intake, which is about 50 grams of sugar. o North Americans eat an average of 82 grams of added sugar a day. - Fiber intake recommendations o Fiber intake should be at least 25 grams a day for women and 38 grams a day for men. o The average fiber intake in North America for women is about 13 grams a day and 17 grams a day for men. • Fat intake recommendations - There is no RDA for the total fat consumption for adults. - The total fat intake should be 20-35% of our total calories. o Should be less than 65 mg. - Cholesterol should be no more than 300 mg a day. - For Americans, 33% of calories come from fats, 13% of those come from saturated fats, and 180-320 mg of cholesterol is eaten a day. - Consume more fish or fish oil supplements to get omega 3. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) - Americans consume about 7% of their calories from polyunsaturated fats, a maximum of 10% is recommended. • Protein recommendations - The RDA is .8 grams of protein per kilogram of healthy body weight to maintain protein equilibrium. - The RDA is 15% of our total calories come from proteins. Parts of the Cell • Cell/plasma membrane: not an organelle, but it holds all the things within the cell together. • Cytoplasm: the fluid material and organelles within the cell (does NOT include the nucleus). • Mitochondria: uses the energy from food we eat, and converts it into a form in which cells can use. • Cell nucleus: contains genetic material (chromosomes, genes, DNA) that controls the actions occurring in the cell. • Endoplasmic reticulum has two types: - Rough ER: contains ribosomes (ribosomes are used in making proteins). - Smooth ER: makes lipids and breaks down any harmful chemicals in the cell. • Golgi complex: the place where proteins get packaged. • Lysosomes: act as a waste disposal system that pick up worn out or damage cell parts. • Peroxisomes: contain enzymes, which detoxify any harmful chemicals. • Cell metabolism is the group of chemical processes which maintain life, there two types: - Anabolic: needs energy (puts molecules together). - Catabolic: puts out energy (takes molecules apart). Anatomy • Tissues - Epithelial tissue: lines the outside of the body and external passages. - Connective tissue: holds different structure of the body together. - Muscle tissue: helps in contracting movement. - Nervous tissue: transport nerve impulses from one body part to another. • Body Systems - Cardiovascular system: one of the systems that circulates fluids throughout the body (blood) and consists of heart and blood vessels Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) - Lymphatic system: the other system that circulates fluids throughout the body known as lymph (which has blood plasma and white blood cells) - Urinary system: filters blood and removes waste from the body, it also helps in maintaining the pH level of blood (kidneyàuretersàbladderàurethra) - Nervous system: the regulatory system which controls most of the body’s systems, it is divided into two groups: central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) o CNS: includes the brain and spinal cord o PNS: the nerves that connect to everything else (organs, muscles, etc.) - Endocrine system: regularizes your metabolism, reproduction, water balance, and other functions through producing and releasing hormones o Insulin: released from the pancreas to help control glucose levels in the blood o Thyroid hormones: released from the thyroid gland and helps controls the body’s metabolism. o Glucagon: released from the pancreas to help the liver to convert glycogen to glucose o Epinephrine/norepinephrine: also known as adrenaline, released from the adrenal gland and increases heart rate, blood pressure, muscle strength o Growth hormone: released from the pituitary gland helps in growth of children and adolescents. - Immune system: defends the body against infection/disease. o Antibodies/immunoglobulin are produced by the white blood cell that help control and prevent infection. o Antigens are foreign proteins that you don’t want in your body, which causes the body to respond. - Digestive system: contains the gastrointestinal tract in which the digestion and absorption of food takes place Saliva is a solvent, which further separates and allows us to better taste food. It also contains digestive enzymes. o Small intestine has 3 parts: § Duodenum is the first 10 inches where most of the chemical digestion happens. § Jejunum is the 4 feet after the duodenum. § Ileum is the 5 feet after the jejunum. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) o Large intestine/colon has 5 parts: the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and sigmoid colon. It absorbs nutrients like water, vitamins, fatty acids, sodium and potassium. • Accessory Organs - Liver: produces bile. - Gallbladder: stores the bile until it gets the hormonal signal to release it. - Pancreas: manufactures insulin and glucagon. • Types of Absorption - Passive diffusion is when the nutrient concentration is high in the lumen and low in the absorptive cells in the small intestine, this difference brings the nutrients into the absorptive cells through diffusion - Facilitated diffusion: when carrier proteins are required to follow a concentration gradient - Active absorption needs a carrier protein along with an added energy input to move from the lumen to the absorptive cells. Carbohydrates • Carbohydrates: the main fuel source for most cells in the human body (brain cells and red blood cells). Along with our cells, these are essential for our muscles too. These yield 4 kcal per gram. There are two forms: monosaccharaides and disaccharides. - Monosaccharaides: these are simple sugars, which are the basic units of carbs. There are various types in foods: glucose, fructose, and galactose. • Glucose: the main monosaccharaide in the body and serves as energy for the cells. This is found in corn syrup. o Absorbed by active absorption. • Fructose: is fruit sugar, which is quickly metabolized by the body and then converted into glucose or other compounds. This is found in fruit, honey, and soft drinks. o Absorbed by facilitated diffusion. • Galactose: a 6-carbon monosaccharaide that is similar and related to glucose. o Absorbed by active absorption. - Disaccharides: formed when 2 monosaccharaides combine. There are various types in foods: sucrose, lactose, and maltose. • Sucrose: forms when glucose and fructose bond together. These are found in various foods like, sugar cane, table sugar and beets. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) • Lactose: forms when glucose binds with galactose during milk synthesis, it is essentially the sugar that is found in milk products. • Maltose: when starch gets broken down to 2 glucose molecules that are bonded together. This plays a big role in the beer/liquor industry. This is found in sprouted seeds. • When in need, carbs can take 2 different forms: blood glucose and glycogen. - Blood glucose: a sugar in our blood, also known as dextrose. - Glycogen: maintains the blood glucose amounts in the events where you haven’t eaten for some time, or if you aren’t eating enough carbs. This is stored in the liver and muscles. • Polysaccharides: many single sugar units that are bound together to form a chain. These are also known as complex carbs/starch. These are found in fruits, vegetables, and grains. There are 3 types amylose, amylopectin, and glycogen. - Amylose: is a long straight chain of glucose units. This is typically found in vegetables, bread, beans, and pasta. (20% of digestible starches) - Amylopectin: is a highly branched chain of glucose units and provides many ends for enzyme action. (80% of digestible starches) - Glycogen: consists of a chain of glucose units with many branches. It is found in the body and made by the cells. • Fiber: a group of carbohydrate substances composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums, and mucilages, along with a noncarbohydrate substance called lignin. • Sweeteners: the stuff that makes the food we eat, taste sweet. There are 2 types: nutritive and alternative/artificial. - Nutritive sweeteners: these are sweeteners, which provide calories for the body. • Sugars: include all monosaccharaides and disaccharides. • Sugar alcohols: helps diabetic get the same taste of sugar without consuming any. These are low calorie substitutes so people with weight issues often use them. There are 2 types: sorbitol and xylitol. o Sorbitol: a sugar alcohol that yields 3 kcal per gram and is found in sugarless gums and dietetic foods. o Xylitol: a sugar alcohol, which is derived from xylose. - Alternative/artificial sweeteners: yield little to no calories when eaten. There are many types. • Saccharin: the oldest alternative sweetener. • Aspartame: contains phenylalanine, aspartic acid, and methanol. This yields 4 kcal per gram. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) • Sucralose: made by adding 3 chlorines to sucrose and cannot be broken down or absorbed. This yields no kcal per gram and is used in gum, baked goods, gelatin, etc. • Neotame: similar to aspartame, but PKU friendly. • Acesulfame-K: is an organic acid. • Stevia: is derived from the South American shrub. This yields no kcal per gram. • Luo han guo: is the extract from the monk fruit. • Advantame: is similar to aspartame but much sweeter and PKU friendly. • Glycemic load: a number that estimates how much a person’s blood sugar will rise after eating food. • The difference between insulin and glucagon: - Insulin: a hormone released by the pancreas when blood glucose is high. - Glucagon: a hormone, which raises the concentration of glucose in the bloodstream when it becomes low. (Produced by alpha cells) Lipids • Lipids: composed of mostly carbon and hydrogen. These yield 9 kcal per gram. • Fatty acids: these are the simplest form of lipids. These are also found in triglycerides. - Saturated: carbons are bonded together using single bonds. These are usually solid at room temperature. (Example: butter) - Monounsaturated: a fatty acid with 1 double bond. (Example: nuts) - Polyunsaturated: a fatty acid with 2 or more double bonds. (Example: any processed liquid cooking oils) - Unsaturated fatty acids are usually liquid at room temperature and exist in 2 forms: cis and trans. (Example: oil) • Cis: when the hydrogens lie on the same side as the carbon-carbon double bond. These are more common. This causes the fatty acid backbone to bend. • Trans: when the hydrogens lie across from each other. These occur naturally and are also known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). This causes fatty acid backbone to remain straight. (Example: shortening) - Triglycerides: most common type of lipid, which is found in food and the body. These are 3 fatty acids bonded to glycerol. • If you remove a fatty acid, it will become a diglyceride. • If your remove 2 fatty acids, it will become a monoglyceride. • Phospholipids: built on the backbone of glycerol, with at least one fatty acid replaced with a phosphorus-containing compound. - These are found all throughout the body, especially the brain. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) • Sterols: have a multi-ringed structure that set them apart from other lipids. - Cholesterol: a type of a sterol, which helps in forming hormones and is also in cell structures. This is usually found in food or in the plasma membrane of the cell. • HDL and LDL are known as the good and bad cholesterol. • Before menopause, women have higher HDL amounts. • HDL slows cardiovascular disease development, so this is good cholesterol. • LDL is the bad cholesterol because if it is not quickly cleared from the blood stream, it can lead up to the build up of cholesterol in the blood. • Essential fatty acids: the types we need, and have to consume in order to get. - Omega 3 fatty acid: when the first double bond is 3 carbons from a methyl end. (Example: fish, flaxseed, and walnut) • Should be consumed to decrease inflammation and blood clotting in the body. • Excess intake can caused uncontrolled bleeding, a hemorrhage, or stroke. - Omega 6 fatty acid: when the first double bond is 6 carbons from a methyl end. • Hydrogenation: when hydrogen is added by bubbling hydrogen gas under pressure into liquid oils. It also increases the amount of trans fat in foods. This is bad because trans fat causes heart and inflammatory issues. - Partial Hydrogenation: the same thing as hydrogenation, but the product is made to be a semi solid. • Chylomicrons: the largest lipoproteins, which are formed after fat absorption and travel through the lymphatic system and through the blood stream. - When the chylomicrons enter the blood stream, they are broken down by lipoprotein lipase into fatty acids and glycerol. Proteins • Protein: food that is made by amino acids and is in the form of nitrogen, which is easily used by the body. These contribute to important body processes like blood clotting, hormone and enzyme production, and fluid balance. - High quality (complete) proteins: proteins that contain big amounts of all the amino acids. Animal protein contains a higher amount of the essential amino acids. - Lower quality (incomplete) proteins: contain low amounts of essential amino acids or lack 1 of the 9 essential amino acids. Plant protein sources contain low amounts of the essential amino acids. - Complementary proteins: two protein sources that combine to make an adequate supply of the essential amino acids. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) • Amino acid: the building blocks of protein, which contain nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon. The order, in which the amino acids are arranged, is what determines the protein’s shape. - Branched chain amino acids: when the R group on an amino acid has a branched tree shape. These specific types of amino acids include leucine, isoleucine, and valine. - There are 20 total amino acids. o Non-essential amino acids: (11 total) amino acids that are synthesized in sufficient amounts by a healthy body. o Essential amino acids: (9 total) amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body, and are derived from the diet. § Histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalnine, threonine, tryptophan, valine - Amino acids are linked together by peptide bonds. - Amino acids will be used to make glucose in the events in which you don’t consume enough carbohydrates. • Protein synthesis instructions 1. Protein synthesis takes place in the cytoplasm. 2. The messenger RNA does the job of transferring the DNA code from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. 3. After the messenger RNA transfers the code, it will travel to the ribosome in which the code is translated into instructions. 4. The transfer RNA brings specific amino acids to the ribosomes as needed. • Digestion of proteins - Denaturation: protein shapes can be altered if they are exposed to acid, heat, alkaline substances, etc. (often happens in digestion) - Enzymatic protein digestion begins in the stomach, where the proteins are denatured further by stomach acid. - Then the proteins that are partially digested move into the small intestine, which triggers the release of the hormone cholecystokinin. - Cholecystokinin then goes through the blood stream and to the pancreas, which activates the pancreas into releasing protein-splitting enzymes. • Absorption of proteins - Active absorption takes place when the short amino acid chains are moved into the absorptive cells that line the small intestine. - Amino acids travel through the portal vein, which drains the absorbed nutrients from the intestinal tract. - Excess protein intake leads to them being converted into fat. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) • Protein turnover: when proteins that aren’t needed are disassembled or proteins that are needed in times of environmental change. • If an inadequate amount of proteins is consumed, then the concentration of proteins in the blood stream drops, which causes fluid build up in surrounding tissue. • Proteins that are produced by white blood cells are called antibodies. • Positive protein balance: when the body is growing, and the protein intake exceeds the amount of protein loss. • Negative protein balance: when protein consumption is less than the amount of protein loss. Amino Acids Enzymes • Carbohydrates - Amylase: digests starches. - Maltase: digests maltose into to 2 glycogens. - Lactase: digests lactose to glucose and galactose. - Sucrase: digests sucrose to glucose and fructose. • Lipids - Lipase: enzyme that breaks down fats. - Lipoprotein lipase: enzyme that breaks down triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol. • Proteins - Pepsin: a stomach enzyme that digests proteins. The hormone gastrin controls the release of pepsin. - Trypsin: an enzyme that digests proteins which is secreted by the pancreas. Overall Body Health • Energy balance: the energy you take in (food) matches the energy you put out (calorie burn) - Positive energy balance: when you eat more calories than you burn. - Negative energy balance: when you eat fewer calories than you burn. • Basal metabolism (BMR): the minimum amount of calories the body needs to support itself in a fasting state (not eating). - 1 kcal/kg for men per hour - .9 kcal/kg for women per hour • Resting metabolism: the amount of calories the body uses when a person hasn’t eaten for 4 hours. • Thermic effect of food: when your metabolism is increased during the absorption, digestion, and metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fats. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) • Body mass index (BMI): the weight that a person should be at based on their height. - Underweight: less than 18.5 - Healthy weight: between 18.5 and 24.9 - Overweight: between 25 and 29.9 - Obese: between 30-39.9 - Severely obese: over 40 • Ways to determine body fat content - Under water weighing: weighing a person under water on a standard scale to determine body fat. - Air displacement: when a person goes into a chamber and the volume space they take up determines their body fat. - Bioelectrical impedance: when a low energy electrical current is put through a person to see how much body fat they have. The higher the body fat, the more resistance from the current. - Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA): multiple low energy x rays that are used to determine body composition and bone mass. This is the most accurate. • Obesity: a condition where too much fat on the body can lead to further health complications. - Upper body obesity: this type of obesity is caused by insulin resistance and is also known as central/abdominal obesity, where there is excess fat in the abdominal region. (Apple shaped) o This can lead to health problems like diabetes, high blood lipids, and heart disease. - Lower body obesity: this type of obesity is triggered by estrogen and progesterone hormones and leads to larger thighs and gluteus. (Pear shaped) • Bomb calorimeter: a device that determines how many calories are in a food. • Direct calorimeter: measuring the heat released from a person’s body to determine their energy use. This is done in an insulated chamber. • Indirect calorimeter: measuring the oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output to determine the energy used by a person’s body. • Medications for weight loss: drugs that help a person lose weight. Usually used for people with a BMI of 30 or higher or a BMI of 27 to 29.9 with weight related medical conditions (heart disease, diabetes, etc.) - Amphetamine: medications that enhance central nervous system stimulation. • Obesity treatments - Very low calorie diets (VLCD): a diet that puts an obese person on 400-800 calories per day (more proteins that carbs). Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) - Gastroplasty: a surgery where doctors staple a persons’ stomach so that they eat less. - Sleeve gastrectomy: a surgery where doctors reduce a persons’ stomach to about the size of a banana. • Types of diets - Unreliable diets: weight loss diets that typically aren’t safe and possess the following qualities o Quick weight loss o Limit food selections o Recommend expensive supplements o Claim that there is no need to exercise - High protein, low carb diets: where most of a person’s calories come from protein, and minimal calories come from carbs. - Carb focused diets: where most all calories come from carbs, and minimal come from fats and proteins. - Low fat diets: where fats are kept to a minimum in a person’s diet. Diseases/Disorders/Medical Conditions • General/Common - Heartburn: also known as acid reflux and occurs when the stomach gasses back up into the esophagus - Ulcers: occur when the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or small intestine, is taken over by acid which is secreted by the stomach cells - Constipation: when the evacuation of the bowel becomes difficult due to the waste in the large intestine slowly moving - Hemorrhoids: also be called piles, and are the swollen/inflamed veins that surround the rectum - Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): when you have irregular bowl functions - Diarrhea: usually a result from infection in the intestine, which causes the cells to release fluids - Gall stones: little stones that are formed in your gallbladder, which leads to the removal of your gallbladder - Celiac Disease: makes a person allergic to gluten • Carbohydrate related diseases - Primary lactose maldigestion: usually develops during ages 3 to 5, about 75% of the population has this condition but not everyone shows it. Nutrition and Health Final Exam Study Guide (CH 1 -7) - Secondary lactose maldigestion: a temporary condition, which happens when another condition develops and cause lactase production to decrease. - Lactose intolerance: when you consume lactose and have symptoms consisting of gas, bloating, cramps, and diarrhea. - Type 1 diabetes: begins in late child hood and is due to total insulin deficiency due to the insulin production cells being damaged. Insulin therapy is needed for this condition. - Type 2 diabetes: usually happens after age 30 is the more common type. This condition is usually a result of obesity, which causes insulin resistance. - Hypoglycemia: people who take insulin due to diabetes, can develop hypoglycemia I they don’t eat enough. - Metabolic syndrome: when a person has poor blood glucose regulation, hypertension, increased blood triglycerides, and other health issues. This condition is also known as syndrome X. - Phenylketonuria (PKU): a disease, which prohibits phenylalanine to be properly metabolized. People who have this condition should avoid aspartame. • Protein related diseases - Kwashiorkor: a disease, which happens in children that already have another disease and consume a marginal amount of calories but too few protein. o A child with this disease suffers from edema, poor growth, weakness, and a higher chance of getting another illness. o Symptoms of this disease include apathy, diarrhea, unable to gain weigh or grown, and listlessness. - Marasmus: a disease which happens when an insufficient amount of both calories and proteins are consumed. o People that suffer from this have a skeleton like look, no fat stores, and very little muscle mass. o This usually develops in infants that do not get breastfed or have stopped being breastfed. - Edema: the buildup of excess fluid in extracellular spaces. - Protein calorie malnutrition: a condition that occurs when you consume too few calories and protein. PRACTICE EXAM 1) What is the physiological/need of food? a. Psychological needs b. Appetite c. Satiety d. Hunger 2) What is the psychological/desire of food? a. Psychological needs b. Appetite c. Satiety d. Hunger 3) You have just eaten a meal that you had been wanting to eat, you have now reached a point of ______________ a. Healthy b. Nutrition c. Essential nutrients d. Satiety 4) Where do essential nutrients come from/where are they found? a. Your pancreas releases hormones which make them b. They come from the food you eat c. They come from the environment you live in d. Your brain sends a signal to your organs to release them throughout your body 5) What part of the brain tells you that you NEED food? a. Thalamus b. Feeding center c. Brain stem d. Satiety center 6) Which of these is not a macronutrient? a. Lipids b. Minerals c. Fats d. Proteins 7) How much energy do carbohydrates and protein yield? a. 0 kcal/gram b. 3 kcal/gram c. 4 kcal/gram d. 9 kcal/gram 8) How much energy do fats yield? a. 0 kcal/gram b. 3 kcal/gram c. 4 kcal/gram d. 9 kcal/gram 9) How much energy do vitamins/minerals yield? a. 0 kcal/gram b. 3 kcal/gram c. 4 kcal/gram d. 9 kcal/gram 10) Which of these do most of an average person’s calories come from? a. Carbohydrates b. Proteins c. Lipids d. Vitamins/minerals 11) What is the recommended water intake? a. 3-8 glasses cups day b. 7-11 glasses cups day c. 8-10 glasses cups day d. 9-13 glasses cups day 12) Why are there certain nutrients on a food label, which are bolded out? a. So people with a certain health issue can be made aware of them b. Because that certain nutritional fact is the most important c. So that people know how much of a certain nutrient is in the package d. Because that certain nutritional fact can be overlooked if wanted (not considered as important) 13) What is the amount of calories in a slice of bread with 25 grams of carbs, 4 grams of fat, and 3 grams of protein? a. 148 calories b. 134 calories c. 172 calories d. 127 calories 14) Using the same bread problem, calculate the amount of calories in the whole package if the amount of servings is 12 a. 1,776 calories b. 1,608 calories c. 2,064 calories d. 1,524 calories 15) What is it called when you choose different items to eat during dinner, rather than just one thing? a. Balance b. Moderation c. Variety d. Portion 16) Which one of these is not one of the main food groups? a. Fruit b. Protein c. Vegetable d. Grain 17) What counts as a serving of vegetables? a. 1 ounce b. 1 cup c. ½ a cup d. 2 ounces 18) What counts as a serving of peanut butter? a. 1 tbsp b. 1 ounce c. 2 tbsp d. 1/4 cup 19) What counts as a serving of salmon? a. 1 ounce b. ½ cup c. 3 ounces d. 1 cup 20) Which of these is an example of under nutrition? a. Eating 200 calories a day when you need 1,800 b. Eating 1,900 calories a day when you need 1,300 c. Eating 1,496 calories a day when you need 1,500 d. Eating 1,675 calories a day when you need 1,600 21) Which of these is an example of over nutrition? a. Eating 2,000 calories a day when you need 1,950 b. Eating 1,785 calories a day when you need 1,800 c. Eating 1,900 calories a day when you need 1,350 d. Eating 400 calories a day when you need 1,500 22) Which of these is an example of malnutrition a. Eating 300 calories a day when you 1,300 b. Eating 2,000 calories a day when you need 1,570 c. Only eating processed foods/junk food d. All of the above 23) Which one of these can happen if you keep on overindulging food? a. Diabetes b. Obesity c. Blood pressure d. All of the above 24) What does the anthropometric (A) part of ABCDE measure? a. Skin thickness, muscular endurance b. The foods you eat c. Blood, insulin, and triglyceride levels d. Body height, body weight, BMI 25) What does the clinical (C) part of ABCDE measure? a. Skin thickness, muscular endurance b. The foods you eat c. Blood, insulin, and triglyceride levels d. Body height, body weight, BMI 26) Which of these uses intake information from people who appear to be healthy/maintaining health a. RDA b. AI c. EER d. UL 27) Which of these is not set higher than the average needs of a person, along with taking into account gender, height, weight, etc.? a. RDA b. AI c. EER d. UL 28) Which of these meets 98% of the needs of people who are healthy in a certain group? a. RDA b. AI c. EER d. UL 29) What is the amount of calories that daily values are set on a. 1200 calories b. 2000 calories c. 1500 calories d. 1800 calories 30) How much of your plate should you fill with grains? a. 1/4 b. 1/3 c. 1/2 d. 2/3 31) How much of your plate should you fill with veggies? a. 1/4 b. 1/3 c. 1/2 d. 2/3 32) How much fat is okay to eat in a day? a. Less than 70 grams b. Less than 80 grams c. Less than 75 grams d. Less than 65 grams 33) How much cholesterol is it okay to eat in a day? a. Less than 300 mg b. Less than 350 mg c. Less than 400 mg d. Less than 600 mg 34) How much sodium is it okay to eat in a day? a. Less than 3000 mg b. Less than 2500 mg c. Less than 2700 mg d. Less than 2400 mg 35) Which one of these foods would require a food label? a. A package of lunch meat b. Apples c. Kale d. Butcher meat 36) Why is percent daily value of protein not required on the food label? a. Americans already eat too much of it b. It is expensive to calculate c. Protein deficiencies are rare d. All of the above 37) Which of these things is not on a food label? a. Name of the product b. The uniform serving size c. A description (short bio) of the manufacturer d. How many servings are in a package 38) How many calories is 1 kcal? (Notice the lower case “c” in calorie) a. 1000 calories b. 100 calories c. 10 calories d. 1 calories 39) How many kcal is 1 Calorie? (Notice the uppercase “C” in Calorie) a. 1000 kcal b. 100 kcal c. 10 kcal d. 1 kcal 40) Which of these tissues holds different structures of the body together? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 41) Which of these tissues lines the outside of the body and external passages? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 42) Which of these tissues transports nerve impulses from one body part to another? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 43) Which of these tissues helps in contracting movement? a. Epithelial b. Connective c. Muscle d. Nervous 44) What are the two body systems that circulate fluids throughout the body? a. Cardiovascular and lymphatic b. Cardiovascular and urinary c. Lymphatic and endocrine d. Urinary and endocrine 45) This fluid consists of blood plasma and white blood cells a. Blood b. Urine c. Hormones d. Lymph 46) This fluid is composed of water, urea, unneeded vitamins/minerals, and waste from the kidneys a. Blood b. Urine c. Hormones d. Lymph 47) This fluid is composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets a. Blood b. Urine c. Hormones d. Lymph 48) Which of these is the correct process for urine leaving the body? a. Kidneyàbladderàuretersàurethra b. Uretersàkidneyàurethraàbladder c. Kidneyàuretersàbladderàurethra d. Bladderàkidneyàuretersàurethra 49) What is the basic structural unit of the nervous system? a. Brain b. Spinal cord c. Neuron d. Nephrons 50) What is the name of the fatty tissue, which helps in speeding up the transmission process? a. Myelin sheath b. Lymph tissue c. Epinephrine d. Nervous 51) What does the central nervous system include? a. Muscles and organs b. Brain and spinal cord c. Lungs and esophagus d. Everything 52) This hormone is also known as adrenaline and released from the adrenal gland a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 53) This hormone is release from the pancreas to help the liver convert glycogen to glucose a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 54) This hormone is released from the thyroid gland and helps control the body’s metabolism a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 55) This hormone is released from the pituitary gland and helps in the growth of children and adolescents a. Thyroid hormones b. Glucagon c. Epinephrine d. Growth hormone 56) Which of these are produced by the white blood cells to help control and prevent infection? a. Antibodies b. White blood cells c. Antigens d. Hormones 57) Which of these are foreign proteins that you don’t want in your body a. Antibodies b. White blood cells c. Antigens d. Hormones 58) When does mechanical digestion start? a. In the stomach b. In the mouth c. In the esophagus d. In the gastrointestinal tract 59) When does chemical digestion start? a. In the stomach b. In the mouth c. In the esophagus d. In the gastrointestinal tract 60) Where does digestion and absorption of the food take place? a. In the stomach b. In the mouth c. In the esophagus d. In the gastrointestinal tract 61) Which of these is a fat digesting enzyme? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 62) Which of these is a starch-digesting enzyme? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 63) Which of these makes swallowing a lot more easier? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 64) Which of these is a solvent, which further separates and allows us to better taste food? a. Amylase b. Mucus c. Lipase d. Saliva 65) What does the epiglottis do? a. Prevents food from entering the trachea b. Makes swallowing easier c. Pushes the food into the esophagus d. Release enzymes to break down the bolus of food 66) What is peristalsis? a. The release of enzymes from the saliva to aid in break food down b. Muscle contraction which helps move the food through the digestive system c. The digestion of food in the stomach d. The digestion of food through the gastrointestinal tract 67) What is the first part of the small intestine a. Ileum b. Jejunum c. Colon d. Duodenum 68) What is the second part of the small intestine? a. Ileum b. Jejunum c. Colon d. Duodenum 69) What is the third part of the small intestine? a. Ileum b. Jejunum c. Colon d. Duodenum 70) Which of these types of diffusion needs a carrier protein present to follow a concentration gradient? a. Passive diffusion b. Facilitated diffusion c. Active absorption d. Inactive absorption 71) Which of these types of diffusion brings nutrients into the absorptive cells through diffusion? a. Passive diffusion b. Facilitated diffusion c. Active absorption d. Inactive absorption 72) Which of these types of diffusion requires a carrier protein and ATP? a. Passive diffusion b. Facilitated diffusion c. Active absorption d. Inactive absorption 73) Which of these is not an accessory organ? a. Gallbladder b. Pancreas c. Spleen d. Liver 74) Which of these produces bile? a. Gallbladder b. Pancreas c. Spleen d. Liver 75) Which of these manufactures insulin and glucagon a. Gallbladder b. Pancreas c. Spleen d. Liver 76) Where is extra fat stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 77) Where are extra carbohydrates stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 78) Where are extra glucose and amino acids stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 79) Where are extra vitamins and minerals stored? a. Liver b. Blood c. Adipose tissue d. Muscle and liver 80) This is also known as acid reflux and happens when stomach acids back up into the esophagus a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 81) This happens when evacuation of the bowel becomes difficult due to the waste in the intestine slowly moving a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 82) This happens when the lining of the stomach, esophagus, or small intestine is taken over by acid that is secreted by the stomach cells a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 83) This is also known as piles and are the swollen/inflamed veins that surround the rectum a. Ulcers b. Constipation c. Heartburn d. Hemorrhoids 84) This is when you have irregular bowel functions a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease 85) These are little stones that are formed in your gallbladder a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease 86) This is the intolerance of gluten a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease 87) This is usually a result from infection in the intestine which causes cells to release fluids a. Diarrhea b. Gall stones c. Irritable bowl syndrome d. Celiac disease ANSWER KEY 1) D 2) B 3) D 4) B 5) B 6) B 7) C 8) D 9) A 10) A 11) D 12) A 13) A 14) A 15) C 16) B 17) B 18) C 19) C 20) A 21) C 22) D 23) D 24) D 25) A 26) B 27) C 28) A 29) B 30) A 31) C 32) D 33) A 34) D 35) A 36) D 37) C 38) A 39) D 40) B 41) A 42) D 43) C 44) A 45) D 46) B 47) A 48) C 49) C 50) A 51) B 52) C 53) B 54) A 55) D 56) A 57) C 58) B 59) A 60) D 61) C 62) A 63) B 64) D 65) A 66) B 67) D 68) B 69) A 70) B 71) A 72) C 73) C 74) D 75) B 76) C 77) D 78) B 79) A 80) C 81) B 82) A 83) D 84) C 85) B 86) D 87) A Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 Chapter 8 (Vitamins) Key Concepts Vitamin A • Functions - Helps to maintain epithelial cell health. - Helps in preventing heart disease. - Helps in growth and development. • Deficiency - When a person is deficient their eyes cannot adjust quickly to light change (dim to bright, bright to dim) - Cornea can lose its ability to produce mucus. - Alcoholics, and people with poor fruit and veggie intake are at risk. - Found in liver, fish oils, milk, butter, yogurt, and eggs. • Diseases/Disorders - Macular degeneration: a condition that leads to blurred vision. - Xerophthalmia: drying of the eye’s surface. - Hyperkeratosis: when skin cells produce too much keratin, resulting in a toad skin appearance. • Too Much - Liver can be affected if the intake goes above UL. - Too much during pregnancy can cause fetal malformations. Niacin • Functions - Helps in lowering blood lipids and LDL cholesterol. - Used in the synthesis of fatty acids. • Deficiency - Can cause pellagra. - Found in enriched grains, bed, chicken, turkey, and fish. • Diseases/Disorders - Pellagra: a disease due to being niacin deficient that causes dementia, diarrhea, dermatitis, and even death. (KNOW THESE SYMPTOMS) • Too Much - Mega doses can be toxic, so a UL of 35 mg per day is set. - Toxicity symptoms are: headache, itching, and increased blood flow. Pantothenic Acid • Functions - Required for the synthesis of a coenzyme A that assists in the energy release of carbs, lipids, and fats. • Deficiency Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 - Deficiency doesn’t happen often, and if it does, it is in combination with other things as well. - Found in meat, milk, mushrooms, liver, sunflower seeds, peanuts, and veggies. • Diseases/Disorders - None • Too Much - Average consumption exceeds the AI. - No risks of toxicity listed. Folate • Functions - Folate helps in forming DNA, brain neuro transmitters and metabolizing amino acids. • Deficiency - If a person is folate deficient, then their red blood cells cannot synthesize and divide to form new DNA. - Deficiency in pregnant women can cause neural tube defects in their unborn children. - Found in: liver, cereals, orange juice, dried beans, and green leafy vegetables. • Diseases/Disorders - Megaloblastic anemia: a type of anemia in which abnormally large red blood cells are present. - Spina bifida: a birth defect in which the spinal cord/fluid bulge outside the spinal column. - Anecephaly: birth defect in which there is an absence of some or all of the brain and skull. • Too Much - Too much folate can hide the deficiency of vitamin B-12. Vitamin D • Functions - Maintains the amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the blood. - Helps in gene expression and cell growth and helps in reducing cancer risks. • Deficiency - Vitamin D deficiency can lead to either osteomalacia or rickets. - People that are 60+ years old, have dark skin, and are rarely out doors are more likely to be deficient. - Found in: fatty fish, milk, and some cereals. • Diseases/Disorders - Rickets: a disease due to vitamin D deficiency in children. - Osteomalacia: a disease due to vitamin D deficiency in adults. Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 • Too Much - Can be toxic for children and infants, so UL is set to 100 micro grams a day. - Can lead to over absorption of calcium. - The sun can’t cause vitamin D toxicity!! Vitamin B -12 • Functions - Participates in folate metabolism, in which it converts folate coenzymes into active forms. - Helps in maintaining the myelin sheath. • Deficiency - Since the liver can store B-12 for a very long time, deficiencies take a long time to happen. - When deficiencies do happen, they often result in pernicious anemia. - Found in: organ meats, cereal, and eggs. • Diseases/Disorders - Pernicious anemia: the result of a vitamin B-12 deficiency, due to absorption problems of the vitamin, which can cause paralysis and even death. • Too Much - No risks of toxicity listed. Biotin • Functions - Participates in the metabolism of fats and carbs. - Helps in the breakdown process of amino acids. • Deficiency - Signs of deficiency can be scaly inflammation of the skin, changes in tongue and lips, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, and a form of anemia. - Found in: egg yolk, peanuts, and cheese. • Diseases/Disorders - None listed. • Too Much - No risks of toxicity listed. Thiamin • Functions - Helps in the release of energy from the carbs you eat. • Deficiency - Deficiency can lead to beriberi. - Alcoholics have an increased chance of having deficiency. - Found in: pork, whole grains, cereals, peanuts, dried beans, and seeds. • Diseases/Disorders Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 - Beriberi: thiamin deficiency that causes muscle weakness, edema, loss of appetite, and nerve degeneration. • Too Much - No risks of toxicity listed. Vitamin K • Functions - It acts as a cofactor in chemical reactions. - It plays a role in blood clotting. - Maintains bone health. • Deficiency - Can develop if dietary intake is poor. - People who take anti biotics are at risk for deficiency. - After birth, newborns are not able to produce vitamin K, so are therefore deficient, and given vitamin K shots. - Found in: meats, broccoli, green leafy veggies, asparagus, eggs, and dairy. • Diseases/Disorders - None listed. • Too Much - No risks of toxicity listed. Vitamin E • Functions - It is an antioxidant that is found in adipose tissue and cell membrane lipid bilayers • Deficiency - The cell membrane can break down. - Hemolysis can occur. - Smokers are at risk for deficiency. - Found in: fruits, veggies, eggs, and whole grain. • Diseases/Disorders - None listed. • Too Much - The UL is 1000 mg a day. - Too much can cause hemorrhage, muscle weakness, nausea, or headaches. - It can also interfere with the metabolism and blood clotting process of vitamin K. Chapter 9 ( Water an d Minerals ) Key Concepts Types of Minerals • Trace minerals: a mineral that is vital to health and required in the diet in amounts less than 100 grams a day. Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 • Major minerals: a mineral that is vital to health and required in the diet in amounts more than 100 grams a day. Ions • The most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in extracellular fluid is chloride (Cl-). • The most abundant cation (positively charged ion) in extracellular fluid is sodium (Na+). • The most abundant cation (positively charged ion) in intracellular fluid is potassium (K+). • The most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in intracellular fluid is phosphorus (P-). Calcium • Function - Calcium is a major mineral. - Helps in the formation and maintenance of bones. - Helps in coagulation. - Helps in nerve impulse and transmission. - Regulates cellular metabolism. • Location - Found in plant and animal foods and fat free milk. • Deficiency - If deficiency occurs, hormonal actions are taken to replenish the loss. - Tetany, kyphosis, and osteoporosis can also occur. • Diseases/Disorders • Tetany: caused by abnormal calcium metabolism in which there is a sharp contraction in the muscles and failure of relaxation after. - Osteoporosis: when bones are fragile and porous due to low mineral density. o Osteoporosis 1: when bones rapidly demineralize after menopause, it affects the trabecular bone and cortical bone. o Osteoporosis 2: is usually diagnosed later in life and is caused due to the breakdown of the cortical and trabecular bone. - Kyphosis: a hump/bend that develops in the spine that causes height loss. Iron • Function - Iron is a trace mineral. - It is a part of hemoglobin and myoglobin. - It is used as a part of enzymes, proteins, and compounds that cells use in energy production - Iron is Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 • Location - Found in beans, meats, and cereals. • Deficiency - If iron is not provided for the synthesis of hemoglobin, then the red blood cells will decrease. - Iron deficient anemia can also occur. • Diseases/Disorders - Iron deficient anemia: anemia that occurs due to iron deficiency. Symptoms are pal skin, fatigue, constantly feeling cold, appetite loss, and apathy. - Hemochromatosis: occurs due to iron toxicity which is a genetic disease and leads to organ damage. Sodium • Function - Helps in maintaining fluid balance. - Helps in nerve impulse conduction. • Location - 77% of our sodium intake comes from the salt that is added during food manufacturing and preparation. - 11% of our intake comes from the sodium we add at home. - 12% of our intake comes naturally. • Deficiency - A diet low in sodium with a lot of sweating, vomiting, and diarrhea can cause muscle cramps, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, etc. • Diseases/Disorders - None listed. Iodide • Function - Synthesizes thyroid hormones with tyrosine. • Location - Found in iodized salt. - Kosher and sea salts don’t have any. • Deficiency - Being deficient in iodide can lead to a goiter. - If a pregnant woman is deficient in iodide, it could lead to congenital hypothyroidism for the offspring. • Diseases/Disorders - Goiter: a large lump in the neck (enlarged thyroid gland) due to the deficiency of iodide. Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 - Congenital hypothyroidism: stunted growth of offspring due to iodide deficiency of the mother. Water • Osmosis: the net movement of molecules from an area of high solute concentration, to an area of low solute concentration through a semi permeable membrane. • Hypertonic solution: a solution with a greater concentration of solutes on the outside of the cell, than on the inside of the cell. - In a hypertonic solution, a red blood cell would shrivel up, due to water leaving the cell. • Hypotonic solution: a solution with lower concentration of solute on the outside of the cell, than on the inside of the cell. - In a hypotonic solution, a red blood cell would swell up (maybe even burst), due to water entering the cell. • Isotonic solution: a solution with the same amount of solute concentration on both the outside of the cell and inside of the cell. - In an isotonic solution, a red blood cell would remain a normal size and have a normal look, due to water leaving and entering the cell. Chapter 11 (Eating Disorders) Key Concepts Anorexia Nervosa • Common Behaviors of Anorexia Nervosa - Anorexia often begins as a simple attempt at losing weight. - People that suffer from this are often very well kept individuals that are perfectionists and in the headlines a lot. - People with anorexia will often hide/store food or spread it around on their plate to show others that they are eating a lot. - They also weigh in frequently each day. - Some people with anorexia will end up binging and then purging. - These people also become very irritable and being to withdraw from their friends and family, and are critical of themselves and others. • Physical Effects of Anorexia Nervosa - A person with anorexia is constantly keeping their body in starvation mode, and when that happens many things result from it. o Low body temperature and feeling cold all the time. o Slowed BMR. o Decreased heart rate. o Iron deficiency anemia. o Low white blood cell count. Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 o Abnormal feeling of fullness/bloating after eating. o Hair loss. o Lanugo: tiny white hairs on he body that counteract heat loss. o Loss of menstrual periods. o Brain size change. o Osteopenia. o Loss of teeth if vomiting occurs. • Treatment for the Person with Anorexia Nervosa - People with anorexia often deny that they have this disease. - Family and friends do intervention sessions and encourage the person suffering to get help. o Outpatient therapy and hospitalization are both examples of the types of help that the person may get. - Nutrition therapy is where the person with anorexia, will slowly start to increase their food intake, this will lead to gaining 2-3 pounds a week. o Since nutrient deficiencies are common in these people, vitamin and mineral supplements will also be added. - Psychological therapy helps in teaching a person with anorexia on how they can re gain control of their lives. o Family based therapy is the preferred way of psychological therapy. o Cognitive behavioral therapy: involves helping a person change their relationship with body image and food. - Pharmacological therapy: there are drugs that person with anorexia can take, that will prolong serotonin activity and regulate mood and feelings of satiety. Bulimia Nervosa • Common Behaviors of Bulimia Nervosa - People with bulimia may think of food constantly and will turn to it in critical situations. - These people know that this behavior is wrong. - Bulimics tend to be impulsive and often have an inability to control responses because of impulse and desire. - A binge is a huge intake of food in a very short period of time (usually 3000 calories or more). - Binge, then purge, cycles can be practiced daily, weekly, or as often as the person would feel like they would need to. Most binging will occur at night. o A person with bulimia purges after they binge, in hopes to make the calories not count and not gain weight, but in case of vomiting, 33 to 75% of the Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 calories that are taken in are still absorbed, and in case of laxatives, 90% of the calories taken in are absorbed. - Another way a person with bulimia could try and get rid of the calories is by excessively exercising to “Debt” the calories. - Early warning signs are going to the bathroom right after eating. • Physical Effects of Bulimia Nervosa - Due to constantly trying to purge after eating, many health problems can occur. o Teeth become demineralized, due to the stomach acid from vomiting, always coming in contact with the teeth. o Blood potassium can significantly drop. o Salivary glands may swell. o Stomach ulcers, bleeding, and tears in the esophagus can occur. o Constipation can occur due to laxative use. • Treatment for the Person with Bulimia - Treatment requires experienced clinicians, who believe that treatment for the disorder should last 16 weeks. - Nutritional therapy involves a dietician in helping the bulimic establish normal eating habits and take away the misconceptions they have of food. - Psychological therapy helps in improving the person’s self-acceptance and helps the person be less concerned about their body weight. - Pharmacological therapy: this is not recommended, but there are some medications that can be helpful like antidepressants. - Before any form of therapy of treatment can start, a person that has bulimia must acknowledge that they have bulimia. Binge Eating Disorder • Common Behaviors of Binge Eating Disorder - Binge: an uncontrolled, large consumption of food in a short period of time. - Binge eating can be triggered by negative emotions like stress, depression, loneliness, grief, or anxiety. People who binge-eat for this reason turn to food because it reminds them of comfort. - Those who suffer from this will binge in secret and not in front of anyone. - People with this often like to claim that they are hungry more often than normal. • Physical Effects of Binge Eating Disorder - About 70% of the people with being eating disorder are obese. - Binging can cause many health problems like hypertension, heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and elevated cholesterol levels. - Psychological therapy often uses cognitive behavior techniques like one on one sessions or group therapy, due to them being the most effective. Nutrition Final Exam Study G uide Chapters 8, 9, and 11 - Nutrition therapy helps in educating the patient on how to develop correct eating habits. - Pharmacological therapy is another option in which the patient can be given anti depressants or anti seizure medications to decrease triggers of eating and depression. - People with a binge eating disorder are often unsuccessful on trying to cure it themselves so professional help is recommended. Night Eating Syndrome • This is when a person constantly eats during the night. • A person, who suffers from this, knows exactly what they are doing. • Symptoms of night eating syndrome are not feeling hungry in the morning, overeating at night, difficulty falling asleep and needing food to do so, and feeling depressed at night. Female Athlete Triad • Females that are appearance-based sports are at risk for developing this. - 15% of swimmers, 62% of gymnasts, and 32% of varsity athletes • Restricting food and stress can cause irregular menstruation in female athletes. • It is known as the female athlete triad because it has 3 parts - Disordered eating - Lack of menstrual periods - Osteoporosis • Treatment consists of decreasing training and increasing food gradually, so that regular menstruation cycles can occur. PRACTICE TEST CHAPTER 4 1) What maintains the blood glucose amounts in the event where you haven’t eaten for some time? a) Glycogen b) Amylopectin c) Amylose d) Glucose 2) What is blood glucose also known as? a) Hexose b) Dextrose c) Pentose d) Galactose 3) What is the main monosaccharaide in the body and serves as energy for the cells? a) Fructose b) Lactose c) Galactose d) Glucose 4) What is a 6-carbon monosaccharaide that is similar and related to glucose? a) Fructose b) Lactose c) Galactose d) Glucose 5) What is known as fruit sugar and is quickly metabolized by the body? a) Fructose b) Lactose c) Galactose d) Glucose 6) How much fructose does HFCS contain? a) 10-30% b) 35-60% c) 57-94% d) 42-90% 7) Which of the following is not a monosaccharide? a) Fructose b) Lactose c) Galactose d) Glucose 8) What type of absorption do galactose and glucose go through? a) Passive diffusion b) Active absorption c) Facilitated diffusion d) Regular absorption 9) What type of absorption does fructose go through? a) Passive diffusion b) Active absorption c) Facilitated diffusion d) Regular absorption 10)What type of sugar is formed when 2 monosaccharaides combine? a) Monosaccharide b) Disaccharide c) Polysaccharide d) Triglyceride 11)What forms when glucose and fructose bond together? a) Sucrose b) Fructose c) Maltose d) Lactose 12)What forms when starch gets broken down to 2 glucose molecules that are bonded together? a) Sucrose b) Fructose c) Maltose d) Lactose 13)What forms when glucose binds with galactose during milk synthesis? a) Sucrose b) Fructose c) Maltose d) Lactose 14)Fermentation is an example of which of these? a) Sucrose b) Fructose c) Maltose d) Lactose 15)What are many single sugar units that are bound together to form a chain (these are also known as complex carbs/starch)? a) Monosaccharide b) Disaccharide c) Polysaccharide d) Triglyceride 16)Which of these is a long straight chain of glucose units. This is typically found in vegetables, bread, beans, and pasta (20% of digestible starches)? a) Amylopectin b) Glucagon c) Amylose d) Glycogen 17)Which of these is a highly branched chain of glucose units and provides many ends for enzyme action (80% of digestible starches)? a) Amylopectin b) Glucagon c) Amylose d) Glycogen 18)What is a group of carbohydrate substances composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins, gums, and mucilages, along with a noncarbohydrate substance called lignin? a) Carbohydrates b) Simple Carbohydrates c) Polysaccharides d) Fiber 19)Which of these is considered some of the best sources of starch? a) Donuts b) Cereal c) Pasta d) Both b and c 20)Which of these foods contain no carbohydrates at all? a) Margarine b) Beef c) Eggs d) All of the above 21)How many of the grains we eat, should be whole? a) ¼ b) ½ c) ¾ d) A recommendation is not set 22)In what forms do dairy products provide carbohydrates? a) Sucrose b) Fructose c) Maltose d) Lactose 23)____________ sweeteners provide calories for the body. a) Nutritive b) Alternative 24)____________ sweeteners don’t provide calories for the body. a) Nutritive b) Alternative 25)How much sugar does an average American consume a day? a) 12 teaspoons b) 18 teaspoons c) 20 teaspoons d) 23 teaspoons 26)How much sugar is the recommended intake? a) 6 teaspoons b) 7 teaspoons c) 8 teaspoons d) 9 teaspoons 27)What are sorbitol and xylitol are examples of? a) Nutritive b) Alternative c) Sugar alcohols d) Added sugars 28)What enzyme breaks down starch? a) Amylase b) Maltase c) Lactase d) Lipase 2
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