General Psychology: Final Exam Study Guide
General Psychology: Final Exam Study Guide PSYC 10213
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maycie Tidwell on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 10213 at Texas Christian University taught by Wehlburg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Science at Texas Christian University.
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General Psychology Final Exam: Study Guide PSYC Ch. 13: Personality Personality: An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Psychoanalytic Perspective: In his clinical practice, Freud encountered patients suffering from nervous disorders. Their complaints could not be explained in terms of purely physical causes. Freud’s clinical experience led him to develop the first comprehensive theory of personality, which included the unconscious mind, psychosexual stages, and defense mechanisms. Other Freud observations: He believed that we have a reservoir (unconscious mind) of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. Freud asked patients to say whatever came to their minds (free association) in order to tap the unconscious. Dream Analysis: Another method to analyze the unconscious mind is through interpreting manifest and latent contents of dreams. Manifest : plot Latent: symbols Personality Structure: Personality develops as a result of our efforts to resolve conflicts between our biological impulses (id) and social restraints (superego). Id: cake, I want it! Super ego: no I cant have cake it’s unhealthy… Ego: the mediatory between the id and the superego. (might decide to only have the cake after dinner) Id, Ego, and Superego: The Id unconsciously strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives, operating on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification. The ego functions as the “executive” and mediates the demands of the id and superego. The superego provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations. Oedipus Complex: A boy’s sexual desire for his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father. A girl’s desire for her father is called the Electra complex. (Freud believed that this is how we developed our gender identity) Identification: Children cope with threatening feelings by repressing them and by identifying with the rival parent. Through this process of identification, their superego gains strength that incorporates their parents’ values. Defense Mechanisms: The ego’s protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality. 1. Repression banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. (push conscious things to your unconscious)ex: Kyla 2. Regression leads an individual faced with anxiety to retreat to a more infantile psychosexual stage. 3. Reaction Formation causes the ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex. 4. Projection leads people to disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. Ex: “you always do this!!” (when you’re the one who actually does it) 5. Rationalization offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. Ex: deciding you should eat ice cream because you need the calcium. 6. Displacement shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirecting anger toward a safer outlet. Ex: when your boss makes you mad so you take your anger out at home. Carl Jung believed in the collective unconscious, which contained a common reservoir of images derived from our species’ past. This is why many cultures share certain myths and images such as the mother being a symbol of nurturing. Self-Actualizing Person: Maslow proposed that we as individuals are motivated by a hierarchy of needs. Beginning with physiological needs, we try to reach the state of self-actualization—fulfilling our potential. Person-Centered Perspective: Carl Rogers also believed in an individual's self-actualization tendencies. He said that Unconditional Positive Regard is an attitude of acceptance of others despite their failings. MMPI: The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. It was originally developed to identify emotional disorders. The MMPI was developed by empirically testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminated between diagnostic groups. Personal Control: Social-cognitive psychologists emphasize our sense of personal control, whether we control the environment or the environment controls us. External locus of control refers to the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our personal control determine our fate. Ex: lucky socks. Internal locus of control refers to the perception that we can control our own fate. Exploring the Self: Research on the self has a long history because the self organizes thinking, feelings, and actions and is a critical part of our personality. (read in book on this and self esteem) 1. Research focuses on the different selves we possess. Some we dream and others we dread. 2. Research studies how we overestimate our concern that others evaluate our appearance, performance, and blunders (spotlight effect). PSYC Ch. 14: Psychological Disorders Mental health workers view psychological disorders as persistently harmful thoughts, feelings, and actions. When behavior is deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional psychiatrists and psychologists label it as disordered. 1. Deviant behavior (going naked) in one culture may be considered normal, while in others it may lead to arrest. 2. Deviant behavior must accompany distress. If a behavior is dysfunctional it is clearly a disorder Ancient Treatments of psychological disorders include trephination, exorcism, being caged like animals, being beaten, burned, castrated, mutilated, or transfused with animal’s blood. Ex: Trephination (boring holes into skull to remove evil forces) Projective test: a personality test designed to let a person respond to ambiguous stimuli, presumably revealing hidden emotions and internal conflicts projected by the person into the test. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Persistence of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions) that cause distress. Bipolar Disorder: Formerly called manic-depressive disorder. An alternation between depression and mania signals bipolar disorder. (swing between depression and manic symptoms). Depressive Symptoms: Gloomy Withdrawn Inability to make decisions Tired Slowness of thought Manic Symptoms: Elation Euphoria Desire for action Hyperactive Multiple ideas Panic Disorder: Symptoms o Minutes-long episodes of intense dread, which may include feelings of terror, chest pains, choking, or other frightening sensations. o Anxiety is a component of both disorders. It occurs more in the panic disorder, making people avoid situations that cause it. Phobias: Marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or situation that disrupts behavior. Mania: mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions, and overactivity. Generalized Anxiety Disorder: Symptoms 1. Persistent and uncontrollable tenseness and apprehension. 2. Autonomic arousal. 3. Inability to identify or avoid the cause of certain feelings. Dissociative Disorders: Conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings. Symptoms: 1. Having a sense of being unreal 2. Being separated from the body 3. Watching yourself as if in a movie Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): A disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder. DID Critics: Critics argue that the diagnosis of DID increased in the late 20 century. DID has not been found in other countries. Critics’ Arguments: 1. Role-playing by people open to a therapist’s suggestion. 2. Learned response that reinforces reductions in anxiety. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Four or more weeks of the following symptoms constitute post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): 1. Haunting memories 2. Nightmares 3. Social Withdrawal 4. Jumpy Anxiety 5. Sleep problems Major Depressive Disorder: o Depression is the “common cold” of psychological disorders. In a year, 5.8% of men and 9.5% of women report depression worldwide. o Major depressive disorder occurs when signs of depression last two weeks or more and is not caused by drugs or medical conditions. Signs Include: 1. Lethargy and fatigue 2. Feelings of worthlessness 3. Loss of interest in family & friends 4. Loss of interest in activities Antisocial Personality Disorders: A disorder in which the person (usually men) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. Formerly, this person was called a sociopath or psychopath. Agoraphobia: a type of anxiety disorder in which you fear and often avoid places or situations that might cause you to panic and make you feel trapped, helpless or embarrassed. Schizophrenia: The literal translation is “split mind” which refers to a split from reality. A group of severe disorders characterized by the following: 1. Disorganized and delusional thinking. 2. Disturbed perceptions. 3. Inappropriate emotions and actions. Symptoms of Schizophrenia: Positive symptoms: the presence of inappropriate behaviors (hallucinations, disorganized or delusional talking) Negative symptoms: the absence of appropriate behaviors (expressionless faces, rigid bodies) Chronic and Acute Schizophrenia: When schizophrenia is slow to develop (chronic/process) recovery is doubtful. Such schizophrenics usually display negative symptoms. When schizophrenia rapidly develops (acute/reactive) recovery is better. Such schizophrenics usually show positive symptoms. Inappropriate Emotions and Actions: Flat Effect: showing no emotion at all Catatonia**: continually rubbing an arm, rock in a chair, or remain motionless for hours. PSYC Ch. 15 notes: Therapy Psychotherapy involves an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and a mental patient. Interpersonal psychotherapy: a variation of psychodynamic therapy, is effective in treating depression. It focuses on symptom relief here and now, not an overall personality change. Biomedical therapy uses drugs or other procedures that act on the patient’s nervous system, treating his or her psychological disorders. Behavior Therapy: Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. To treat phobias or sexual disorders, behavior therapists do not delve deeply below the surface looking for inner causes. An eclectic approach uses various forms of healing techniques depending upon the client’s unique problems. Psychoanalysis: The first formal psychotherapy to emerge was psychoanalysis, developed by Sigmund Freud. Since psychological problems originate from childhood repressed impulses and conflicts, the aim of psychoanalysis is to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness where the patient can deal with them. When energy devoted to id-ego-superego conflicts is released, the patient’s anxiety lessens. Dissatisfied with hypnosis, Freud developed the method of free association to unravel the unconscious mind and its conflicts. The patient lies on a couch and speaks about whatever comes to his or her mind. During free association, the patient edits his thoughts, resisting his or her feelings to express emotions. Such resistance becomes important in the analysis of conflict-driven anxiety. Eventually the patient opens up and reveals his or her innermost private thoughts, developing positive or negative feelings (transference) towards the therapist. Humanistic therapists: aim to boost self-fulfillment by helping people grow in self-awareness and self-acceptance. The therapist engages in active listening and echoes, restates, and clarifies the patient’s thinking, acknowledging expressed feelings. Systematic Desensitization: A type of exposure therapy that associates a pleasant, relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli commonly used to treat phobias. Token Economy: In institutional settings, therapists may create a token economy in which patients exchange a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats. Counterconditioning: is a procedure that conditions new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors. It is based on classical conditioning and includes exposure therapy and aversive conditioning. Aversive Conditioning: A type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior. With this technique, temporary conditioned aversion to alcohol has been reported. (Ex: making people not like alcohol anymore by having it make them sick) Cognitive Therapy: Teaches people adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions. Aaron Beck (1979) suggests that depressed patients believe that they can never be happy (thinking) and thus associate minor failings (e.g. failing a test [event]) in life as major causes for their depression. Beck believes that cognitions such as “I can never be happy” need to change in order for depressed patients to recover. This change is brought about by gently questioning patients. Psychiatrists: They are physicians who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all psychiatrists have extensive training in psychotherapy, but as MDs they can prescribe medications. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) ECT is used for severely depressed patients who do not respond to drugs. The patient is anesthetized and given a muscle relaxant. Patients usually get a 100 volt shock that relieves them of depression. Psychosurgery: is used as a last resort in alleviating psychological disturbances. Psychosurgery is irreversible. Removal of brain tissue changes the mind. PSYC Ch. 16 notes: Social Psychology Attributing Behavior to Persons or to Situations: Attribution Theory: Fritz Heider (1958) suggested that we have a tendency to give causal explanations for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either the situation (they probably had a bad day) or the person’s disposition (they’re just mean). The first thing we think is “why?” Fundamental Attribution Error: The tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others leads to the fundamental attribution error. We see Joe as quiet, shy, and introverted most of the time, but with friends he is very talkative, loud, and extroverted. Actions can Affect Attitudes: Not only do people stand for what they believe in (attitude), they start believing in what they stand for. Cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking (beliefs). Ex: if you make 2 people work together on a team, they will probably start to like each other. Why do actions affect attitudes? One explanation is that when our attitudes and actions are opposed, we experience tension. This is called cognitive dissonance. (Ex: when weight loss doctors are overweight) To relieve ourselves of this tension we bring our attitudes closer to our actions (Festinger, 1957). Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon: The tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request. Role-Playing Affect Attitudes: Zimbardo (1972) assigned the roles of guards and prisoners to random students and found that guards and prisoners developed role- appropriate attitudes. Social Loafing: The tendency of an individual in a group to exert less effort toward attaining a common goal than when tested individually. Prejudice: Simply called “prejudgment,” a prejudice is an unjustifiable (usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice is often directed towards different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups. Components of Prejudice: 1. Beliefs (stereotypes) 2. Emotions (hostility, envy, fear) 3. Predisposition to act (to discriminate) Reign of Prejudice: Prejudice works at the conscious and [more at] the unconscious level. Therefore, prejudice is more like a knee-jerk response than a conscious decision. Why Prejudice Arises: 1. Social Inequalities 2. Social Divisions 3. Emotional Scapegoating Cognitive Roots of Prejudice: The tendency of people to believe the world is just, and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (the just-world phenomenon). Obedience : People comply to social pressures. How would they respond to outright command? Stanley Milgram designed a study that investigates the effects of authority on obedience. Individual Resistance: A third of the individuals in Milgram’s study resisted social coercion. An unarmed individual single-handedly challenged a line of tanks at Tiananmen Square. Us and Them Ingroup: People with whom one shares a common identity. Outgroup: Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup. Ingroup Bias: The tendency to favor one’s own group. (we like to be in the ingroup) Ex: rival sports teams. Also often based on race. Group Polarization enhances a group’s prevailing attitudes through a discussion. If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions and attitudes. Ex: if you’re a little liberal and you’re around a lot of liberals, you act and think more liberal. DE individuation: The loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity. Ex: mob behavior. Social facilitation: Refers to improved performance on tasks in the presence of others. Triplett (1898) noticed cyclists’ race times were faster when they competed against others than when they just raced against the clock. Groupthink: A mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives. Ex: Attack on Pearl Harbor Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis Watergate Cover-up Chernobyl Reactor Accident Social Responsibility Norm: also explains helping behavior. The social responsibility norm is a societal rule that tells people they should help others who need help even if doing so is costly.
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