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UA / Psychology / PSY 372 / What is the Mere exposure effect?

What is the Mere exposure effect?

What is the Mere exposure effect?

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School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: Psychology
Course: PY 372 William Hart-Social Psychology
Professor: William hart
Term: Summer 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: PY 372 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
Description: Social Psych final study guide!!!
Uploaded: 04/29/2016
9 Pages 10 Views 16 Unlocks
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***PY 372 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE*** 


What is the Mere exposure effect?



What are the four factors that bring people together? How do these factors influence attraction? Think of specific  examples.

1. Proximity: the physical distance between 2 people a. Being physically close to people promotes  

friendship formation

b. EX Festinger, Schacter & Back (1950) on  

friendship formation in college dorms

i. 65% said closest friend lived in the same  

building

2. Physical Attractiveness

3. Similarity

a. “birds of a feather flock together”

4. Reciprocal liking

a. We really like those who we have won over b. We really dislike those who we’ve lost

Moreland & Beach (1992) - Confederates in class study ∙ demonstration of mere exposure effect, four equally  attractive women silently attend a 200 person class and over the course of the semester one attended class 0  times, one five times, one ten times, and one fifteen  times. At the end of class students were shown slides of the four women and asked to rate the physical  attractiveness of those women. The woman that never  attended was rated least attractive. The one that went  to class fifteen times was most attractive. And the other two in the middle 


What is the physical attractiveness stereotype? Is it accurate?



∙ Mere exposure effect: simply seeing their face  makes you like them more

Mita et al. (1977) - Photographs vs. mirror images ∙ Mita et al. (1977) - female college students shown two  pictures of themselves. Their mere image and one of  their actual appearance. We also discuss several other topics like cummings study guide

Their friends preferred actual photos and the person  themselves liked their mere image. Idea: most of us  view ourselves in mere image. Most of our friends see  us in our actual appearance

∙ Mere exposure AGAIN!

Darley and Berscheid (1967) – anticipated interaction enhances liking

∙ Gave women description of two women, one of whom  they were told they would meet. The women rated the  person they expected to see as being more likeable.

What is the physical attractiveness stereotype? Is it  accurate?

∙ Beautiful-is-good stereotype: belief that physically  attractive people have a wide range of positive  characteristics


What does it mean to have an attractive face?



∙ It is partially true. Physically attractive people are NOT  moreintelligent, dominant, happier or mentally  healthy

∙ They ARE: more comfortable & competent in social  settings

∙ WHY? Behavior confirmation

What does it mean to have an attractive face? ∙ High bodily symmetry

∙ Average features (NOT mediocrity)

o Faces with typical features tend to be viewed as  more attractive

Matching hypothesis and UCLA dating study

∙ Tendency to choose as partners those who are a match  in terms of valued traits

∙ Study: He stated that good physical matches may be  conducive to good relationships. The study reported  that partners most similar in physical attractiveness  were found to rate themselves happier and report  deeper feelings of love. 

Aronson and Linder (1965)  

∙ gain-loss principle: states that as one person's  opinion of someone else becomes more favorable, that  other person will tend to develop a more favorable  opinion of the first person. We also discuss several other topics like what is the term for parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, cold, and whose word is law?

∙ Subjects "accidentally overheard" another subject,  actually a confederate of the researcher, expressing  liking or disliking of the subject. Then the subject was

asked to fill out a questionnaire that expressed liking or  disliking for the confederate. The questionnaire  mirrored the overheard comments. A confederate who  had made positive comments about the subject was  liked; one who made bad comments was disliked.

Passionate and Companionate Love

∙ Passionate Love- a state of intense longing for someone and includes intense physical arousal, psychological  interest and care for his/her needs

∙ Companionate Love- Affection people feel for those with whom their lives are deeply connected but do not  necessarily experience passion/arousal in their  presence

-levels tend to change over time

-people mistake arousal for passionate love

Know each of the theories of relationship change. What are  the central tenets of each? What does each explain, have  trouble explaining?

intuitive answer: if happy, stay; if not, leave

1. Investment Model (Rusbult 1983)

a. Investment: anything you’ve put in that would be  lost if you leave If you want to learn more check out uhstat

i. Increase investment, less likely to leave

ii. Not enough to know satisfaction

2. Social Exchange Theory

a. Economic decision-making model

b. People decide like consumer products (can I be  more satisfied)

3. Behavioral Theory

a. People learn from their interaction with their  partners whether or not they are in a good  

relationship

b. Positive behaviors enhance evaluations of a  relationship while negative behaviors reduce  

evaluations

4. Attachment Theory

a. In infancy, people develop ideas about close  relationships

i. Secure: reliable caregiver good with  

intimacy

ii. Avoidant: unavailable caretakersno want for intimacy

iii. Anxious: unpredictable needy and  

uncertain

b. Explains why some people tend to have the same  kinds of relationships over and over

5. Crisis Theory

a. Focuses on reaction to stressful external events b. ABCx model

i. A= negative thing

ii. B=resources for dealing with negative event iii. C=cognition

iv. X= outcome

Exchange and communal relationships  

∙ Exchange: you scratch my back, I scratch yours keep  score If you want to learn more check out psy 2110 ohio university

∙ Communal: give and don’t expect in return

Evolutionary approaches to male and female differences in  relationships

∙ Women claim that it is worse for a man to have a close  female friend aside from their significant other than  have sex with someone else

∙ Men claim the opposite

∙ Reasons pride, survival, emotional attachment,  spreading of genes

Story of Genovese

∙ Murdered in 1964

∙ 38 witnesses

∙ no one helped

∙ cops called 40 minutes after

o everyone thought “someone else will do it”

What are the three reasons people help?

1. To gain genetic and material benefits

2. To gain/not lose social status and approval; to manage  self image

3. To manage our moods and emotions

What does an egoistic model of helping imply about helping? ∙ It implies that people only help to increase their own  welfare  

o Opposite of altruism If you want to learn more check out wha is a cell

o EX Arousal model: when you try to manage  moods/emotions through prosocial behavior

Evolutionary approach is what?

∙ Kin selection: we act to help those that share our DNA  because it raises the chances of our genes being  passed on

Arousal model

∙ Try to manage moods/emotions through prosocial  actions

∙ When viewing situations requiring help, we are usually  distressed

o  we want to reduce this distress (ITS EGOISTIC) Know each of the 5 steps that go into helping. Be able to  discuss research examples at each stage.

1. Notice the event

2. Interpret the event as a situation requiring help a. Ambiguity diminishes helping behavior

3. Take responsibility for helping

4. Must know/ be able to give hlelp

5. Must decide to help (weigh rewards & costs) Pluralistic ignorance

∙ We assume that when other people APPEAR  unconcerned in the situation, it is not an emergency Diffusion of responsibility

∙ The mindset that “someone else will do it”= bystander  effect

Social exchange theory of helping

∙ People take rewards and costs into account when  deciding whether or not to help

Darley & Batson (1973)

∙ Good Samaritan Study

∙ Seminary students asked to give lecture on Good  Samaritan OR church finances

∙ Passed man slumped over in need on the way ∙ The only determinant of their helping was whether they were late or on time

Effects of mood on helping

∙ Good moods tend to increase helping

o Think more positively of others and their requests  when in a good mood

∙ Sad mood  

o Children help less

o Adults help more

∙ Anger decreases helping in everyone

Know the distinctions between basic and applied research. ∙ BASIC We also discuss several other topics like dx virginia tech

o Knowledge as an end

o Looking for relationships (often causal) between  variables

 Concern for internal validity

o Experiments- manipulating variables, careful  control

∙ APPLIED

o Solving social problems

 w/o basic research you cant have good  

applied research and vice versa

Are eye witnesses generally accurate? As accurate as they  think?

∙ NO!

∙ Confident eyewitnesses are no more likely to be  accurate

∙ Often more confident than correct!

What are possible problems that can happen at encoding,  storage and retrieval that can interfere with accuracy? ∙ Encoding: process by which people notice and attend to information in the environment: affects what enters  memory.

o Struggle generally inattentive to details

o Penny example

∙ Storage: The process by which people store and  organize info from the environment into their memory o We can struggle with putting info in good spots o Analogy: sometimes you might put your  

wallet/keys in a strange spot and cant find them same with info

∙ Retrieval: Process by which people recall the info stored in memory

o Not simply recalling “what happened”

o Think of it like “based on a true story”

Do eye witnesses affect verdicts?  

∙ YES

o No eyewitness= 18% convicted

o 1 eyewitness= 72% convicted

o 1 discredited eyewitness= 68% convicted

Does the death penalty seem to be a good deterrent of  violent crime?

∙ NO!

o States with the death penalty do not have lower  murder rates

o When a state enacts death penalty, murder rates  stay constant or increase

o Countries without death penalties have lower  crime rates than the opposite

Is there a difference between people for or against the death penalty?

∙ It has proven to be somewhat biased.  

∙ Juries not fair- often for.

What are some biases that clinicians show?  

∙ Inaccurate assumptions

∙ Confirmation bias

∙ Overconfidence

∙ Cognitive overload

What is the self-presentation approach to therapy? How does it differ from traditional approaches?

∙ It focuses and honing in on the person you want to be  in therapy rather than divulging every bit of information you have about yourself/ the situation and whats  “wrong”

Stress, stress coping, microstressors

∙ Stressor: any physical/ psychological event perceived  as being able to cause harm or emotional distress ∙ 2 types:

o major life events

o microstressors builg and lead to greater  

consequences

Depressive realism

∙ depressed individuals make more realistic inferences  than do non-depressed individuals. 

Materialism and relation to mental health

∙ reduced life satisfaction/happiness

∙ symptoms of major depression, anxiety disorders ∙ less happy with friends, family

∙ headaches/physical ailments

**Income is related to happiness, but relationship disappears when poorest people present.

Does money buy happiness? When does money raise  happiness?  

∙ It does not buy happiness but can raise happiness for a  temporary period of time studies show.  

∙ Saying “money does not buy happiness” is was too  general to be correct and implies privileged status

What are the four reasons materialism fails to produce  happiness?

1. Adaptation-level phenomenon: The tendency to adapt  to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and  react to changes from that level.

a. ALL problems are relative

2. Parkinson’s second law: expenditures rise to meet  income

3. Upward Social Comparison: always someone richer than you

4. Interferes with doing the things that really make you  happy

What does make people happy? How can you implement  these things in your life?

∙ Close, supportive relationships

∙ Cultivating positive traits

o Optimism, perceived control, outrage, grit

∙ Challenging, (but not overly stressful) work

∙ Engaging leisure activities (flow)

∙ Good health

∙ Being grateful and expressing gratitude

∙ Spending money (sort of…)

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