***PY 372 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE***
What are the four factors that bring people together? How do these factors influence attraction? Think of specific examples.
1. Proximity: the physical distance between 2 people a. Being physically close to people promotes
b. EX Festinger, Schacter & Back (1950) on
friendship formation in college dorms
i. 65% said closest friend lived in the same
2. Physical Attractiveness
a. “birds of a feather flock together”
4. Reciprocal liking
a. We really like those who we have won over b. We really dislike those who we’ve lost
Moreland & Beach (1992) - Confederates in class study ∙ demonstration of mere exposure effect, four equally attractive women silently attend a 200 person class and over the course of the semester one attended class 0 times, one five times, one ten times, and one fifteen times. At the end of class students were shown slides of the four women and asked to rate the physical attractiveness of those women. The woman that never attended was rated least attractive. The one that went to class fifteen times was most attractive. And the other two in the middle
∙ Mere exposure effect: simply seeing their face makes you like them more
Mita et al. (1977) - Photographs vs. mirror images ∙ Mita et al. (1977) - female college students shown two pictures of themselves. Their mere image and one of their actual appearance. We also discuss several other topics like cummings study guide
Their friends preferred actual photos and the person themselves liked their mere image. Idea: most of us view ourselves in mere image. Most of our friends see us in our actual appearance
∙ Mere exposure AGAIN!
Darley and Berscheid (1967) – anticipated interaction enhances liking
∙ Gave women description of two women, one of whom they were told they would meet. The women rated the person they expected to see as being more likeable.
What is the physical attractiveness stereotype? Is it accurate?
∙ Beautiful-is-good stereotype: belief that physically attractive people have a wide range of positive characteristics
∙ It is partially true. Physically attractive people are NOT moreintelligent, dominant, happier or mentally healthy
∙ They ARE: more comfortable & competent in social settings
∙ WHY? Behavior confirmation
What does it mean to have an attractive face? ∙ High bodily symmetry
∙ Average features (NOT mediocrity)
o Faces with typical features tend to be viewed as more attractive
Matching hypothesis and UCLA dating study
∙ Tendency to choose as partners those who are a match in terms of valued traits
∙ Study: He stated that good physical matches may be conducive to good relationships. The study reported that partners most similar in physical attractiveness were found to rate themselves happier and report deeper feelings of love.
Aronson and Linder (1965)
∙ gain-loss principle: states that as one person's opinion of someone else becomes more favorable, that other person will tend to develop a more favorable opinion of the first person. We also discuss several other topics like what is the term for parents who are controlling, punitive, rigid, cold, and whose word is law?
∙ Subjects "accidentally overheard" another subject, actually a confederate of the researcher, expressing liking or disliking of the subject. Then the subject was
asked to fill out a questionnaire that expressed liking or disliking for the confederate. The questionnaire mirrored the overheard comments. A confederate who had made positive comments about the subject was liked; one who made bad comments was disliked.
Passionate and Companionate Love
∙ Passionate Love- a state of intense longing for someone and includes intense physical arousal, psychological interest and care for his/her needs
∙ Companionate Love- Affection people feel for those with whom their lives are deeply connected but do not necessarily experience passion/arousal in their presence
-levels tend to change over time
-people mistake arousal for passionate love
Know each of the theories of relationship change. What are the central tenets of each? What does each explain, have trouble explaining?
intuitive answer: if happy, stay; if not, leave
1. Investment Model (Rusbult 1983)
a. Investment: anything you’ve put in that would be lost if you leave If you want to learn more check out uhstat
i. Increase investment, less likely to leave
ii. Not enough to know satisfaction
2. Social Exchange Theory
a. Economic decision-making model
b. People decide like consumer products (can I be more satisfied)
3. Behavioral Theory
a. People learn from their interaction with their partners whether or not they are in a good
b. Positive behaviors enhance evaluations of a relationship while negative behaviors reduce
4. Attachment Theory
a. In infancy, people develop ideas about close relationships
i. Secure: reliable caregiver good with
ii. Avoidant: unavailable caretakersno want for intimacy
iii. Anxious: unpredictable needy and
b. Explains why some people tend to have the same kinds of relationships over and over
5. Crisis Theory
a. Focuses on reaction to stressful external events b. ABCx model
i. A= negative thing
ii. B=resources for dealing with negative event iii. C=cognition
iv. X= outcome
Exchange and communal relationships
∙ Exchange: you scratch my back, I scratch yours keep score If you want to learn more check out psy 2110 ohio university
∙ Communal: give and don’t expect in return
Evolutionary approaches to male and female differences in relationships
∙ Women claim that it is worse for a man to have a close female friend aside from their significant other than have sex with someone else
∙ Men claim the opposite
∙ Reasons pride, survival, emotional attachment, spreading of genes
Story of Genovese
∙ Murdered in 1964
∙ 38 witnesses
∙ no one helped
∙ cops called 40 minutes after
o everyone thought “someone else will do it”
What are the three reasons people help?
1. To gain genetic and material benefits
2. To gain/not lose social status and approval; to manage self image
3. To manage our moods and emotions
What does an egoistic model of helping imply about helping? ∙ It implies that people only help to increase their own welfare
o Opposite of altruism If you want to learn more check out wha is a cell
o EX Arousal model: when you try to manage moods/emotions through prosocial behavior
Evolutionary approach is what?
∙ Kin selection: we act to help those that share our DNA because it raises the chances of our genes being passed on
∙ Try to manage moods/emotions through prosocial actions
∙ When viewing situations requiring help, we are usually distressed
o we want to reduce this distress (ITS EGOISTIC) Know each of the 5 steps that go into helping. Be able to discuss research examples at each stage.
1. Notice the event
2. Interpret the event as a situation requiring help a. Ambiguity diminishes helping behavior
3. Take responsibility for helping
4. Must know/ be able to give hlelp
5. Must decide to help (weigh rewards & costs) Pluralistic ignorance
∙ We assume that when other people APPEAR unconcerned in the situation, it is not an emergency Diffusion of responsibility
∙ The mindset that “someone else will do it”= bystander effect
Social exchange theory of helping
∙ People take rewards and costs into account when deciding whether or not to help
Darley & Batson (1973)
∙ Good Samaritan Study
∙ Seminary students asked to give lecture on Good Samaritan OR church finances
∙ Passed man slumped over in need on the way ∙ The only determinant of their helping was whether they were late or on time
Effects of mood on helping
∙ Good moods tend to increase helping
o Think more positively of others and their requests when in a good mood
∙ Sad mood
o Children help less
o Adults help more
∙ Anger decreases helping in everyone
Know the distinctions between basic and applied research. ∙ BASIC We also discuss several other topics like dx virginia tech
o Knowledge as an end
o Looking for relationships (often causal) between variables
Concern for internal validity
o Experiments- manipulating variables, careful control
o Solving social problems
w/o basic research you cant have good
applied research and vice versa
Are eye witnesses generally accurate? As accurate as they think?
∙ Confident eyewitnesses are no more likely to be accurate
∙ Often more confident than correct!
What are possible problems that can happen at encoding, storage and retrieval that can interfere with accuracy? ∙ Encoding: process by which people notice and attend to information in the environment: affects what enters memory.
o Struggle generally inattentive to details
o Penny example
∙ Storage: The process by which people store and organize info from the environment into their memory o We can struggle with putting info in good spots o Analogy: sometimes you might put your
wallet/keys in a strange spot and cant find them same with info
∙ Retrieval: Process by which people recall the info stored in memory
o Not simply recalling “what happened”
o Think of it like “based on a true story”
Do eye witnesses affect verdicts?
o No eyewitness= 18% convicted
o 1 eyewitness= 72% convicted
o 1 discredited eyewitness= 68% convicted
Does the death penalty seem to be a good deterrent of violent crime?
o States with the death penalty do not have lower murder rates
o When a state enacts death penalty, murder rates stay constant or increase
o Countries without death penalties have lower crime rates than the opposite
Is there a difference between people for or against the death penalty?
∙ It has proven to be somewhat biased.
∙ Juries not fair- often for.
What are some biases that clinicians show?
∙ Inaccurate assumptions
∙ Confirmation bias
∙ Cognitive overload
What is the self-presentation approach to therapy? How does it differ from traditional approaches?
∙ It focuses and honing in on the person you want to be in therapy rather than divulging every bit of information you have about yourself/ the situation and whats “wrong”
Stress, stress coping, microstressors
∙ Stressor: any physical/ psychological event perceived as being able to cause harm or emotional distress ∙ 2 types:
o major life events
o microstressors builg and lead to greater
∙ depressed individuals make more realistic inferences than do non-depressed individuals.
Materialism and relation to mental health
∙ reduced life satisfaction/happiness
∙ symptoms of major depression, anxiety disorders ∙ less happy with friends, family
∙ headaches/physical ailments
**Income is related to happiness, but relationship disappears when poorest people present.
Does money buy happiness? When does money raise happiness?
∙ It does not buy happiness but can raise happiness for a temporary period of time studies show.
∙ Saying “money does not buy happiness” is was too general to be correct and implies privileged status
What are the four reasons materialism fails to produce happiness?
1. Adaptation-level phenomenon: The tendency to adapt to a given level of stimulation and thus to notice and react to changes from that level.
a. ALL problems are relative
2. Parkinson’s second law: expenditures rise to meet income
3. Upward Social Comparison: always someone richer than you
4. Interferes with doing the things that really make you happy
What does make people happy? How can you implement these things in your life?
∙ Close, supportive relationships
∙ Cultivating positive traits
o Optimism, perceived control, outrage, grit
∙ Challenging, (but not overly stressful) work
∙ Engaging leisure activities (flow)
∙ Good health
∙ Being grateful and expressing gratitude
∙ Spending money (sort of…)