HY 104 Final Exam Study Guide
February 25, 2016
1. Billie Holiday “strange fruit”- refers to people hanging after being lynched. Raised awareness that this was still happening in America 2. Hoovervilles- shantytown built by unemployed and destitute people during the Depression of the early 1930s
3. FDR- 32nd President of the United States; elected four times; instituted New Deal to counter the Great Depression and led country during World War II
4. First new deal- the legislative and administrative program of President F. D. Roosevelt designed to promote economic recovery and social reform during the 1930s
5. Bank holiday- day in which banks are officially closed
6. FDIC- The federal deposit insurance corporation, backs banks on individual deposits up to $250,000
7. Glass Steagal Act- limited commercial bank securities, activities, and affiliations within commercial banks and securities firms
8. NIRA- National industrial recovery act of 1933 – allowed businesses to come together and decide wages and prices
9. PWA- The public works administration; New Deal government agency (1933–39) designed to reduce unemployment and increase purchasing power through the construction of highways and public buildings
10. CCC- The civilian conservation corps 1933 – way to give young men jobs by giving them public relief jobs such as railroads, national parks, etc. Don't forget about the age old question of financial management final exam
11. TVA- The Tennessee valley authority; federal agency that controls the electricity, irrigation and flood control from the dams and reservoirs along the Tennessee River
12. FHA- Federal housing authority 1934; provides loans to private banks who then loan money out to home buyers
13. AAA- Agricultural adjustment act 1933; provides federal funds to farmers to keep them afloat in this time
If you want to learn more check out psynotes
14. Dust bowl- Oklahoma, Kansas, and northern Texas affected by severe soil erosion (caused by windstorms) in the early 1930s, which obliged many people to move
Central question: what steps did FDR take to halt the depression in his first term?
March 3, 2016
1. 1938 CBS broadcast
2. WPA- works progress administration; created in 1935, creates millions of jobs where people built railroads, bridges, roads, etc.
3. Resettlement- Resettlement administration (1935-1936); moved struggling families from dust bowl areas into communities planned by the federal government, smart plan but doesn’t really work
4. Bureau of reclamation 1902- oversees water resource management, specifically as it applies to the oversight and operation of the diversion, delivery, and storage projects that it has built throughout the western United States for irrigation, water supply, and hydroelectric power
5. Hoover Dam- massive dam on the Arizona-Nevada border which not only provides water, but becomes single largest provider of electricity in the US
6. Second New Deal- term used to describe the second stage, 1935-36, of the New Deal programs of FDR
7. Ogallala- a water table tapped into on the great planes to help prevent another dust bowl
8. Social security act of 1935- provide for the general welfare by establishing a system of Federal old-age benefits for retired, disabled, unemployed, etc.
9. Wagner act of 1935- protect the rights of employees and employers to promote unionization
10. CIO- the committee of industrial organizationThe new union group that organized large numbers of unskilled workers with the help of the Wagner Act and the National Labor Relations Board Don't forget about the age old question of probable future sacrifices of economic benefits
11. Fair Labor standards act of 1937- helps create first federal minimum wage. Banned child labor in many industries (children below age of 14)
Central question: how did the second new deal differ from the first new deal?
March 8, 2016
1. Glenn miller- an American jazz musician and bandleader in the swing era; performed for soldiers at war
2. Causes of world war 1- largely believed to be caused by the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo on 28 June 1914 3. Nazi party- National socialist German workers party
4. Triumph of the will- a 1935 German propaganda film that showed Hitler giving speeches to the masses; was a way of showing Germany’s return as a world power
5. Rome berlin axis 1936- Coalition between Italy and Germany. An agreement formulated by Italy's foreign minister Galeazzo Ciano informally linking the two fascist countries
6. Munich agreement- agreement between Britain and Germany in 1938, under which Germany was allowed to extend its territory into parts of Czechoslovakia in which German-speaking peoples lived
7. Invasion of Poland- (Sept. 1939) – leads Great Britain and France to declare war on Germany
8. Neutrality acts of 1935 and 1936- vowed to stay out of the war in Europe so we don’t reproduce WW1.
9. 22nd amendment- passed in 1947; limited president to two terms 10. lend-lease act- (1941) principle of providing US military aid to foreign nations during WW2We also discuss several other topics like What is Transduction?
11. pearl harbor- Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, a Hawaii military base, on Dec. 7, 1941 killing 24,000 and sinking 18 war ships. This caused America to enter the war on the side of the allies Don't forget about the age old question of the backyard professor
Central question: What caused WW2? And what caused the US to get involved?
March 10, 2016
1. Jeanette Rankin- first us congresswoman elected in 1916; only person to vote against entering into WW2
2. Operation torch- (1942) decision by allies not to attack across English Channel, instead attacked axis powers through French controlled North Africa
3. Dwight D. Eisenhower- United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany; 34th President of the United States (1890-1961)
4. Selective service act- (1940) authorizes the federal government to draft males between the age of 21 and 35 into the military; first peace time draft enacted by government
5. War production board and office of price administration 6. Revenue act of 1942- increased individual income tax rates, increased corporate tax rates (top rate rose from 31% to 40%), and reduced the personal exemption amount from $1,500 to $1,200 for married couples 7. US chemical industry and synthetic products- Companies have to create synthetics because the national government was conserving raw materials
8. DDT- a chemical produced for troops, thrown on troops to prevent lice in eastern Europe; later used as an insecticide sprayed all over the country; restricted use in 1972 We also discuss several other topics like unikonta characteristics
9. Women and war- women were getting jobs in the workforce while men were off at war. 65% of everyone in aircraft industry were women after the war, 1% before the war
10. Bracero agreements- guaranteed basic human rights (sanitation, adequate shelter and food) and a minimum wage of 30 cents an hour; it also enabled the importation of temporary contract laborers from Mexico to the United States as a momentary war-related clause to supply workers during the early phases of World War II.
11. Double V- 1941 as a call for African Americans to fight fascism in Europe and racism in the United States, blacks got a victory in Europe and on the home front (racial freedoms)
Central question: how did the war reshape America on the home front?
March 22, 2016
1. Tuskegee airmen- African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II. Officially, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces
2. A Phillip Randolph- leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union who, in 1941, proposed a March on Washington to protest racial discrimination in the expanding war industries and the military
3. Japanese internment (executive order 9066)- America put Japanese Americans into internment camps fearing that they might be loyal to Japan
4. Operation overlord- code-name given to the Allied invasion of France led by Dwight D. Eisenhower scheduled for June 1944
5. Holocaust- German interment and mass slaughter of Jews and other people they deemed inferior during WW2
6. Yalta- meeting of British prime minister Winston Churchill, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt early in February 1945 as World War II was winding down
7. Harry S. Truman- Roosevelt’s vice president, became president after FDR died. Decided to drop the atomic bomb on Japan
8. Okinawa- series of battles fought in the Ryukyu Islands, centered on the island of Okinawa; 50,000 casualties, made Truman think twice about fighting the Japanese on land; made Truman think about using atomic bombs
9. Manhattan project- a research and development project that produced the first nuclear weapons during World War II
Central question: What were the lasting legacies of war?
March 24, 2016
1. Hiroshima and Nagasaki- cities that the US dropped atomic bombs on. 60,000 people died in Hiroshima, 40,000 people died in Nagasaki 2. Iron curtain- a theoretical barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of communism that followed the political events in eastern Europe in 1989
3. Policy of containment and Truman doctrine- US gets involved in the world to make sure communism doesn’t spread to other places 4. Marshall plan- American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War 2 5. Korean war- begins in 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea. The UN got involved on the side of South Korea
6. Fair deal- a deal brought forth by Truman; expand public housing, social security, social security, etc.
7. Dixiecrats- democrats that segregated from democratic party in 1948, called for “complete segregation of races”
8. HUAC- House Un-American activities committee; a committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, investigated allegations of communist activity in the U.S. during the early years of the Cold War
9. Joseph McCarthy- campaign against alleged communists in the US government and other institutions carried out under Senator Joseph
McCarthy. Many of the accused did not in fact belong to the Communist Party
10. Election of 1952- Dwight D. Eisenhower elected, Richard Nixon as vice president
Central question: How did fear of communist expansion overseas reshape America at home?
March 29, 2016
1. Affluent society- conditions in the US immediately after World War 2 with the economy booming and the rise in purchasing power for the middle class.
2. Credit cards- first credit card was called the Diner’s Club card, came out in 1950; first card that could be used at multiple retailer stores 3. Federal highway act of 1956- cost 25 Billion dollars to build 40,000 miles of highway
4. BI bill- A law passed in 1944 that provided education and other benefits for people who had served in the armed forces in WW2
5. Suburban housing segregation in the 1950’s- 98% of people who lived in suburbs in the 50’s was white
6. Women in the 1950’s- women, including white middle class women, are suffering from sexism during the 50’s especially in the work force 7. Culture of conformity- people were following and doing what the masses did, not many people were being themselves
8. Beat generation- writers like Jack Kerouac that wrote about sex and drugs that went against popular conservative beliefs at the time 9. Sputnik II- soviets satellite launched into space in 1957 that carried a dog named Laika
10. National defense education act NASA- providing funding to United States education institutions at all levels
Central question: How did the government fuel American consumer culture in the 1950’s?
March 31, 2016
1. Rosa parks- black woman from Montgomery Alabama who refused to give her seat up to a white person as she was legally required to do 2. Montgomery bus boycott- a mass protest by African American citizens in the city of Montgomery, Alabama, against Segregation policies on the city's public buses
3. Montgomery improvement association- formed after the arrest of Rosa Parks to oversee the the Montgomery bus boycott. It would play a major role in fighting segregation in the city
4. Virginia Darr
5. Martin Luther King- African-American political leader of the twentieth century; the most prominent member of the civil rights movement
6. Brown vs. board of education- a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional
7. Autherine Lucy- an educator who became the first African-American student to desegregate the University of Alabama
8. Little Rock 9- a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school causing the Little Rock Crisis
9. Orville Faubus- is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the Little Rock Crisis
10. Eisenhower’s military action in Arkansas- when the nine students tried to enroll in little rock high school there was violence against them. The mayor of Little rock had to reach out to Eisenhower for military help to restore order. The military came and successfully restored order in the town.
Central question: no central question today, Elmore out of class.
April 5, 2016
1. SCLC- Southern Christian leadership conference; founded by adults, clergyman like MLK, a civil rights organization that played a major role in the civil rights movement
2. Greensboro sit in movement- 1960, black students go to a Woolworth store in North Carolina on Feb. 1 1960 and asked to be served where only whites were supposed to be served. Come back and over time hundreds of black students join them in sitting in at the lunch counters. Closed down business instead of integrating. Not until July of 1960 that the Woolworth store finally integrates.
3. Ella baker- cofounds the student nonviolent coordinating committee (SNCC) so that the students have a voice in the civil rights movement 4. Freedom rides of 1961- black and white students that left Washington, D.C., on two public buses bound for the Deep South. They intended to test the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which declared segregation in interstate bus and rail stations unconstitutional 5. Jim Zwerg- left college to join freedom ride were brutally attacked in Birmingham during the Freedom Rides
6. Project C- project confrontation which said that they were going to confront the law enforcement in Birmingham in hopes that police would turn violent to show the world how corrupt the deep south was. A lot of mixed feelings about this.
7. Wallace’s sit in the schoolhouse poor- governor of Alabama, George Wallace, made a speech at foster auditorium at the university of Alabama in June 1963
8. Vivian Malone and James Hood- Vivian Malone becomes first black student to graduate from the University of Alabama James Hood enrolls
at UA but leaves after bullying from whites, comes back later and gets his PHD here at UA
9. March on Washington for jobs and freedom- political rally in Washington DC where MLK gave his “I have a dream” speech. 10. Selma marches of 1965- MLK leads thousands of marchers from from Selma to Montgomery (54 miles, takes 5 days) where people were campaigning for voting rights.
Central question: why did Jim Crow segregation begin to collapse in the 1960’s?
April 7, 2016
1. Election of 1960- JFK was democratic nominee; Richard Nixon was republican nominee; JFK narrowly wins
2. The televised debate of September 1960- First televised national debate between Nixon and JFK in September 1960, 44% of nation is watching
3. Space Race- Yuri Gagarin (Russia) goes into space and orbits the planet; US becomes competitive and promises to put a man on the moon before the 1960’s is over. Ends up succeeding in 1969
4. Cuban missile crisis- (October 1962) Cuba has prepared Medium Range Ballistic Missiles (MRBM) and it begins a confrontation between the Soviet Union and the US over the presence of these missiles.
5. Kennedy’s assassination- assassinated as he rode in a motorcade through Dealey Plaza in downtown Dallas, Texas on November 22, 1963
6. Lyndon Baines Johnson- becomes president after assassination of JFK 7. Civil rights act 1964- withheld federal funds from segregated events; outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
8. Barry Goldwater- republican nominee that ran against Lendon B Johnson, target of the Daisy commercial
9. Daisy commercial- suggests that if Barry Goldwater becomes president there will be an atomic war, gets removed very fast because it is so ridiculous
10. Voting rights act of 1965- eliminated various devices, such as literacy tests, that had traditionally been used to restrict voting by black people
11. War on poverty and the Great Society- fight to end poverty, domestic program in the administration of LBJ that instituted federally sponsored social welfare programs such as Medicare (elderly), Medicaid (poor), food stamps, Headstart education program (financial support for poor kids education)
Central Question: How did Cold War fears of communism overseas shape Kennedy’s administration? What was the Great Society?
April 12, 2016
1. Bobby Kennedy & MLK assassination
2. Election of 1968- Republican nominee, former Vice President Richard Nixon, won the election over the Democratic nominee, incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey; George Wallace ran as an independent and got 5 southern states
3. Silent majority- term used by President Richard Nixon to indicate his belief that the great body of Americans supported his policies about the involvement in the Korean War
4. Vietnamization – giving over the war to Vietnamese fighters; let our boys come home. Support the Vietnamese, but let them fight 5. Kent state- (1970) unarmed students demonstrating against United States involvement in the Vietnam War were fired on by panicky troops of the National Guard. Four students were killed and nine wounded 6. COLA- cost of living adjustment; expanded social security benefits and food stamp program
7. Rachel Carson- wrote Silent Spring to make awareness about how dirty we were making the springs; devoted to defending the natural world against pollution. Her best-known book is Silent Spring, concerning the overuse of pesticides and weed killers and how it was polluting springs
8. Cuyahoga- river in Cleveland Ohio that caught on fire due to the extreme amount of pollution (fossil fuels) in it
9. EPA- environmental protection agency; created in 1970, protects human and environmental health
10. Clean water act and clean air act- Clean air act – (1970) limited what humans were allowed to release into the air through emissions; Clean water act – (1972) limited what humans were allowed to release into the water
11. CREEP- Committee to re-elect the president; Nixon’s campaign to get re-elected in 1972; runs against George McGovern (radical democrat)
12. Watergate- 1972, scandal that involved the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. and President Richard Nixon's administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement
13. Fall of south Vietnam (1975)-
14. OPEC Embargo- The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries implements what it calls “oil diplomacy” on this day in 1973: It prohibits any nation that had supported Israel in its “Yom Kippur War” with Egypt, Syria and Jordan from buying any of the oil it sells
Central question: what message did Nixon preach to the country in order to get elected in 1968? In what ways did Nixon’s election contribute to the disillusionment in politics in America?
April 14, 2016
1. French indo-China War
2. Ho Chi Minh-
3. Domino Theory- theory that speculated that if one land became under the influence of communism, then other countries would follow like dominos
4. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution- gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of conventional military force in Southeast Asia; resulted in our involvement in Viet Kong
5. Tet Offensive- series of major attacks by communist forces in the Vietnam War. Early in 1968, Vietnamese communist troops seized and briefly held some major cities at the time of the lunar new year (Tet);
6. Hanoi Hilton- the name given north Vietnamese prison camp where American and ARVN soldiers were imprisoned and tortured during the Vietnam war. located in the capitol of what was then north Vietnam, Hanoi
7. Henry Kissinger- the negotiator for peace during the Vietnam war, called Peace with Honor, later became secretary of state under Nixon 8. Fall of Saigon- also called the Liberation of Saigon, the downfall of South Vietnam’s capital city, Saigon on April 30, 1975
April 19, 2016
1. Election of 1976- Jimmy Carter (republican nominee) versus Gerald Ford (democratic nominee), voter turnout was very low at 55% 2. Camp David accords of 1978- Egypt’s Anwar Sadat and Israel’s Menachem Begin sign a peace treaty on September 17, 1978 3. Stagflation- rising unemployment combined with high levels of inflation 4. Report to the American people on energy in 1977- February 2, 1977; says “I can’t fix this by myself, we have to work together, conserve energy by wearing a sweater instead of turning up heat”
5. Iran hostage of 1979- militants in Iran seized 66 American citizens at the U.S. embassy in Tehran, holding 52 of them hostage for more than a year. Made diplomatic relationship between US and Iran very bad
6. Crisis of confidence speech (1979)- one of our policies is us, not our policies. We need to have different values and stop worshipping self indulgence.
7. Ronald Reagan- Reaganomics and the Trickle-Down theory – if we cut taxes on the wealthy the money will “trickle down” to the less wealthy 8. ERTA- economic recovery tax act; lowered income tax rates and allowed for expensing of depreciable assets, nominal tax rate dropped from 71% to 28%
9. National debt under Reagan- National debt under Reagan went up dramatically due primarily to defense spending for the Cold War 10. “Evil Empire”- Reagan calls the Soviet Union the “evil empire” 11. rise of evangelical right- groups like Moral Majority led by Jerry Falwell sought to bring the core Christian values back by supporting candidates
12. deindustrialization- The process by which US industry transferred industrial plants abroad to take advantage of cheaper labor and tax breaks. Between 32 and 38 million jobs were lost during the 1970's due to deindustrialization. Especially affected northeastern US where factory closures could affect entire communities. Led to the decline in power of labor unions under the threat of moving jobs overseas. central question: How did the American economy change from 1976 to 1986?
April 21, 2016
1. iran-Contra- (86-87) US exchanged weapons in return of the release of hostages from Iran terrorists; US government funds the Contras in Nicaragua and is negotiating with terrorists; Lt. Colonel Oliver North was scapegoat for this whole situation and Reagan was pardoned
2. fall of the berlin wall- (Nov. 1989); Ronald Reagan tells Gorbachev to tear down the Berlin Wall (symbol of cold war)
3. big Pa herns in the 1980’s (see slide)-
4. election of 1988- George H. W. Bush v. Michael Dukakis
5. Willie Horton commercial- commercial that showed Dukakis’ stance on crime, letting criminals have ‘weekend passes’ when Willie Horton went on to rape a girl during one of these weekends
6. Read my lips no new taxes- George H. W. Bush’s speech “read my lips, no new taxes” this becomes the slogan for his campaign; ends up raising taxes and loses to Clinton in 1992
7. Operation desert storm- military operation in which international armed forces, including British and US troops, attacked Iraq in the Gulf War. It began on 16 January 1991 and lasted 100 days
8. Globalization- economy thrives overseas in the early 90’s but there is economic woes at home
9. Rio earth summit of 1992- UNFCCC united nations framework convention on climate change tried to limit emissions of greenhouse gasses to prevent global warming
10. Rodney king beating- LA man convicted of a robbery, on parole driving drunk trying to get away from cops, once caught he is beaten by cops very harshly; jury says police officer is not guilty, causes major riots and over $1B in damages
11. Election of 1992- Democrat Bill Clinton defeated incumbent Republican Pres. George Bush
Central question: What are some key trends we can see in the economy of the 1980’s? the early 1990’s?
April 26, 2016
1. New democrat- about elegant government, focusing on middle class issues people living in suburbs, not into big government
2. National debt in 1990’s- first budget surplus since the 1950’s, Clinton worked with the republican congress to make spending cuts; this was
because they were not at war, and US economy is generating tons of revenue
3. FAFTA- North American Free Trade Agreement is an agreement among the United States, Canada and Mexico designed to remove tariff barriers between the three countries
4. Contract with America- we are going to sign a contract with America to introduce tax cuts, a permanent line-item veto, measures to reduce crime and provide middle-class tax relief, and constitutional amendments requiring term limits for congress and a balanced budget; this leads to republicans taking over congress
5. Hillary Clinton and health care in the 1990’s- in the early 1990’s Bill Clinton called for his wife to do health care legislation
6. Election of 1996- Bill Clinton beats Dole
7. Dotcom boom- In 1996 only 9% of Americans were on the internet, by 2007 76% of Americans are on the internet; dot com bust later because companies couldn’t ship to everyone
8. Repeal of glass-steagal act in 1999- repeals the glass steagal act which limited securities, activities, and affiliations within commercial banks and securities firms
9. World trade organization- only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments
Central question: what were some of the key economic trends of the 1990’s? national debt, welfare, financial markets, international trade?
April 28, 2016
1. Monica Lewinsky scandal- a sexual relationship between 49-year-old President Bill Clinton and a 22-year-old White House employee, Monica Lewinsky; Lewinski tells Linda Tripp her story and she records her behind Lewinsky’s back. News breaks in 1998. Bill Clinton was investigated by an independent council. The House impeaches Clinton; senate does not agree to impeach him
2. Political polarization since 2000- politics was completely polarized in the early 2000’s, this was partially due to creations of news stations like Fox and CNN
3. Peak oil- hypothetical point in time when the global production of oil reaches its maximum rate, after which production will gradually decline 4. National debt since 2000- national debt has risen from 5.6 trillion in 2000 to 19.2 trillion in 2016
5. Wealth inequality and wages since 2000- richest 20% owned over 80% of the wealth in America
Central question: what historical trends were perpetual in the 2000’s and 2010’s?
Review Terms from last exam:
1) Wade-Davis Bill- 1864 was a bill proposed for the Reconstruction of the South written by two Radical Republicans, Senator Benjamin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland.
2) Corwin Amendment- No amendment shall be made to the Constitution which will authorize or give to Congress the power to abolish or interfere, within any State, with the domestic institutions thereof, including that of persons held to labor or service by the laws of said State.
3) Hiram Revels- the first African American to serve in the U.S. Senate, but did not serve a full term
4) Union Pacific- The Union Pacific Railroad (reporting mark UP) is a Class I line haul freight railroad that operates nearly 8,500 locomotives over 32,000 route-miles in 23 states west of Chicago, Illinois and New Orleans, Louisiana. 5) People's Party- a political party (1891–1904), advocating expansion of currency, state control of railroads, the placing of restrictions upon ownership of land
6) Dawes Act- A federal law intended to turn Native Americans into farmers and landowners by providing cooperating families with 160 acres of reservation land for farming or 320 acres for grazing.
7) Insular Cases- a series of U.S. Supreme Court rulings on the legal status and rights of people in the Philippines and Puerto Rico under U.S. territorial rule. denied the Filipinos constitutional rights because they look different than us
8) Plessy v. Ferguson- upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools, public transportation, restrooms, and restaurants (separate but equal)
9) Progressive Era- period of social activism and political reform in the United States that flourished from the 1890s to the 1920s
10) Jane Addams- pioneered the settlement house movement which meant that middle class people lived with lower class people to teach them values and ethics
11) Gifford Pinchot- American forester, first chief of the US forest service 12) Zimmerman Telegram- meant for Mexico, US intercept, encourages Mexico to enter war on central powers side and take military action against US, if they do this Germany will acquire Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas for Mexico
13) Palmer Raids- root out communist within the United States, led by J. Edgar Hoover who was head of the Radical Division of Justice Dept. 14) FDIC- The federal deposit insurance corporation, backs banks on individual deposits up to $250,000
15) FHA- Federal housing authority 1934; provides loans to private banks who then loan money out to home buyers