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BIOL 1030 Final Study Guide

by: Emma Cox

BIOL 1030 Final Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002

Marketplace > Auburn University > Biology > BIOL 1030 - 002 > BIOL 1030 Final Study Guide
Emma Cox
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This is an in depth review of all of the phyla, classes, orders, etc. that we've looked at in class. It includes a comprehensive list of all of the classifications we've looked at, detailed notes a...
Organismal Biology
Debbie R. Folkerts
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organismal, Biology, Organismal Biology
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cox on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
BIOL 1030: Final Review Overview of species •   DOMAIN ARCHAEA o   Extremophiles §   Thermophiles §   Halophiles o   Non-extremophiles •   DOMAIN BACTERIA o   Kingdom Eubacteria §   Phylum Cyanobacteria §   P. Proteobacteria •   Eschericia coli §   P. Spirochetes §   P. Chlamydias §   P. Mycoplasmas •   DOMAIN EUKARYA o   Kingdom Protista §   P. Diplomonadida •   Giardia intestinalis §   P. Parabasala •   Trichomonas vaginalis •   Trichonympha spp. §   P. Kinetoplastida •   Bodo •   Trypanosoma brucei §   P. Euglenozoa §   P. Dinoflagellata •   Gimnodinium §   P. Apicomplexa •   Plasmodium spp. §   P. Ciliophora •   Paramecium multimicronucleatum §   P. Bacilliariophyta •   Diatoms §   P. Phaeophyta •   Brown algae §   P. Rhodophyta •   Red algae §   Amoeboid Protozoa §   P. Gymnamoeba §   P. Radiolaria §   P. Foraminifera §   P. Myxomycota •   Plasmodial slime mold §   P. Chlorophyta •   Green algae §   P. Choanoflagellata o   Kingdom Plantae §   P. Bryophyta •   True mosses §   P. Hepatophyta •   Liverworts §   P. Anthocerophyta •   Hornworts §   P. Moliophyta •   Pterophyta o   True ferns •   Psilophyta o   Whisk ferns •   Arthrophyta o   Equisetum o   Horsetails, grasses, scouring rushes §   P. Lycphyta •   Club mosses §   P. Conferophyta §   P. Cycadophyta §   P. Ginkgophyta •   Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) §   P. Gnetophyta •   Genus Ephedra •   G. Gnetum •   G. Welwitschia §   P. Anthophyta •   Angiosperms o   Kingdom Fungi §   P. Chytridiomycota §   P. Zygomycota •   Bread molds, sugar molds, and pin fungi §   P. Ascomyctoa §   P. Glomeromycota §   P. Basidiomycota §   Lichens §   Imperfect Fungi •   Aspergillus niger •   Trichophyton sp. •   Penicillium notatum •   Tolypocladium inflatum o   Kingdom Animalia §   P. Porifera •   C. Calcarea •   C. Hexactinellida •   C. Demospongiae §   P. Ctenophora §   P. Cnidaria (Radiata) •   C. Hydrozoa o   Hydra, chlorohydra, Po rtuguese man-o-war, obelia •   C. Scyphozoa •   C. Cubozoa o   Box jellyfish, sea wasp •   C. Anthozoa o   Anemones and corals §   P. Platyhelminthes (flatworms) •   C. Turbellaria o   Planarians •   C. Trematoda o   Flukes o   Clonorichis sinensis •   C. Cestoda o   Tapeworms o   Taenia saginata §   P. Nemertea •   Proboscis worms and ribbon worms •   Lineus longissimus •   Prostoma graecense §   P. Mollusca •   C. Polyplacophora o   Chitons •   C. Gastropoda o   Snails, conchs, whelks, abalone, limpets •   C. Cephalopoda o   Squid, octopus, nautilus •   C. Bivalvia o   Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops §   P. Annelida (lophotrochozoa) •   C. Oligochaeta o   Tubifex tubifex o   Stylaria o   Earthworms •   C. Polychaeta o   Nereis (sandworm) o   Sea mouse o   Chaetopterus o   Sabellids (fanworms) o   Arenicola (lugworm) o   Pololo (Eunice viridis) •   C. Hirudinea o   Leeches o   Hiruda medicinalis §   P. Bryozoa •   Pectinatella magnifica §   P. Phoronida •   Tube dwelling worms §   P. Brachiopoda §   P. Arthoropda •   Subphylum Trilobitomorpha •   S.P. Chelicerata o   C. Merostomata §   Horseshoe crab o   C. Arachnida §   Order Scorpiones •   Scorpions, vinegaroon, whip spides §   Order Araneae •   Spiders §   Order Opiliones •   Daddy long legs, mites, ticks o   C. Pycnogonida §   Sea spiders •   S.P. Crustacea o   C. Isopoda §   Roly poly o   Microcrustaceans •   S.P. Mandibulata (Myriapods) o   C. Chilopoda §   Centipedes o   C. Diplopoda §   Millipedes o   C. Insecta §   P. Nematoda •   Round worms •   Ascaris •   Enterobius vemicularis – pinworm •   Necator americanus – trichina worm •   Dracunculus medinensis – guinea worm §   P. Tardigrada §   P. Echinodermata •   C. Asteroidea o   Sea stars, •   C. Ophiuroidea o   Brittle stars •   C. Echinoidea o   Sea urchins, sea biscuits, sea cookies, and sand dollars •   C. Holothuroidea o   Sea cucumbers, sea apples, sea pears •   C. Crinoidea o   Sea lilies and sea feathers •   C. Concentricycloidea o   Sea daisies §   P. Chordata •   S.P. Urochordata o   Tunicates •   S.P. Cephalochordata o   Lancelets •   S.P. Vertebrata o   Superclass Agnatha §   Lamprey and hagfish o   Superclass Gnathostomata §   C. Chondrichthyes •   Sharks and rays §   C. Osteichthyes •   Bony fish •   O. Coelacanth o   Coelacanth •   O. Lung Fish §   C. Amphibia •   O. Anura – frogs and toads •   O. Caudata – salamanders •   O. Gymnophiona – caecilians §   C. Reptilia •   O. Testudines – trutles •   O. Squamata – snakes an dlizards •   O. Sphenodonta – tuatara •   O. Crocodilia – crocodiles, alligators, caimans, etc. §   C. Aves §   C. Mammalia •   O. Monotremata – platypus, echidna •   O. Marsupialia – koalas, wombats, and kangaroos •   O. Rodentia – capybara •   O. Cetacea – whales and dolphins •   O. Chiroptera – bats •   O. Perissodactyla – hoofed mammels •   O. Carnivora – dogs, cats, bears, weasels, and sea lions •   O. Primates – monkeys, apes, tarsiers, and lemurs Domain Archaea •   Thermophiles – live in hot temperatures •   Halophiles – live in extremely salty environments •   Methanogens – organisms that make methane Domain Bacteria K. Eubacteriba •   P. Cyanobacteria – blue-green “algae” o   Photosynthetic o   Nitrogen fixation •   P. Proteobacteria o   Gram negative o   E. coli o   Purple green bacteria – similar to mitochondria o   Nitrogen fixing bacteria •   P. Spirochetes o   Spirillium shape o   Causes syphilis, lime disease, etc. o   Gram positive •   P. Chlaymidias o   Lak peptidoglycan = gram negative •   P. Mycoplasmas o   Smallest o   No cell wall = gram negative but actually gram positive o   Free living and many pathogens – walking pneumonia Domain Eukarya 1.   True nucleus 2.   Other membrane bound organelles 3.   Cytoskeleton 4.   Sexual and asexual reproduction K. Protista 1.   Mostly unicellular 2.   Heterotrophic, autotrophic, mixotrophic 3.   Zygotic, gametic, and sporic meiosis •   P. Diplomonadida o   Gut parasites o   No electron transport chain o   Double nuclei o   Many flagella o   Lack mitochondria o   Anaerobic o   Mutualist/parasitic o   Giardia interstinalis •   P. Parabasala o   Parabasal organ is synapomorphic o   Hydrogenosomes o   No mitochondrion o   Trichomonas vaginalis o   Trichonympha spp. o   Axostyle •   P. Kinetoplastida o   Movement and membrane bound structures o   One large mitochondrion with a big DNA molecule inside of it o   Bodo – free living, two flagella o   Kinetoplast o   Heteroptrophic o   Trypanosoma brucei – carried by Tsetse fly – African Sleeping Sickness o   2 hosts – vector transmits from one host to another •   P. Euglenozoa o   Free living o   Animal like and plant like o   Red with spiral or crystalline structure in flagella o   Flagellates o   Stigma – primitive eye near base of flagella allow for taxis o   Undulations start at tip of flagella and move towards base allowing euglena to pull itself through water •   P. Dinoflagellata o   Capable of spinning because one flagella goes around a circumferential groove o   2 flagella o   Gimnodium §   Marine waters §   Bloom – population explosion of a photosynthetic organism §   Red tides §   Noctiluca – sea sparkle; make light at night §   Bioluminescent •   P. Apicomplexa o   Synapomorphy – that defines the group – apical complex o   Parasitic o   Complex lifecycles §   Spore forming parasite o   Plasmodium spp. – Malaria §   Anopheles mosquito o   Life cycles §   Mosquito inject sporozoite (n) §   Blood à liver à bloodstream §   Enter RBC – trophozoite (n) §   Schizogony à merozoites (n) à enter RBC and begin to feed, converting to trophozoites (fever/chills) §   à gametocyte – picked up by mosquito §   à gametes (n) §   Syngamy à oocyst (2n, zygote) §   Meiosis à (n) sporozoites §   Mosquito is primary host, human is secondary host §   This is an example of zygotic meiosis •   P. Ciliophora o   Short and numerous cilia o   Oral groove o   Cytostome – mouth of cell; food particles can cross through the membrane o   Cytopharynx – similar to throat o   Food vacuole – where digestion takes place and lysosomes are released o   Cytoproct – cell anus o   Phagocytosis – cell eating o   Exocytosis o   Paramecium multimicronucleatum o   Pellicle is cell membrane with alveoli o   Contractile vacuole for osmoregulation o   Membranelles are rows of cilia fused to form sheet-like structures •   P. Bacillariophyta o   Diatoms o   Cell wall is 2 part siliceous frustule o   Decrease in size as cell divisions occur o   Photosynthetic algae that occurred in large numbers in the past (blooms) in places where their remnant frustules formed layers of diatomaceous earth •   P. Phaeophyta o   Brown, marine algae o   Kelp, sargassum, etc. o   Simple, multicellular form o   Zones of growth called meristems •   P. Rhodophyta o   Red aglae o   Deep water marine macroalgae o   Pigments are suitable for deep water o   Some are edible and provide useful products like carrageenan (used in ice cream), nori, and agar •   Amoeboid protozoa o   Amoebas with and without tests o   Pseudopods for movement (thick ectoplasm and thin, flowing endoplasm) and phagocytosis o   Lobopodia = blunt and lobe like o   Cytoskeletons break down and rebuil are one converts to the other •   P. Gymnamoeba o   “naked” amoebae without tests o   some parasitic, some free living •   P. Radiolarian o   Axopodia and siliceous tests with perforartions o   Axopodia are pseudopods reinforced with microtubules – stiff and needlike •   P. Foraminifera o   Reticulopodia (threadlike and branching pseudopods) o   Chambered calcareous tests o   Ancient oozes of foraminifera formed White Cliffs of dover and pink sands of Bermuda •   P. Myxomycota o   Plasmodial slime molds o   Multinucleate mass of protoplasm o   Complex life cycles include spore formation •   P. Chlorophyta o   Green algae o   Cells walls and chloroplasts o   Solitary or colonial •   P. Choanoflagellata o   Collar cells adapted for filter feeding collar of microvilli and single flagellum o   More closely related to Animalia than any other group K. Plantae •   Super phylum Bryophyta §   Composed of 3 phyla – Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, and Anthocerophyta §   Gametophyte dominated lifecycle §   No vascular tissue §   Sperm must be dispersed in water §   Quasiterrestrial §   Know life cycles o   P. Bryophyta §   Sporophyte attached to and dependent on gametophyte §   Haploid gametophyte starts with a meiospore that sprouts into protonema (first state of gametophyte) §   Gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis §   Gametes produced in gametangium •   Male gametangia = antheridia – often in splash cup which aids in spore dispersal •   Female gametangia = archegonium – grows into the diploid sporophyte – still attached to gametophyte §   Fertilized egg in archegonium grows into diploid sporophyte §   Seta and capsule §   Capsule has spores formed by meiosis §   Peristome teeth – aid in spore dispersal; hygoscopic §   Operculum and calyptra cover the opening of the capsule §   Calyptra is a remnant of the archegonium o   P. Hepatophyta §   Liverworts §   Gametophyte = simple sheetlike structure called thallus (lobed and dichotomously branches) §   Gemma cups for asexual reproduction; can grow into a new thallus §   Antherida born on antheridiophores §   Archegonia born on archegoniophores §   Spores aided in dispersal by hygroscoping elaters o   P. Anthocerophyta §   Hornworts §   Gametophyte is a simple thallus §   Sporophyte is horn-shaped structure §   Spores produced by meiosis within the sporophyte d §   Sporophytes dehisce to release meiospores when mature u   •   P. Monilophyta s  P o   Pterophyta – true ferns (biggest group outside of flowering plants) o   Psilophyta – whisk “ferns” o   Arthrophytes – Equisetophytes (horsetails, grasses, scouring rushes) §   Nodes – where leaves are attached §   Internodes – area in between nodes §   Microphylls – small leaves §   Whorl – more than two leaves attached to a single node   §   Opposite – one leaf on either side §   Alternate – only one leaf at a time •   P. Lycophyta – Club mosses o   Strobilus – cluster of modified leaves o   Heterospory •   Superphylum Gymnosperms §   4 pyhla §   all heterosporous §   most without flagellated sperm §   Separation of male and female life cycle in the gametophyte generation •   Male – dispersal as a gametophyte is now possible (microgametophyte is the dispersal form = pollen grain) •   Female – retained within the sporangium = ovule, megagametophyte §   Seed – very resistant, easily dispersed, can lie dormant •   3 layered structure (3 generations packaged within one) o   “baby in lunch box” packaged in gametophyte generation, protected by the sporophyte generation (box = integument) (embryo = baby) §   baby = 2n, lunch = n, box = 2n §   decrease size and lifespan of gametophyte generation §   “naked seeds” – no fruit §   monoecious – “1 home” for both sexes – see both seed cones and pollen cones on pine tree §   (dioecious – 2 hourses for the separate sexes) §   outer layers of ovule will become see coat o   P. Coniferophyta §   Cone-bearing trees §   Largest group ouf ymnosperms §   Megasporangiate strobili and microsporangiate strobili §   Monoecious §   2 prtohallial cells §   tube cell §   generative cell §   Coastal red woods, Giant sequoia, Bristle cone pine, Pacific yew o   P. Cycadophyta §   Tropical and sub-tropic §   Stubby palm tree things §   Dioecious §   Pollination by insects o   P. Ginkgophyta §   Ginkgo biloba – maidenhair tree §   Monotypic – only one species §   Females seeds have fleshy coat §   Dioecious §   Deciduous o   P. Gnetophyta §   Genus Ephedra •   “Mormon’s tea” •   no leaves §   Genus Gnetum §   Genus Welwitschia •   Grow in driest places on earth •   Two leaves that last forever, nor oots •   P. Anthophyta o   Only phylum of angiosperms o   Reduced gametophyte generation o   Heterospory o   Sperm delivered within the cytoplasm in sporophyte cells no longer flagellated or require water o   Flower = determinate sporophyll bearing shoot §   Shoot = above ground part of any vascular plant §   Sporophyll – modified leaves for the production of spores §   Determinate = you can tell how many leaves and nodes there will be (exactly 4 nodes, can be more than 2 leaves at each node [whorl]) §   4 whorls •   2 sterile : calyx and corolla •   2 fertile whorls: androecium and gynoecium o   microsporangiate (male) o   megasporangiate (female) Kingdom Fungi 1.   Zygotic meiosis 2.   Heterotrophic 3.   Sessile 4.   Cell walls with chitin 5.   Septate or nonseptate hyphae 6.   Mycelium 7.   Single celled yeast 8.   Spores primarily for dispersal •   P. Chytridiomycota o   Aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores including parasites of amphibian skin •   P. Zygomycota o   Bread molds, sugar molds, and pin fungi o   Thick walled dormant zygospores •   P. Ascomycota o   The sac fungi (ascus –i) (8 cells) o   Asexular spores (conidia) o   Sexual spores (conidia) •   P. Glomeromycota o   Arbuscular mycorrhizae o   Live in association with higher plants (grow inside of them in little tree like extension) o   Living with plant = more surface area for absorption of water and nutrients •   P. Basidiomycota o   Mushrooms and toadstools o   No asexual spores o   No gametangia o   Sexual spores = basidiospores o   Pileus = cap of mushroom o   Stipe = stem of mushroom o   Gills – where hymenium layer is where syngamy takes place •   Lichens o   Composite organisms o   Photobiont and mycobiont o   Mutualism o   Crustose §   On rocks and tree bark §   Low growing, tightly adhered to substrate o   Foliose §   Rises above substrate §   Loose, fee, leaf-like o   Fruticose §   Hairy looking one §   Extensive growth away from the substrate •   Imperfect fungi o   No sexual stages known Kingdom Animalia 1.   No cell walls 2.   Multicellular 3.   Oviparous – egg layers 4.   Ovoviviparous – live birth by way of internal hatching egg (hold eggs until after hatching) 5.   Viviparous – live bearing 6.   Heterotrophic 7.   Monophyletic 8.   Sexual/asexual reproduction 9.   Movement •   P. Porifera o   Sponges o   Cellular organization o   Asymmetrical o   Filter feeders o   Sessile o   Cells and spicules embedded in mesophyll o   Choanocytes o   Porocytes form ostia o   Calcareous and siliceous spicules o   Water enters through ostia and exits through osculum o   Know three body types o   Class Calcarea §   All three body types §   Calcareous spicules o   Class Hexactinellida §   6 rayed siliceous spicules §   sycon/leucon o   Class Demospongiae §   Leucon §   Siliceous spicules and spongin •   P. Ctenophora o   Biradial symmetry o   Contains largest animal using cilia o   Comb jellies o   diploblastic •   P. Radiata o   Radial symmetry o   Diploblastic o   Mesoglea hold gastrodermis and epidermis together •   P. Cnidaria o   Stinging cells o   Diploblastic o   Cnidocyte with nematocyst o   Mesoglea between tissue layers o   Tissue organization o   Medusa is sexual form o   Class Hydrozoa §   Medusa is predominant §   Portuguese man-o-war, obelia o   Class Scyphozoa §   True jellyfish §   Planula larval stage §   Scyphistoma feeding polyp o   Class Cubozoa §   Box jellyfish and sea wasp o   Class Anthozoa §   Polyp only §   Anemones and corals •   P. Platyhelminthes o   Excretory system – flame cells for osmoregulation o   Parasitic o   Bilateral symmetry o   Acoelomate o   Organ systems o   Class Turbellaria §   Planaria §   Nonparasitic o   Class Trematoda §   Flukes §   All parasites with 2+ hosts (one may be mollusk) §   Cercaria larval stage o   Class Cestoda §   Tape worms §   Microtrich increases surface area to absorb food §   Scolex produce new proglottids •   P. Nemertea o   Proboscis worms and ribbon worms o   Rhyncocoel – acoelomate; houses proboscis o   Complete gut = mouth, anus, and one way flow o   Eversion to eject proboscis •   P. Mollusca o   Visceral mass o   Foot o   Mantle o   Calcareous three layer shell (periostracum, ostricum, nacreous) o   Class Polyplacophora §   Chitons §   Shell divided into 8 valves o   Class Gastropoda §   Snails, conchs, whelks, abalone, limpets §   Coiled shell §   Asymmetrical §   Torsion §   *Know shell parts o   Class Cephalopoda §   Squid, octopus, nautilus §   Foot = 8 arms or 8 arms and 2 tentacles §   Mantle forms body tube o   Class Bivalvia §   Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops •   P. Phoronida o   Tube dwelling worms •   P. Bryozoa o   Anus emerges outside of tentacles o   Pectinatella magnifica §   Statoblasts – survive through winter because of dormancy and resistance to environmental conditions •   P. Brachiopoda o   Lampshells o   Marine o   Hard calcareous shell with two valves o   Dorsal and ventral valves – line of symmetry runs across valves •   P. Arthropoda o   Jointed appendages o   Podomeres (segments of the leg) and member joints o   Mandibles/chelicerae o   Metameric – segmented o   Tagmosis – produces body regions (tagmata) §   Head and trunk §   Cephalothorax and abdomen §   Head, thorax, and abdomen o   Complex organ system o   Flight o   Subphylum Trilobitomorpha §   Exoskeleton §   Jointed appendages §   Ecdysis §   Cephalon and thorax (3 lobed) §   Tracheal system o   Subphylum Chelicerata §   Cephalothorax + abdomen §   No antennae §   Class Merostomata •   Carapace •   Telson •   Horseshoe crab §   Class Arachnida •   Order Scorpiones o   Scorpions o   Vingearoon o   Whip spiders §   Tenniform legs •   Order Araneae o   Largest order o   Spiders o   Silk o   Venomous o   Pseudoscorpions o   Sun spiders •   Order Opiliones o   Daddy long legs o   Mites and ticks §   Class Pycnogonida •   Sea spiders •   Ovigers – males have specialized legs modified for holding eggs – care for fertilized eggs •   Organs inside of legs o   Subphylum Crustaceae §   Cephalothorax and abdomen §   Antennae – 2 pairs §   Tadpole shrimp §   Freshwater, marine, and terrestrial §   Clam shrimp §   Water fleas §   Mantis shrimp §   Order Decapoda •   Crabs •   Crayfish •   Shrimp •   Lobster •   10 walking legs (5 pairs) •   cephalothorax covered by carapic followed by abdomen •   harder and more shell like exoskeleton due to calcium carbonate §   Class  Isopoda   •   Roly  poly   §   Microcrustaceans   •   Copepods   •   Barnacles   •   Seed  shrimp   •   Pentastomes  –  parasits  in  vertebrate  respiratory  systems   o   Subphylum  Mandibulata   §   Myriapods   •   Head  and  trunk     •   Many  legs   •   Class  Chilopoda   o   Centipedes   o   Forcipules   •   Class  Diplopoda   o   Millipedes   o   Diplosegments   •   Class  Insecta   o   Head  and  thorax  and  abdomen   o   Ametabolous  insects   §   Primitively  wingless   §   Springtails,  silverfish,  bristletails,  etc   o   Hemimetabolous  insects   §   Egg  –  naiad  –  adults  (imago)   §   Wings  develop  on  outside  and  get  a  little   larger  with  each  shedding   §   No  pupil  stage   §   Many  aquatic  as  young  and  flying  terrestrial   as  adults   §   Young  look  very  different  than  adult   o   Paurometabolous  insects   §   egg  –  nymph  –  adult     §   Gradual  metamorphosis   §   Wings  develop  on  outside   §   Young  look  like  adults   o   Holometabolous  insects   §   Egg  –  larva  –  pupa  –  adult   §   “Complete  metamorphosis”  –  have   maximum  number  of  stages   •   P. Nematoda o   Round worms o   Cuticle, ecdyisis o   Eutely (true end – precise number of mitotic division = each organism have same number of cells) o   Cryptobiosis – do gormant = hidden life o   Many parasitic o   Longitudinal muscles only o   Ascaris §   Hooked end on male §   Spread by fecal contamination o   Pin worm o   Hookworm o   Trichina worm o   Guinea worm •   P. Tardigrada o   Cosmopolitan o   Cryptobiotic o   When cryptobiotic called a tun and has less than 1% water content •   P. Echinodermata o   Dermal pssicles – tiny bones embedded in skin = internal calcareous skeleton o   All marine o   Pentaradial symmetry o   Water vascular system – little tubes in body house and move water, move body parts, and change internal pressure §   Madreporite – water from sea enters §   Stone canal §   Ring canal §   Radial canals §   Ampullae and tube feet – bags of water with suction cup on end; move about due to change of pressure in water vascular system o   Pedicellariae (dermal jaws) §   Stalk extend from skin and have jaws at end §   Defense against predators and parasites §   Removal of debris §   Hiding o   Autotomy and regeneration o   Class Asteroidea §   Sea stars §   Ambulacral groove – walking grooves; house the two feet §   Aboral – side without mouth §   Oral – side with mouth §   Typically, oral surface is down §   cardiac (eversible) and pyloric stomachs o   Class Ophiuroidea §   Brittle stars §   Supple arms used for grasping prey and filter feeding o   Class Echinoidea §   Sea urchins, sea biscuits, sea cookies, sand dollars §   Dermal ossicles fuse together to form one solid test §   Prominent, movable spines §   Aristotle’s lantern o   Class Holothuroidea §   Sea cucumbers, sea apples, sea pears §   Sedentary and errant forms §   Mouth on one end and anus on the other end (more extended on oral/aboral axis than sea star) §   Secondary bilateral symmetry §   Suspension feeders and deposit feeders (use tentacles) §   Evisceration •   Eversion of parts of digestive and reproductive tract to scare away predator but can regrow these if they are eaten o   Class Crinoidea §   Sea lilies and sea feathers §   Oral up, aboral down §   Fossil crinoids o   Class Concentricycloidea §   Sea daisies §   One peripheral row of tube feet •   P. Chordata o   Notochord o   Dorsal tubular nerve cord o   Pharynx with gill slits o   Pastanal tail o   Subphylum Urochordata §   Notochord only in larval tail §   Sessile adults §   Covered with integument called tunic §   Water chamber (atrium) for circulating water through pharyngeal gill slits for filter feeding §   Tunicates o   Subphylum Cephalochordata §   Notochord is also in the tail §   All 4 chordate characteristics as an adult §   Lacelets (Amphioxus/Brachiostoma) o   Subphylum Vertebrata §   Superclass Agnatha •   Cartilaginous •   Lack jaws •   Lamprey and hagfish §   Superclass Gnathostomata •   Class Chondrichthyes o   Cartilaginous o   Have jaws o   Sharks and rays o   Water enters through spiracles to irrigate the gills o   Dermal denticles/placoid scales – seemingly endless supply of shark teeth •   Class Osteichthyes o   Body fish o   Order Coelacanth §   Primitive fish called coelacanth §   Lobe finned with muscular base of fins similar to salamander legs o   Order Lung Fish §   Have both gills and lungs o   Ray finned fishes o   All fin have a single loop circulatory system and a 2 chambered heart •   Class Amphibia o   Moist, glandular skin o   Quasi-terrestrial o   Cutaneous respiration – through the skin o   3 chambered hearts and double loop circulatory system o   ectothermic (external control of body temp) and heterothermic (changing body temp) = poikilothermic o   external fertilization o   Order Anura §   No tail §   Frogs and toads o   Order Caudata §   With a tail §   Salamanders o   Order Gymnophiona §   Caecilians §   Legless amphibians o   Class Reptilia §   Dry, scaly skin §   Efficient lungs §   Egg that hatches on dry land (amniotic) §   Yolk provides nourishment for developing embryos §   Order Testudines •   Turtles •   Backbone, ribs, and sternum fused to form a shell with carapace on top and plastron on bottom §   Order Squamata •   Snakes and lizards §   Order Sphenodonta •   Tuatara – remnant third eye on top of head §   Order Crocodilia •   Crocodiles, alligators, etc. •   Have 4 chambered heart •   Don’t shed epidermal scales §   Class Aves •   Feathers = modified scales •   Lack of bladder and air spaces in bones •   4 chambered heart •   endothermic and homeothermic •   hummingbirds drop body temp at night to save energy o   NOTE: For space reasons I’m shifting right but this is all still under Supercalss Gnathostomata §   Class Mammalia •   Hair and mammary glands •   4 chambered hearts •   endothermic and homeothermic o   Order Monotremata §   Platypus §   Echidna §   Eggs released from cloaca §   Milk secretes onto fur – no nipples or lips o   Order Marsupiala §   Short gestation – yong born only slightly developed, then migrate to marsupium and attach to a nipple o   Infraclass Eutheria o   Order Rodentia §   Gnawing mammals with incisors §   Mice and squirrels §   Largest class of mammals §   Capybara is largest o   Order Cetacea §   Whales and dolphins §   Entirely marine group o   Order Chiroptera §   Bats §   Hands and legs connected by patagium o   Order Perissodactlya §   Hoofed mammals o   Order Carnivora §   Bears, weasels, sea lion, dogs, cats, etc o   Order Primates §   Monkeys, apes, tarsiers, lemurs, humans §   Binocular vision §   Opposable thumbs §   fingernails General Notes: •   Know all life cycles and diagrams •   Sexual reproduction maintains variability within offspring o   Extremely successful with environmental change •   Sexual reproduction results in a reduction of chromosome number o   Haploid vs. diploid •   Mitosis results in the same ploidy •   Meiosis results in half the ploidy •   Sygamy – fusion of gametes •   Plasmogamy – fusion of organelles •   Karyogamy – fusion of nuclei •   Review zygotic meiosis, gametic meiosis, and sporic meiosis •   evolutionary trends o   single celled à multicellular o   plesiomorphic à apomorphic o   asexual à sexual o   zygotic à gametic à sporic meiosis o   isomorphic à heteromorphic o   dom. Gam. à dom. Spor. o   Isogamy (produce gametes of only one kind) àanisogamy (ex. oogamy – one egg and one sperm) •   Taxis – oriented movement in response to an environmental factor (+/-) o   Phototaxis – movement in response to light (+ for photosynthetic organism) •   Primary host v. secondary host o   Primary host = one in which sexual reproduction occurs o   Secondary host = one in which asexual reproduction occurs •   Sporophytes are always diploid •   Isomorphic – when gametophyte and sporophyte are indistinguishable •   Sexual reproduction – 2n à n •   Vascular tissue o   3 tissue systems §   dermal tissue system •   epidermis of the plant •   runs continuously covering outer surfaces of all plant parts §   ground tissue system •   filler between dermal and vascular tissue •   makes up the bulk of plant parts •   photosynthesis occurs here and storage of photosynthetic materials §   vascular tissue system •   found within veins in leaves •   specialized for water transport •   runs continuously through all plant organs •   more than one type o   xylem o   phloem – transport water with sugars and starches dissolved in them down stem to the roots •   Plant organs o   Roots – under ground o   Shoot – above ground parts of the plant §   Stems and leaves (or modified version) •   Microphylls – tiny, simple leaves o   first ones ever evolved by plants o   single vein of vascular tissue •   Megaphylls – big leaf o   Branching venation •   Annuals – single year life cycle •   Perennials – live from year to year o   Primary growth – increase in length; shoots get taller and roots get longer o   Secondary growth – increase in girth •   Homospory – just one kind of spore •   Heterospory – more than one kind of spore is produced o   Microspores – male §   Grow up to be microgametophytes which produce microgametangia with microgametes (sperm) §   Microgametophytes = pollen o   Megaspores – female §   Megagametophytes; stay in the sporangia on the sporophyte §   Megagametophytes produce ovules that will be fertilized through pollination §   Ovules grow up to be seeds •   Microphylls – o   Strobilus (-i) – where sexual reproduction will continue; tight clusters of leaves §   Clusters of sporophylls (spore bearing leaves) •   Contain sporangiophores (spore containers) •   Sporangia – contained in the sporangiophores (actual spore containers – have diploid cells undergoing mitosis to produce the meiospores) •   Elaters – coiled, threadlike structures o   Coiled around each meiospore o   Respond to changing humidity (coil up if it is humid) (hygroscopic) •   Pollination syndromes o   Wind – anemophily o   Animals – zoophily •   Seed dispersal o   Anemochory o   Zoochory o   Hydrochory •   Fruit types o   Simple – one fruit develops from the ovary of each flower o   Aggregate – many one-seeded achenes produced by a single flower o   Multiple – several flowers all attached to one stem o   Accessory – other tissues besides ovary wall involed o   Non-accessory o   Fleshy – edible = zoochory §   Berries: 3 layers of pericarp are soft/fleshy. Seeds resist digestion •   Ex. tomato, grapes §   Pepo: hard exocarp •   Ex. watermelon, squash §   Hesperidium: leathery exocarp •   Ex. citrus fruits §   Drupes: stony and inedible endocarp •   Ex. peaches and plums •   Ex. coconut – seed is both solid and liquid o   Dry §   Caryopsis: simple, dry and single seeded fruit in which the pericarp is tightly fused to the seed coat •   Ex. corn and other grains §   Indehiscent fruit – doesn’t split open to release seeds at maturity §   Dehiscent fruits – split open to release seeds at maturity •   Legume – splits open on two sides o   Ex. peanut •   Capsule – splits in several places, one per carpel o   Ex. okra •   Follicle – splits on one side only •   Double fertilization = triploid endosperm and zygote produced •   Albuminous – typical seed in which endosperm surrounding the embryo •   Exalbuminous – endosperm is absorbed by the embryo •   Zygote à embryo à globular à heart shaped stage à torpedo stage •   Epideous – cotyledons rise above ground •   Hypogeous – cotyledons below ground •   Parenchyma make up bulk of leaf/stem/fruit/tubers o   Alive at maturity o   Capable of mitosis o   Store sugar and starches o   Transport H2O and nutrients on small scale •   Collenchyma o   Alive at maturity o   No mitosis o   Support, stretchy, flexible •   Sclerenchyma o   Hard, fully grown plant parts o   Dead at maturity o   2 layer cell wall •   Vascular tissue system o   Xylem – perform water transport §   Know structure o   Phloem §   Conducting cells •   Sieve tube members •   Transport photosynthate •   Alive at maturity •   Primary growth is vertical, secondary growth is horizontal •   Evolutionary  trends:     o   Level  of  organization  –  how  developed  multicellularity  is  depends  on  which   animal  you’re  talking  abot   §   Cellular  –  within  one  animal  cells  are  adapted  for  specialized  purposes   and  don’t  function  as  a  unit   §   Tissue  –  cells  working  together  and  function  as  a  unit   §   Organ  –  tissues  combined  and  functioning  together  for  processes   (respiration,  excretion,  reproduction,  etc.)   §   Organ  system   o   Symmetry     §   Initially,  animals  lacked  symmetry   §   Related  to  how  locomotion  developed  in  animals   §   Many  of  the  oldest  animals  are  asymmetrical   §   Radial  symmetry  developed  to  allow  organisms  to  meet  the  environment   equally  on  all  sides;  well  suited  for  sessile  organisms  or  organisms  with   weak  locomotion  capacilities   §   Bilateral  symmetry  developed;  associated  with  condition  of  having  a  head   and  a  tail   •   Cephalization  –  development  of  a  head   •   Led  to  capability  of  developing  sensory  structures   •   Secondary  radial  symmetry  –  radial  animals  evolved  from  bilateral   ancestors  who  evolved  from  radial  ancestors   o   Far  more  complex  than  the  original  radial  ancestor   o   Body  cavity   §   Acoelomate  –  lack  a  body  cavity  altogether   §   Pseudocoelomate   •   Polyphyletic   §   Eucoelomate  –  true  coelomate   •   Between  body  wall,  gut  and  other  interal  organs  there  is  a  fluid   filled  space  lined  with  a  membrane  that  holds  things  in  place  and   allows  for  greater  complexity   o   Embryological  development   §   Life  starts  as  a  zygote   §   Zygote  grows  through  mitosis  –  goes  to  2  cells  stage  –  go  to  4  cell  stage  –   eventually  a  huge  mass  of  cells  making  a  solid  ball  of  cells  called  a  morula   §   As  divisions  continue  in  the  morula  there  is  shape  shifting  resulting  in  a   shaped  organism  with  a  hollow  center  (blastocoel)  called  a  blastula   §   Blastula  continues  to  grow  into  a  pacman  shape  with  a  single  layer  of   cells  surrounding  a  hollow  center  (blastocoel)  called  a  gastrula   •   Hole  in  the  blastula  called  blastospore  –  when  blastospore  is   visible  the  cells  becomes  a  gastrula  (gastrulation)   §   Through  further  gastrulation  two  layers  of  cells  develop  (germ  layers)  (2   germ  layers  =  diploblastic)   •   Ectoderm  on  outside  –  develop  into  outer  ….  Wall  of  animal   •   Endoderm  inside  –  develop  into  lining  of  gut  of  animal   •   (looks  like  a  neck  pillow)   §   more  gastrulation  results  in  a  third  layer  of  cells  that  fills  the  space   between  the  ectoderm  and  the  endoderm  =  3  germ  layers  (triploblastic)   •   ectoderm   •   endoderm   •   mesoderm  –  develop  into  muscles   §   gastrulation  continues  =  break  through  to  other  side  =  gut  with  two   openings  =  complete  gut   •   protostome  –  blastopore  becomes  mouth  (“first  mouth”)   •   deuterostome  –  second  opening  becomes  the  mouth;  blastopore   becomes  the  anus   o   segmentation  =  metamerism   §   tagmosis  –  body  regions   o   other:     §   feeding  structures   •   lophophore   §   larval  stages   •   trochophore   •   Cuticle  –  outside  layer  of  the  cells  (nonliving);  on  top  of  the  epidermis   •   Exoskeleton  –  some  with  a  cuticle  have  such  a  thick  cuticle  that  it  is  called  an   exoskeleton   •   Ecdysis  –  shedding  of  exoskeleton   o   Complex  of  enzymes  all  the  process  to  occur   o   Hormones  for  timing   o   Stages   §   Proecdysis   §   Ecdysis   §   Exuvium   §   Teneral,  expansion,  sclerotization  


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