BIOL 1030 Final Study Guide
BIOL 1030 Final Study Guide BIOL 1030 - 002
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This 26 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cox on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 1030 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Debbie R. Folkerts in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 170 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
BIOL 1030: Final Review Overview of species • DOMAIN ARCHAEA o Extremophiles § Thermophiles § Halophiles o Non-extremophiles • DOMAIN BACTERIA o Kingdom Eubacteria § Phylum Cyanobacteria § P. Proteobacteria • Eschericia coli § P. Spirochetes § P. Chlamydias § P. Mycoplasmas • DOMAIN EUKARYA o Kingdom Protista § P. Diplomonadida • Giardia intestinalis § P. Parabasala • Trichomonas vaginalis • Trichonympha spp. § P. Kinetoplastida • Bodo • Trypanosoma brucei § P. Euglenozoa § P. Dinoflagellata • Gimnodinium § P. Apicomplexa • Plasmodium spp. § P. Ciliophora • Paramecium multimicronucleatum § P. Bacilliariophyta • Diatoms § P. Phaeophyta • Brown algae § P. Rhodophyta • Red algae § Amoeboid Protozoa § P. Gymnamoeba § P. Radiolaria § P. Foraminifera § P. Myxomycota • Plasmodial slime mold § P. Chlorophyta • Green algae § P. Choanoflagellata o Kingdom Plantae § P. Bryophyta • True mosses § P. Hepatophyta • Liverworts § P. Anthocerophyta • Hornworts § P. Moliophyta • Pterophyta o True ferns • Psilophyta o Whisk ferns • Arthrophyta o Equisetum o Horsetails, grasses, scouring rushes § P. Lycphyta • Club mosses § P. Conferophyta § P. Cycadophyta § P. Ginkgophyta • Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) § P. Gnetophyta • Genus Ephedra • G. Gnetum • G. Welwitschia § P. Anthophyta • Angiosperms o Kingdom Fungi § P. Chytridiomycota § P. Zygomycota • Bread molds, sugar molds, and pin fungi § P. Ascomyctoa § P. Glomeromycota § P. Basidiomycota § Lichens § Imperfect Fungi • Aspergillus niger • Trichophyton sp. • Penicillium notatum • Tolypocladium inflatum o Kingdom Animalia § P. Porifera • C. Calcarea • C. Hexactinellida • C. Demospongiae § P. Ctenophora § P. Cnidaria (Radiata) • C. Hydrozoa o Hydra, chlorohydra, Po rtuguese man-o-war, obelia • C. Scyphozoa • C. Cubozoa o Box jellyfish, sea wasp • C. Anthozoa o Anemones and corals § P. Platyhelminthes (flatworms) • C. Turbellaria o Planarians • C. Trematoda o Flukes o Clonorichis sinensis • C. Cestoda o Tapeworms o Taenia saginata § P. Nemertea • Proboscis worms and ribbon worms • Lineus longissimus • Prostoma graecense § P. Mollusca • C. Polyplacophora o Chitons • C. Gastropoda o Snails, conchs, whelks, abalone, limpets • C. Cephalopoda o Squid, octopus, nautilus • C. Bivalvia o Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops § P. Annelida (lophotrochozoa) • C. Oligochaeta o Tubifex tubifex o Stylaria o Earthworms • C. Polychaeta o Nereis (sandworm) o Sea mouse o Chaetopterus o Sabellids (fanworms) o Arenicola (lugworm) o Pololo (Eunice viridis) • C. Hirudinea o Leeches o Hiruda medicinalis § P. Bryozoa • Pectinatella magnifica § P. Phoronida • Tube dwelling worms § P. Brachiopoda § P. Arthoropda • Subphylum Trilobitomorpha • S.P. Chelicerata o C. Merostomata § Horseshoe crab o C. Arachnida § Order Scorpiones • Scorpions, vinegaroon, whip spides § Order Araneae • Spiders § Order Opiliones • Daddy long legs, mites, ticks o C. Pycnogonida § Sea spiders • S.P. Crustacea o C. Isopoda § Roly poly o Microcrustaceans • S.P. Mandibulata (Myriapods) o C. Chilopoda § Centipedes o C. Diplopoda § Millipedes o C. Insecta § P. Nematoda • Round worms • Ascaris • Enterobius vemicularis – pinworm • Necator americanus – trichina worm • Dracunculus medinensis – guinea worm § P. Tardigrada § P. Echinodermata • C. Asteroidea o Sea stars, • C. Ophiuroidea o Brittle stars • C. Echinoidea o Sea urchins, sea biscuits, sea cookies, and sand dollars • C. Holothuroidea o Sea cucumbers, sea apples, sea pears • C. Crinoidea o Sea lilies and sea feathers • C. Concentricycloidea o Sea daisies § P. Chordata • S.P. Urochordata o Tunicates • S.P. Cephalochordata o Lancelets • S.P. Vertebrata o Superclass Agnatha § Lamprey and hagfish o Superclass Gnathostomata § C. Chondrichthyes • Sharks and rays § C. Osteichthyes • Bony fish • O. Coelacanth o Coelacanth • O. Lung Fish § C. Amphibia • O. Anura – frogs and toads • O. Caudata – salamanders • O. Gymnophiona – caecilians § C. Reptilia • O. Testudines – trutles • O. Squamata – snakes an dlizards • O. Sphenodonta – tuatara • O. Crocodilia – crocodiles, alligators, caimans, etc. § C. Aves § C. Mammalia • O. Monotremata – platypus, echidna • O. Marsupialia – koalas, wombats, and kangaroos • O. Rodentia – capybara • O. Cetacea – whales and dolphins • O. Chiroptera – bats • O. Perissodactyla – hoofed mammels • O. Carnivora – dogs, cats, bears, weasels, and sea lions • O. Primates – monkeys, apes, tarsiers, and lemurs Domain Archaea • Thermophiles – live in hot temperatures • Halophiles – live in extremely salty environments • Methanogens – organisms that make methane Domain Bacteria K. Eubacteriba • P. Cyanobacteria – blue-green “algae” o Photosynthetic o Nitrogen fixation • P. Proteobacteria o Gram negative o E. coli o Purple green bacteria – similar to mitochondria o Nitrogen fixing bacteria • P. Spirochetes o Spirillium shape o Causes syphilis, lime disease, etc. o Gram positive • P. Chlaymidias o Lak peptidoglycan = gram negative • P. Mycoplasmas o Smallest o No cell wall = gram negative but actually gram positive o Free living and many pathogens – walking pneumonia Domain Eukarya 1. True nucleus 2. Other membrane bound organelles 3. Cytoskeleton 4. Sexual and asexual reproduction K. Protista 1. Mostly unicellular 2. Heterotrophic, autotrophic, mixotrophic 3. Zygotic, gametic, and sporic meiosis • P. Diplomonadida o Gut parasites o No electron transport chain o Double nuclei o Many flagella o Lack mitochondria o Anaerobic o Mutualist/parasitic o Giardia interstinalis • P. Parabasala o Parabasal organ is synapomorphic o Hydrogenosomes o No mitochondrion o Trichomonas vaginalis o Trichonympha spp. o Axostyle • P. Kinetoplastida o Movement and membrane bound structures o One large mitochondrion with a big DNA molecule inside of it o Bodo – free living, two flagella o Kinetoplast o Heteroptrophic o Trypanosoma brucei – carried by Tsetse fly – African Sleeping Sickness o 2 hosts – vector transmits from one host to another • P. Euglenozoa o Free living o Animal like and plant like o Red with spiral or crystalline structure in flagella o Flagellates o Stigma – primitive eye near base of flagella allow for taxis o Undulations start at tip of flagella and move towards base allowing euglena to pull itself through water • P. Dinoflagellata o Capable of spinning because one flagella goes around a circumferential groove o 2 flagella o Gimnodium § Marine waters § Bloom – population explosion of a photosynthetic organism § Red tides § Noctiluca – sea sparkle; make light at night § Bioluminescent • P. Apicomplexa o Synapomorphy – that defines the group – apical complex o Parasitic o Complex lifecycles § Spore forming parasite o Plasmodium spp. – Malaria § Anopheles mosquito o Life cycles § Mosquito inject sporozoite (n) § Blood à liver à bloodstream § Enter RBC – trophozoite (n) § Schizogony à merozoites (n) à enter RBC and begin to feed, converting to trophozoites (fever/chills) § à gametocyte – picked up by mosquito § à gametes (n) § Syngamy à oocyst (2n, zygote) § Meiosis à (n) sporozoites § Mosquito is primary host, human is secondary host § This is an example of zygotic meiosis • P. Ciliophora o Short and numerous cilia o Oral groove o Cytostome – mouth of cell; food particles can cross through the membrane o Cytopharynx – similar to throat o Food vacuole – where digestion takes place and lysosomes are released o Cytoproct – cell anus o Phagocytosis – cell eating o Exocytosis o Paramecium multimicronucleatum o Pellicle is cell membrane with alveoli o Contractile vacuole for osmoregulation o Membranelles are rows of cilia fused to form sheet-like structures • P. Bacillariophyta o Diatoms o Cell wall is 2 part siliceous frustule o Decrease in size as cell divisions occur o Photosynthetic algae that occurred in large numbers in the past (blooms) in places where their remnant frustules formed layers of diatomaceous earth • P. Phaeophyta o Brown, marine algae o Kelp, sargassum, etc. o Simple, multicellular form o Zones of growth called meristems • P. Rhodophyta o Red aglae o Deep water marine macroalgae o Pigments are suitable for deep water o Some are edible and provide useful products like carrageenan (used in ice cream), nori, and agar • Amoeboid protozoa o Amoebas with and without tests o Pseudopods for movement (thick ectoplasm and thin, flowing endoplasm) and phagocytosis o Lobopodia = blunt and lobe like o Cytoskeletons break down and rebuil are one converts to the other • P. Gymnamoeba o “naked” amoebae without tests o some parasitic, some free living • P. Radiolarian o Axopodia and siliceous tests with perforartions o Axopodia are pseudopods reinforced with microtubules – stiff and needlike • P. Foraminifera o Reticulopodia (threadlike and branching pseudopods) o Chambered calcareous tests o Ancient oozes of foraminifera formed White Cliffs of dover and pink sands of Bermuda • P. Myxomycota o Plasmodial slime molds o Multinucleate mass of protoplasm o Complex life cycles include spore formation • P. Chlorophyta o Green algae o Cells walls and chloroplasts o Solitary or colonial • P. Choanoflagellata o Collar cells adapted for filter feeding collar of microvilli and single flagellum o More closely related to Animalia than any other group K. Plantae • Super phylum Bryophyta § Composed of 3 phyla – Bryophyta, Hepatophyta, and Anthocerophyta § Gametophyte dominated lifecycle § No vascular tissue § Sperm must be dispersed in water § Quasiterrestrial § Know life cycles o P. Bryophyta § Sporophyte attached to and dependent on gametophyte § Haploid gametophyte starts with a meiospore that sprouts into protonema (first state of gametophyte) § Gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis § Gametes produced in gametangium • Male gametangia = antheridia – often in splash cup which aids in spore dispersal • Female gametangia = archegonium – grows into the diploid sporophyte – still attached to gametophyte § Fertilized egg in archegonium grows into diploid sporophyte § Seta and capsule § Capsule has spores formed by meiosis § Peristome teeth – aid in spore dispersal; hygoscopic § Operculum and calyptra cover the opening of the capsule § Calyptra is a remnant of the archegonium o P. Hepatophyta § Liverworts § Gametophyte = simple sheetlike structure called thallus (lobed and dichotomously branches) § Gemma cups for asexual reproduction; can grow into a new thallus § Antherida born on antheridiophores § Archegonia born on archegoniophores § Spores aided in dispersal by hygroscoping elaters o P. Anthocerophyta § Hornworts § Gametophyte is a simple thallus § Sporophyte is horn-shaped structure § Spores produced by meiosis within the sporophyte d § Sporophytes dehisce to release meiospores when mature u • P. Monilophyta s P o Pterophyta – true ferns (biggest group outside of flowering plants) o Psilophyta – whisk “ferns” o Arthrophytes – Equisetophytes (horsetails, grasses, scouring rushes) § Nodes – where leaves are attached § Internodes – area in between nodes § Microphylls – small leaves § Whorl – more than two leaves attached to a single node § Opposite – one leaf on either side § Alternate – only one leaf at a time • P. Lycophyta – Club mosses o Strobilus – cluster of modified leaves o Heterospory • Superphylum Gymnosperms § 4 pyhla § all heterosporous § most without flagellated sperm § Separation of male and female life cycle in the gametophyte generation • Male – dispersal as a gametophyte is now possible (microgametophyte is the dispersal form = pollen grain) • Female – retained within the sporangium = ovule, megagametophyte § Seed – very resistant, easily dispersed, can lie dormant • 3 layered structure (3 generations packaged within one) o “baby in lunch box” packaged in gametophyte generation, protected by the sporophyte generation (box = integument) (embryo = baby) § baby = 2n, lunch = n, box = 2n § decrease size and lifespan of gametophyte generation § “naked seeds” – no fruit § monoecious – “1 home” for both sexes – see both seed cones and pollen cones on pine tree § (dioecious – 2 hourses for the separate sexes) § outer layers of ovule will become see coat o P. Coniferophyta § Cone-bearing trees § Largest group ouf ymnosperms § Megasporangiate strobili and microsporangiate strobili § Monoecious § 2 prtohallial cells § tube cell § generative cell § Coastal red woods, Giant sequoia, Bristle cone pine, Pacific yew o P. Cycadophyta § Tropical and sub-tropic § Stubby palm tree things § Dioecious § Pollination by insects o P. Ginkgophyta § Ginkgo biloba – maidenhair tree § Monotypic – only one species § Females seeds have fleshy coat § Dioecious § Deciduous o P. Gnetophyta § Genus Ephedra • “Mormon’s tea” • no leaves § Genus Gnetum § Genus Welwitschia • Grow in driest places on earth • Two leaves that last forever, nor oots • P. Anthophyta o Only phylum of angiosperms o Reduced gametophyte generation o Heterospory o Sperm delivered within the cytoplasm in sporophyte cells no longer flagellated or require water o Flower = determinate sporophyll bearing shoot § Shoot = above ground part of any vascular plant § Sporophyll – modified leaves for the production of spores § Determinate = you can tell how many leaves and nodes there will be (exactly 4 nodes, can be more than 2 leaves at each node [whorl]) § 4 whorls • 2 sterile : calyx and corolla • 2 fertile whorls: androecium and gynoecium o microsporangiate (male) o megasporangiate (female) Kingdom Fungi 1. Zygotic meiosis 2. Heterotrophic 3. Sessile 4. Cell walls with chitin 5. Septate or nonseptate hyphae 6. Mycelium 7. Single celled yeast 8. Spores primarily for dispersal • P. Chytridiomycota o Aquatic fungi with flagellated zoospores including parasites of amphibian skin • P. Zygomycota o Bread molds, sugar molds, and pin fungi o Thick walled dormant zygospores • P. Ascomycota o The sac fungi (ascus –i) (8 cells) o Asexular spores (conidia) o Sexual spores (conidia) • P. Glomeromycota o Arbuscular mycorrhizae o Live in association with higher plants (grow inside of them in little tree like extension) o Living with plant = more surface area for absorption of water and nutrients • P. Basidiomycota o Mushrooms and toadstools o No asexual spores o No gametangia o Sexual spores = basidiospores o Pileus = cap of mushroom o Stipe = stem of mushroom o Gills – where hymenium layer is where syngamy takes place • Lichens o Composite organisms o Photobiont and mycobiont o Mutualism o Crustose § On rocks and tree bark § Low growing, tightly adhered to substrate o Foliose § Rises above substrate § Loose, fee, leaf-like o Fruticose § Hairy looking one § Extensive growth away from the substrate • Imperfect fungi o No sexual stages known Kingdom Animalia 1. No cell walls 2. Multicellular 3. Oviparous – egg layers 4. Ovoviviparous – live birth by way of internal hatching egg (hold eggs until after hatching) 5. Viviparous – live bearing 6. Heterotrophic 7. Monophyletic 8. Sexual/asexual reproduction 9. Movement • P. Porifera o Sponges o Cellular organization o Asymmetrical o Filter feeders o Sessile o Cells and spicules embedded in mesophyll o Choanocytes o Porocytes form ostia o Calcareous and siliceous spicules o Water enters through ostia and exits through osculum o Know three body types o Class Calcarea § All three body types § Calcareous spicules o Class Hexactinellida § 6 rayed siliceous spicules § sycon/leucon o Class Demospongiae § Leucon § Siliceous spicules and spongin • P. Ctenophora o Biradial symmetry o Contains largest animal using cilia o Comb jellies o diploblastic • P. Radiata o Radial symmetry o Diploblastic o Mesoglea hold gastrodermis and epidermis together • P. Cnidaria o Stinging cells o Diploblastic o Cnidocyte with nematocyst o Mesoglea between tissue layers o Tissue organization o Medusa is sexual form o Class Hydrozoa § Medusa is predominant § Portuguese man-o-war, obelia o Class Scyphozoa § True jellyfish § Planula larval stage § Scyphistoma feeding polyp o Class Cubozoa § Box jellyfish and sea wasp o Class Anthozoa § Polyp only § Anemones and corals • P. Platyhelminthes o Excretory system – flame cells for osmoregulation o Parasitic o Bilateral symmetry o Acoelomate o Organ systems o Class Turbellaria § Planaria § Nonparasitic o Class Trematoda § Flukes § All parasites with 2+ hosts (one may be mollusk) § Cercaria larval stage o Class Cestoda § Tape worms § Microtrich increases surface area to absorb food § Scolex produce new proglottids • P. Nemertea o Proboscis worms and ribbon worms o Rhyncocoel – acoelomate; houses proboscis o Complete gut = mouth, anus, and one way flow o Eversion to eject proboscis • P. Mollusca o Visceral mass o Foot o Mantle o Calcareous three layer shell (periostracum, ostricum, nacreous) o Class Polyplacophora § Chitons § Shell divided into 8 valves o Class Gastropoda § Snails, conchs, whelks, abalone, limpets § Coiled shell § Asymmetrical § Torsion § *Know shell parts o Class Cephalopoda § Squid, octopus, nautilus § Foot = 8 arms or 8 arms and 2 tentacles § Mantle forms body tube o Class Bivalvia § Clams, mussels, oysters, scallops • P. Phoronida o Tube dwelling worms • P. Bryozoa o Anus emerges outside of tentacles o Pectinatella magnifica § Statoblasts – survive through winter because of dormancy and resistance to environmental conditions • P. Brachiopoda o Lampshells o Marine o Hard calcareous shell with two valves o Dorsal and ventral valves – line of symmetry runs across valves • P. Arthropoda o Jointed appendages o Podomeres (segments of the leg) and member joints o Mandibles/chelicerae o Metameric – segmented o Tagmosis – produces body regions (tagmata) § Head and trunk § Cephalothorax and abdomen § Head, thorax, and abdomen o Complex organ system o Flight o Subphylum Trilobitomorpha § Exoskeleton § Jointed appendages § Ecdysis § Cephalon and thorax (3 lobed) § Tracheal system o Subphylum Chelicerata § Cephalothorax + abdomen § No antennae § Class Merostomata • Carapace • Telson • Horseshoe crab § Class Arachnida • Order Scorpiones o Scorpions o Vingearoon o Whip spiders § Tenniform legs • Order Araneae o Largest order o Spiders o Silk o Venomous o Pseudoscorpions o Sun spiders • Order Opiliones o Daddy long legs o Mites and ticks § Class Pycnogonida • Sea spiders • Ovigers – males have specialized legs modified for holding eggs – care for fertilized eggs • Organs inside of legs o Subphylum Crustaceae § Cephalothorax and abdomen § Antennae – 2 pairs § Tadpole shrimp § Freshwater, marine, and terrestrial § Clam shrimp § Water fleas § Mantis shrimp § Order Decapoda • Crabs • Crayfish • Shrimp • Lobster • 10 walking legs (5 pairs) • cephalothorax covered by carapic followed by abdomen • harder and more shell like exoskeleton due to calcium carbonate § Class Isopoda • Roly poly § Microcrustaceans • Copepods • Barnacles • Seed shrimp • Pentastomes – parasits in vertebrate respiratory systems o Subphylum Mandibulata § Myriapods • Head and trunk • Many legs • Class Chilopoda o Centipedes o Forcipules • Class Diplopoda o Millipedes o Diplosegments • Class Insecta o Head and thorax and abdomen o Ametabolous insects § Primitively wingless § Springtails, silverfish, bristletails, etc o Hemimetabolous insects § Egg – naiad – adults (imago) § Wings develop on outside and get a little larger with each shedding § No pupil stage § Many aquatic as young and flying terrestrial as adults § Young look very different than adult o Paurometabolous insects § egg – nymph – adult § Gradual metamorphosis § Wings develop on outside § Young look like adults o Holometabolous insects § Egg – larva – pupa – adult § “Complete metamorphosis” – have maximum number of stages • P. Nematoda o Round worms o Cuticle, ecdyisis o Eutely (true end – precise number of mitotic division = each organism have same number of cells) o Cryptobiosis – do gormant = hidden life o Many parasitic o Longitudinal muscles only o Ascaris § Hooked end on male § Spread by fecal contamination o Pin worm o Hookworm o Trichina worm o Guinea worm • P. Tardigrada o Cosmopolitan o Cryptobiotic o When cryptobiotic called a tun and has less than 1% water content • P. Echinodermata o Dermal pssicles – tiny bones embedded in skin = internal calcareous skeleton o All marine o Pentaradial symmetry o Water vascular system – little tubes in body house and move water, move body parts, and change internal pressure § Madreporite – water from sea enters § Stone canal § Ring canal § Radial canals § Ampullae and tube feet – bags of water with suction cup on end; move about due to change of pressure in water vascular system o Pedicellariae (dermal jaws) § Stalk extend from skin and have jaws at end § Defense against predators and parasites § Removal of debris § Hiding o Autotomy and regeneration o Class Asteroidea § Sea stars § Ambulacral groove – walking grooves; house the two feet § Aboral – side without mouth § Oral – side with mouth § Typically, oral surface is down § cardiac (eversible) and pyloric stomachs o Class Ophiuroidea § Brittle stars § Supple arms used for grasping prey and filter feeding o Class Echinoidea § Sea urchins, sea biscuits, sea cookies, sand dollars § Dermal ossicles fuse together to form one solid test § Prominent, movable spines § Aristotle’s lantern o Class Holothuroidea § Sea cucumbers, sea apples, sea pears § Sedentary and errant forms § Mouth on one end and anus on the other end (more extended on oral/aboral axis than sea star) § Secondary bilateral symmetry § Suspension feeders and deposit feeders (use tentacles) § Evisceration • Eversion of parts of digestive and reproductive tract to scare away predator but can regrow these if they are eaten o Class Crinoidea § Sea lilies and sea feathers § Oral up, aboral down § Fossil crinoids o Class Concentricycloidea § Sea daisies § One peripheral row of tube feet • P. Chordata o Notochord o Dorsal tubular nerve cord o Pharynx with gill slits o Pastanal tail o Subphylum Urochordata § Notochord only in larval tail § Sessile adults § Covered with integument called tunic § Water chamber (atrium) for circulating water through pharyngeal gill slits for filter feeding § Tunicates o Subphylum Cephalochordata § Notochord is also in the tail § All 4 chordate characteristics as an adult § Lacelets (Amphioxus/Brachiostoma) o Subphylum Vertebrata § Superclass Agnatha • Cartilaginous • Lack jaws • Lamprey and hagfish § Superclass Gnathostomata • Class Chondrichthyes o Cartilaginous o Have jaws o Sharks and rays o Water enters through spiracles to irrigate the gills o Dermal denticles/placoid scales – seemingly endless supply of shark teeth • Class Osteichthyes o Body fish o Order Coelacanth § Primitive fish called coelacanth § Lobe finned with muscular base of fins similar to salamander legs o Order Lung Fish § Have both gills and lungs o Ray finned fishes o All fin have a single loop circulatory system and a 2 chambered heart • Class Amphibia o Moist, glandular skin o Quasi-terrestrial o Cutaneous respiration – through the skin o 3 chambered hearts and double loop circulatory system o ectothermic (external control of body temp) and heterothermic (changing body temp) = poikilothermic o external fertilization o Order Anura § No tail § Frogs and toads o Order Caudata § With a tail § Salamanders o Order Gymnophiona § Caecilians § Legless amphibians o Class Reptilia § Dry, scaly skin § Efficient lungs § Egg that hatches on dry land (amniotic) § Yolk provides nourishment for developing embryos § Order Testudines • Turtles • Backbone, ribs, and sternum fused to form a shell with carapace on top and plastron on bottom § Order Squamata • Snakes and lizards § Order Sphenodonta • Tuatara – remnant third eye on top of head § Order Crocodilia • Crocodiles, alligators, etc. • Have 4 chambered heart • Don’t shed epidermal scales § Class Aves • Feathers = modified scales • Lack of bladder and air spaces in bones • 4 chambered heart • endothermic and homeothermic • hummingbirds drop body temp at night to save energy o NOTE: For space reasons I’m shifting right but this is all still under Supercalss Gnathostomata § Class Mammalia • Hair and mammary glands • 4 chambered hearts • endothermic and homeothermic o Order Monotremata § Platypus § Echidna § Eggs released from cloaca § Milk secretes onto fur – no nipples or lips o Order Marsupiala § Short gestation – yong born only slightly developed, then migrate to marsupium and attach to a nipple o Infraclass Eutheria o Order Rodentia § Gnawing mammals with incisors § Mice and squirrels § Largest class of mammals § Capybara is largest o Order Cetacea § Whales and dolphins § Entirely marine group o Order Chiroptera § Bats § Hands and legs connected by patagium o Order Perissodactlya § Hoofed mammals o Order Carnivora § Bears, weasels, sea lion, dogs, cats, etc o Order Primates § Monkeys, apes, tarsiers, lemurs, humans § Binocular vision § Opposable thumbs § fingernails General Notes: • Know all life cycles and diagrams • Sexual reproduction maintains variability within offspring o Extremely successful with environmental change • Sexual reproduction results in a reduction of chromosome number o Haploid vs. diploid • Mitosis results in the same ploidy • Meiosis results in half the ploidy • Sygamy – fusion of gametes • Plasmogamy – fusion of organelles • Karyogamy – fusion of nuclei • Review zygotic meiosis, gametic meiosis, and sporic meiosis • evolutionary trends o single celled à multicellular o plesiomorphic à apomorphic o asexual à sexual o zygotic à gametic à sporic meiosis o isomorphic à heteromorphic o dom. Gam. à dom. Spor. o Isogamy (produce gametes of only one kind) àanisogamy (ex. oogamy – one egg and one sperm) • Taxis – oriented movement in response to an environmental factor (+/-) o Phototaxis – movement in response to light (+ for photosynthetic organism) • Primary host v. secondary host o Primary host = one in which sexual reproduction occurs o Secondary host = one in which asexual reproduction occurs • Sporophytes are always diploid • Isomorphic – when gametophyte and sporophyte are indistinguishable • Sexual reproduction – 2n à n • Vascular tissue o 3 tissue systems § dermal tissue system • epidermis of the plant • runs continuously covering outer surfaces of all plant parts § ground tissue system • filler between dermal and vascular tissue • makes up the bulk of plant parts • photosynthesis occurs here and storage of photosynthetic materials § vascular tissue system • found within veins in leaves • specialized for water transport • runs continuously through all plant organs • more than one type o xylem o phloem – transport water with sugars and starches dissolved in them down stem to the roots • Plant organs o Roots – under ground o Shoot – above ground parts of the plant § Stems and leaves (or modified version) • Microphylls – tiny, simple leaves o first ones ever evolved by plants o single vein of vascular tissue • Megaphylls – big leaf o Branching venation • Annuals – single year life cycle • Perennials – live from year to year o Primary growth – increase in length; shoots get taller and roots get longer o Secondary growth – increase in girth • Homospory – just one kind of spore • Heterospory – more than one kind of spore is produced o Microspores – male § Grow up to be microgametophytes which produce microgametangia with microgametes (sperm) § Microgametophytes = pollen o Megaspores – female § Megagametophytes; stay in the sporangia on the sporophyte § Megagametophytes produce ovules that will be fertilized through pollination § Ovules grow up to be seeds • Microphylls – o Strobilus (-i) – where sexual reproduction will continue; tight clusters of leaves § Clusters of sporophylls (spore bearing leaves) • Contain sporangiophores (spore containers) • Sporangia – contained in the sporangiophores (actual spore containers – have diploid cells undergoing mitosis to produce the meiospores) • Elaters – coiled, threadlike structures o Coiled around each meiospore o Respond to changing humidity (coil up if it is humid) (hygroscopic) • Pollination syndromes o Wind – anemophily o Animals – zoophily • Seed dispersal o Anemochory o Zoochory o Hydrochory • Fruit types o Simple – one fruit develops from the ovary of each flower o Aggregate – many one-seeded achenes produced by a single flower o Multiple – several flowers all attached to one stem o Accessory – other tissues besides ovary wall involed o Non-accessory o Fleshy – edible = zoochory § Berries: 3 layers of pericarp are soft/fleshy. Seeds resist digestion • Ex. tomato, grapes § Pepo: hard exocarp • Ex. watermelon, squash § Hesperidium: leathery exocarp • Ex. citrus fruits § Drupes: stony and inedible endocarp • Ex. peaches and plums • Ex. coconut – seed is both solid and liquid o Dry § Caryopsis: simple, dry and single seeded fruit in which the pericarp is tightly fused to the seed coat • Ex. corn and other grains § Indehiscent fruit – doesn’t split open to release seeds at maturity § Dehiscent fruits – split open to release seeds at maturity • Legume – splits open on two sides o Ex. peanut • Capsule – splits in several places, one per carpel o Ex. okra • Follicle – splits on one side only • Double fertilization = triploid endosperm and zygote produced • Albuminous – typical seed in which endosperm surrounding the embryo • Exalbuminous – endosperm is absorbed by the embryo • Zygote à embryo à globular à heart shaped stage à torpedo stage • Epideous – cotyledons rise above ground • Hypogeous – cotyledons below ground • Parenchyma make up bulk of leaf/stem/fruit/tubers o Alive at maturity o Capable of mitosis o Store sugar and starches o Transport H2O and nutrients on small scale • Collenchyma o Alive at maturity o No mitosis o Support, stretchy, flexible • Sclerenchyma o Hard, fully grown plant parts o Dead at maturity o 2 layer cell wall • Vascular tissue system o Xylem – perform water transport § Know structure o Phloem § Conducting cells • Sieve tube members • Transport photosynthate • Alive at maturity • Primary growth is vertical, secondary growth is horizontal • Evolutionary trends: o Level of organization – how developed multicellularity is depends on which animal you’re talking abot § Cellular – within one animal cells are adapted for specialized purposes and don’t function as a unit § Tissue – cells working together and function as a unit § Organ – tissues combined and functioning together for processes (respiration, excretion, reproduction, etc.) § Organ system o Symmetry § Initially, animals lacked symmetry § Related to how locomotion developed in animals § Many of the oldest animals are asymmetrical § Radial symmetry developed to allow organisms to meet the environment equally on all sides; well suited for sessile organisms or organisms with weak locomotion capacilities § Bilateral symmetry developed; associated with condition of having a head and a tail • Cephalization – development of a head • Led to capability of developing sensory structures • Secondary radial symmetry – radial animals evolved from bilateral ancestors who evolved from radial ancestors o Far more complex than the original radial ancestor o Body cavity § Acoelomate – lack a body cavity altogether § Pseudocoelomate • Polyphyletic § Eucoelomate – true coelomate • Between body wall, gut and other interal organs there is a fluid filled space lined with a membrane that holds things in place and allows for greater complexity o Embryological development § Life starts as a zygote § Zygote grows through mitosis – goes to 2 cells stage – go to 4 cell stage – eventually a huge mass of cells making a solid ball of cells called a morula § As divisions continue in the morula there is shape shifting resulting in a shaped organism with a hollow center (blastocoel) called a blastula § Blastula continues to grow into a pacman shape with a single layer of cells surrounding a hollow center (blastocoel) called a gastrula • Hole in the blastula called blastospore – when blastospore is visible the cells becomes a gastrula (gastrulation) § Through further gastrulation two layers of cells develop (germ layers) (2 germ layers = diploblastic) • Ectoderm on outside – develop into outer …. Wall of animal • Endoderm inside – develop into lining of gut of animal • (looks like a neck pillow) § more gastrulation results in a third layer of cells that fills the space between the ectoderm and the endoderm = 3 germ layers (triploblastic) • ectoderm • endoderm • mesoderm – develop into muscles § gastrulation continues = break through to other side = gut with two openings = complete gut • protostome – blastopore becomes mouth (“first mouth”) • deuterostome – second opening becomes the mouth; blastopore becomes the anus o segmentation = metamerism § tagmosis – body regions o other: § feeding structures • lophophore § larval stages • trochophore • Cuticle – outside layer of the cells (nonliving); on top of the epidermis • Exoskeleton – some with a cuticle have such a thick cuticle that it is called an exoskeleton • Ecdysis – shedding of exoskeleton o Complex of enzymes all the process to occur o Hormones for timing o Stages § Proecdysis § Ecdysis § Exuvium § Teneral, expansion, sclerotization
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