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International Politics Final Study Guide

by: Jaimee Kidd

International Politics Final Study Guide PSC 1003

Marketplace > George Washington University > Political Science > PSC 1003 > International Politics Final Study Guide
Jaimee Kidd
GPA 3.6

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Final Study Guide
Introduction to International Politics
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jaimee Kidd on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Talmadge in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Important things to keep in mind throughout the midterm: •   This is a THEORY class, do not need to explain the history of instances in essays •   Essay setup o   Intro (only 1-2 sentences) o   Theory/Theories o   Cases 1,2 o   Counterargument (what theory doesn’t apply) o   Don’t worry about a conclusion! Review: Theories •   Mueller reading, really good review reading •   Realism o   Anarchical international system, states as rational unitary actors o   Structural o   Offensive §   Adds in assumption of worst case scenario •   Idea that you may be okay now, but in the future you may need more power because you don’t know what it’ll be like, so you have to maximize power now to ensure security in the future §   Buck Passing o   Defensive §   Security Dilemma- offensive and defensive distinguishability and advantage o   Neorealism §   States are going to balance o   Motivational §   Assumes that there is at least one greedy state, whereas the other theories assumes no state actors are greedy •   Liberalism o   Neoliberal Institutionalism §   Anarchy, states as unitary rational actors §   What do institutions do? •   They provide information •   Brings up costs of cheating and lowers transaction costs •   Provides norms/rules •   Solves CAD o   Economic Liberalism/Capitalist Peace §   All about interdependence §   → costs of war become higher, probability of going to war becomes lower o   Democratic Peace Theory §   Democracies don’t go to war with other democracies. •   Constructivism o   The role of ideas/norms §   Ex. End of the Cold War w/ Gorbachev’s new reforms/ideas o   Not one theory, an umbrella term for a lot of different moving parts •   Reiter o   Bargaining Model §   Incentives §   Commitment Problems §   Issue Indivisibility o   Spiral Model (Simplified Security Dilemma) §   States as security seeking §   War out of insecurity, or fear o   Deterrence Model §   States are greedy §   Conflict when the costs of war are low •   Hegemonic War (Gilpin) o   Actors: Hegemon/Established Power & Rising Power o   Cycles of equilibrium and disequilibrium o   Conflict over control of this system o   Can have war in three different ways: §   Hegemon attacks the rising power (Preventive War) §   One side attacks the other before they could otherwise attack (Preemptive War) §   Rising power wants to be in control of the system & is now more powerful than the hegemon (Hegemonic War) •   Images * WW1 •   Causes? o   3rd Image- Archduke Shot, very immediate cause o   Spiral Model- §   Germany’s fear of Russia •   Builds up military, other states don’t understand why they are doing this, everyone begins fearing Germany •   WW1 Ends, Great Depression happens, Gold Standard unravels when hegemon Great Britain weakens WW2 •   Causes? o   Motivational Realism §   Germany was a greedy state o   Security Dilemma §   All the states other than Germany thought they were in a defensive world o   Offensive Realism §   Germany was a security seeking state, was trying to get back to their power maximization from before the Treaty of Versailles •   WW2 Ends, Bretton Woods System, US is hegemon, GATT, WTO, etc. o   A lot more interest in investing into economies §   Could argue this is because of security o   Fear of soviet union United Nations •   General Assembly •   Security Council •   League vs. UN o   Cohen explains why countries would want to be in each Development •   Colonies become free, want to set up their own systems and develop, can do this in two ways: o   (1) Import Oriented Industrialization §   Disregard comparative advantage §   Use subsidies to prop up your own internal markets and internal goods §   Force domestic market to buy only your own stuff (usually high price, low quality) §   Constrained by the market that you can sell to §   Props you up to compete internationally later §   Ex. Latin America o   (2) Export Oriented Industrialization §   Making industries by following comparative advantage §   Target external market, compete in someone else’s market §   Ex. Asia Vietnam & Korea •   George Kennan o   Sets up doctrine of US foreign policy of containment §   Need to contain the soviet threat, over time their economics won’t work and they will fail, but we can’t allow any states to fall from communism, this would show that communism is winning and can outcompete us •   Korea o   US gets involved especially with UN o   China gets involved o   → ultimately you get a stalemate •   Vietnam o   US gets involved in Vietnam, still thinking like Korea §   Glosses over all of the differences between the two conflicts and ultimately leads to a lot of bad decision making of how to deal with the conflict o   Insurgencies * Nuclear Weapons •   Play a key role in mitigating and structuring how to great powers act from now on •   Deterrence o   Convincing your enemy that the cost of war is too high §   Fails when you do not back up your threats o   Probability of Benefits X Benefits < Probability of Costs X Costs o   Deter by either raising costs or decreasing benefits o   Jervis says: Nuclear weapons are good defensive weapons, very difficult to take territory, easier to use them as defensive to deter §   Leads to less war (The Long Peace) assuming… •   Actors are rational •   They have Secure Second Strike Capability •   Both sides have nuclear weapons command control •   Compellence o   Convincing an adversary that it is in their best interest to do something o   Ex. economic sanctions → we want Iran to do something so we put economic sanctions on them so that we will take them off when they do it •   Key point of nuclear weapons is neutral vulnerability •   Counter-Force vs. Counter-Value o   Counter-Force §  Threatening another side's military bases or troops o   Counter-Value §  You’re holding another sides assets, not military threat, like civilian territoires •   Stability/Instability Middle East •   Arab-Israeli War o   Israel preemptively attacked o   Incentives to misrepresent played a key role here (bargaining model) •   Yom Kippur War •   Nasser o   Emerges victoriously after the Suez crisis o   Resigns after 6 day war •   Sadat o   Was at camp david awards •   Faisal o   Modernizing saudi Arabia •   Meir o   Israeli Side o   Prime Minister o   Resigns after yom kippur war Oil •   Seven Sisters o   Name for the seven oil companies that formed the consortium for Iran o   Power is shifted from the companies to the states once middle eastern countries nationalize §  Become rational to sell as much oil for as much money as they can get §  Becomes a problem competing with other states §  → forms OPEC •   Saudi Arabia basically sets up the rules, maintains the rules, considered the swing power •   Volcker Plan o   Chairman of Federal Reserve o   Because of OPEC the price of oil is going up, and the supply is going down o   In the 70s in the US, this serves to bring a lot of economic issues o   Volcker comes up with the Volcker Plan, he is held responsible for dealing with this economic issue WTO, IMF, and The World Bank •   The Battle of Seattle •   Mundell Dilemma •   Sequencing o   Stiglitz Reading o   The importance is not the list of all the things you do, but the order in which you do them o   There is a certain order, and you want to make sure you stabilize your economic investment before you do more painful things o   * if this is an ID talk about its ideas but them immediately tie it into Washington Consensus, World Bank conditionality Environment •   Tragedy of the Commons •   Successes/Failures •   Montreal Protocol o   Example of a Success o   Dealt with CFCs that dealt with the depletion of the ozone layer o   Strategic reason why US was taking the lead- US company had an alternative that could do the same thing with a different product •   Copenhagen Conference o   Example of a failure o   Copenhagen Accords §  Developed countries to give money to developing countries but it was unbinding §  Key countries like China not really following the accords at all End of the Cold War •   Material vs. Ideational o   Material §  Soviet economic and military decline §  US outspent, outcompeted the Soviet Union §  Explains why the cold war ended, but not why the cold war ended when it did o   Ideational §  Gorbachev’s ideas of reform •   Glasnost and perestroika •   Key things that come out of the cold war o   German unification o   NATO expands o   Soviet Union collapses → Russia •   Bush Doctrine o   Changing the focus of foreign policy on failed states o   Preemptive war fighting §  Invading places prior to them becoming an issue •   R2P o   Who has Responsibility to Protect? §  (1) Global North §  (2) US §  (3) Everyone, any way they can o   What are you protecting? §  Against Human Rights Violations •   Financial Crisis o   2 Different Financial Crises §  US §  European •   Focus on EU, how it came together, what it’s purpose for coming together was, whether it is going to stay together •   Differences between monetary policy and fiscal policy •   Tradeable goods End of Realpolitik •   Convergence of State Preferences •   Hard Power- Military Power •   Regional Hegemon- Mearsheimer thinks right now it is harder to be a global hegemon, because other countries have their own sphere of influence, so US is easily able to have influence over mexico but not necessarily china o   Ex. other people can be powerful in their region and that’s their goal like CHina wouldn’t be an issue for us if they just wanted to be the hegemon of Asia, not the world


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