Module 3 Study guide
Module 3 Study guide PSYC 1000
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Naida Adams on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Christyn Dolbier in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Chapter 12 Personality Psychodynamic Theories 121: How did Sigmund Freud’s treatment of psychological disorders lead to his view of the unconscious mind? ● Projective Tests ● Freud had modern ideas about the unconscious and other Freudian concepts ● He became aware that many powerful mental processes operate in the unconscious, without our awareness ● The unconscious in Freud’s view: a reservoir of thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, that are hidden from awareness because they feel unacceptable. 122: What was Freud’s view of personality? ● Mind Iceberg ○ The mind is mostly below the surface of conscious awareness ○ Personality develops from the efforts of our ■ ego, our rational self, to resolve tension between ■ id, based in biological drives ■ superego, society’s rules and constraints 123: What developmental stages did Freud propose? ● Five psychosexual stages ○ Oral (018mths) → sucking, biting, chewing ○ Anal (1836mths) → bladder elimination, coping with demands for control ○ Phallic (36yrs) → genitals, coping with incestrous sexual feelings ○ Latency (6puberty) → dormant sexual feelings ○ Genital (puberty on) → Sexual urges reawaken and are more appropriately directed toward mature sexual relationships members of the opposite sex. ● Unresolved conflicts at any stage can leave a person’s pleasureseeking impfixate (stalled) at that stage. 124: How did Freud think people defended themselves against anxiety? ● Freud believed that we are anxious about our unacceptable wishes and impulses, and we repress this anxiety with the help of the strategies below. ○ Repression ■ anxietyevoking thoughts are pushed into the unconscious ■ Jill forgets a traumatic incident from childhood. ○ Regression ■ reverting to a more immature pattern of behavior when faced with anxiety ■ An adult has a temper tantrum when he doesn’t get his way ○ Projection ■ dealing with unacceptable feelings or wishes by attributing them to others ■ A lonely divorced woman accuses all men of having only one thing on their minds. ○ Reaction formation ■ unconsciously switching unacceptable impulses into their opposites ■ A former purchaser of pornography, Bob is now a tireless crusader against it. ○ Rationalization ■ creating selfjustifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions ■ Fred tells his friend that he didn’t get the job because he didn’t have connections. ○ Displacement ■ shifting sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person ■ After parental scolding, a young girl takes her anger out on her little brother. ○ Sublimation ■ channeling unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable activities ■ Tim goes to the gym to work out when he feels hostile and frustrated. ○ Denial ■ refusal to believe information that leads to anxiety ■ Amy fails to take a tornado warning seriously and is severely injured. 126: What are projective tests, how are they used, and what are some criticisms of them? ● Evaluating personality from a psychoanalytic perspective would require a psychological instrument (projective tests) that would reveal the hidden unconscious mind ● Projective tests are a structured, systematic exposure to a standardized set of ambiguous prompts, designed to reveal inner dynamics ● such as inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, or incomplete sentences ● The idea is that people project their unconscious thoughts, feelings, fears, or conflicts into the interpretation, revealing personality. ○ Two common projective tests include the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and the Rorschach ○ Rorschach Problem: Results don’t link well to traits (low validity) and different raters get different results (low reliability) 127: How do today’s psychologists view Freud’s psychoanalysis? ● They give Freud credit for drawing attention to the vast unconscious, to the struggle to cope with our sexuality, to the conflict between biological impulses and social restraints, and for some forms of defense mechanisms(false consensus effect/projection; reaction formation). ● His concept of repression, and his view of the unconscious as a collection of repressed and unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, cannot survive scientific scrutiny. ○ Freud offered afterthefact explanations, which are hard to test scientifically. Research does not support many of Freud’s specific ideas, such as the view that development is fixed in childhood. (We now know it is lifelong.) 128: How has modern research developed our understanding of the unconscious? ● Unconscious: a stream, not a reservoir ● The Unconscious As Seen Today: Processing, Perceptions, and Priming, But Not a Place ○ Schemas guide our perceptions ○ Right hemisphere makes choices the left hemisphere doesn’t verbalize ○ Conditioned responses, learned skills and procedures, all guide our actions without conscious recall ○ Emotions get activated ○ Stereotypes influence our reactions ○ Priming affects our choices Humanistic Theories 129: How did humanistic psychologists view personality, and what was their goal in studying personality? ● The humanistic psychologists’view of personality focused on the potential for healthy personal growth and people’s striving for selfdetermination and selfrealization. ● Humanistic psychology is in large part a reaction to Freud’s bleak depiction of human nature— that our actions are motivated primarily by the need to satisfy animalistic urges related to sex and aggression and that we lack conscious awareness of why we act. ○ believe in free will, or our ability to choose that is not controlled by genetics, learning, or unconscious forces ○ each of us can control our own behavioral destiny ○ people are assumed to have a natural tendency toward growth and the realization of their fullest potential. ● Maslow: The SelfActualizing Person ○ People are motivated to keep moving up a hierarchy of needs, growing beyond getting basic needs met ■ Self Actualization ■ Esteem Needs ■ Belonging Needs ■ Safety Needs ■ Physiological Needs ● Rogers’ Person Centered Perspective ○ Genuineness: being honest, direct, not using a facade ○ Acceptance: (Unconditional Positive Regard) acknowledging feelings without passing judgment ○ Empathy: tuning into the feelings of others, showing your efforts to understand, listening well ● Selfconcep was a central feature of personality for both Maslow and Rogers. 1210: How did humanistic psychologists assess a person’s sense of self? ● Maslow and Rogers sought to offer a “third force” in psychology: The Humanistic Perspective ● They studied healthy people rather than people with mental health problems ● Humanism: focusing on the conditions that support healthy personal growth ● Some rejected any standardized assessments and relied on interviews and conversations. ● Rogers sometimes used questionnaires in which people described their ideal and actual selves, which he later used to judge progress during therapy. 1211:How have humanistic theories influenced psychology? What criticisms have they faced? ● Some say Rogers did not appreciate the human capacity for evil. ● Rogers saw “evil” as a social phenomenon, not an individual trait: ● “When I look at the world I’m pessimistic, but when I look at people I am optimistic.” –Rogers ○ Humanist response: Selfacceptance is not the end; it then allows us to move on from defending our own needs to loving and caring for others. ● These theories are criticized for the concepts being vague and subjective and lacking scientific basis. ● The individualism that is encouraged can lead to self indulgence, selfishness, and an erosion of moral restraints. ● Lastly, the theories may be overly optimistic about human nature, failing to appreciate negative aspects of human nature. ● Some say that the pursuit of selfconcept, an accepting ideal self, and selfactualization encouraged not selftranscendence but selfindulgence, selfcenteredness. ○ Humanist response: The therapist using this approach should not encourage selfishness, and should keep in mind that that “positive regard” means “acceptance,” not “praise.” Trait Theories 1212: How do psychologists use traits to describe personality? ● Trait:An enduring quality that makes a person tend to act a certain way. ● Trait theory of personality That we are made up of a collection of traits, behavioral predispositions that can be identified and measured, traits that differ from person to person ○ Gordon Allport decided that Freud overvalued unconscious motives and undervalued our real, observable personality styles/traits. ○ Myers and Briggs wanted to to study individual behaviors and statements to find how people differed in personality: having different traits. ○ The MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a questionnaire categorizing people by traits. 1213: What are personality inventories, and what are their strengths and weaknesses as trait assessment tools? ● Personality Inventory: uestionnaire assessing many personality traits, by asking which behaviors and responses the person would choose ○ (such as the MMPI), T/F questionnaire ● Test items areempirically deriv and the tests are objectively scored. ○ people can fake their answers to create a good impression, and the ease of computerized testing may lead to misuse of the tests. 1214: Which traits seem to provide the most useful information about personality variation? ● The Big Five personality factors ○ Conscientiousness: selfdiscipline, careful pursuit of delayed goals ○ Agreeableness: helpful, trusting, friendliness ○ Neuroticism: anxiety, insecurity, emotional instability ○ Openness: flexibility, nonconformity, variety ○ Extraversion: Drawing energy from others, sociability ● currently offer the clearest picture of personality. These factors are stable and appear to be found in all cultures. 1215: Does research support the consistency of personality traits over time and across situations? ● A person’s average traits persist over time and are predictable over many different situations. But traits cannot predict behavior in any one particular situation. ● The evidence shows that it takes time for personality to stabilize. Traits do change, but less and less so over time. Wechange less, become moreonsistent. SocialCognitive Theories 1216: How do socialcognitive theorists view personality development, and how do they explore behavior? ● Albert Bandura believes that Personality is the result of an interaction that takes place between a person and theisocial context, involving how wthink about ourselves and our situations. ● Socialcognitive researchers apply principles of learning, cognition, and social behavior to personality. ● Reciprocal determinism is a term describing the interaction and mutual influence of behavior, internal personal factors, and environmental factors. 1217: What criticisms have socialcognitive theorists faced? ● The socialcognitive perspective on personality helps us focus on the interaction of behaviors, thoughts, and social situations. ● This focus, though, may distract us from noticing an individual’s feelings, emotions, inner qualities. ● Critics note that traits may be more a function of genetics and upbringing, not just situation. ● Example of two people with different reactions in the same situation: Two lottery winners sharing a jackpot; one sobbed, the other s ept Chapter 13 Social Psychology Social Thinking 131: What do social psychologists study? How do we tend to explain others’ b ehavior and our own? ● study of attitudes, beliefs, decisions, and actions and the way they are molded by social influence. ● Might examine aspects of the classroom situation that would influence any student’s decision about speaking ● Social psychologists use scientific methods to study how people think about,influence, and relate to one another. ● When explaining our own behavior, we more readily attribute it to the influence of the situation. 132: How do attitudes and actions interact? ● Attitude ○ Feelings, ideas, and belief that affect how we approach and react to other people, objects, and events ○ Affects our actions ○ Central Route Persuasion: going directly through the rational mind ○ Peripheral Route Persuasion: changing attitudes by going around the rational mind appealing to fears, desires, associations ● Actions ○ Affects attitudes ○ 3 socialcognitive mechanisms ■ The Foot in the Door Phenomenon ● The tendency to be more likely to agree to a large request after agreeing to a small one ■ The Effects of Playing a Role ● When we play a role, even if we know it is just pretending, we eventually tend to adopt the attitudes that go with the role, and become the role ■ Cognitive Dissonance ● When our actions are not in harmony with our attitudes ● Theory: the observation that we tend to resolve this dissonance by changing our attitudes to fit our actions. Social Influence 133:How do cultural norms affect our behavior? ● Culture, the behaviors and beliefs of a group, is shared and passed on to others including the next generation of that group. ● This sharing of traditions, values, and ideas is a form of social influence that helps maintain the culture. ● Norms are the rules, often unspoken but commonly understood, that guide behavior in a culture. Norms are part of the culture but also part of the way social influence works to maintain the culture. ● Cultures change over time; norms for marriage and divorce have changed in Western culture. 134:What is automatic mimicry, and how do conformity experiments reveal the power of social influence? ● Conformity refers to adjusting our behavior or thinking to fit in with a group standard ○ Automatic mimicry → behavior: Chameleon Effect (unintentionally mirroring), Empathetic, Copying the actions of others ○ Social Norms → thinking: Asch Conformity studies: About one third of people will agree with obvious mistruths to go along with the group. ○ Normative and Informational Social Influence ■ Normative Social Influence: Going along with others in pursuit of social approval or belonging (and to avoid disapproval/rejectiExamples: The Asch conformity studies; clothing choices. ■ Going along with others because their ideas and behavior make sense, the evidence in our social environment changes our mindExample: Deciding which side of the road to drive on. 135:What did Milgram’s obedience experiments teach us about the power of social influence? ● Obedience: response to commands ○ Milgram wanted to study the influence of direct commands on behavior ○ Question: Under what social conditions are people more likely to obey behavior? ○ Experiment: An authority figure tells participants to administer shock to a “learner” (actually a confederate of the researcher) when the learner gives wrong answers ○ Voltages increased; how high would people go? ○ In surveys, most people predict that in such a situation they would stop administering shocks when the “learner” expressed pain. ● Social influence ○ Group behavior besides conformity and obedience, there are other ways that our behavior changes in the presence of others, or within a group: ■ Social facilitation ■ Deindividuation ■ Groupthink ■ Social loafing ■ Group polarization 136:How is our behavior affected by the presence of others? ● Social Facilitation ○ Being watched, and simply being in crowded conditions, increases one’s autonomic arousal, along with increasing motivation for those who are confident, and anxiety for those are not confident 137:What are group polarization and groupthink, and how much power do we have as individuals? ● Group polarization ○ When people of similar views form a group together, discussion within the group makes their views more extreme ○ Different groups become more different, more polarized in their views. ● Groupthink ○ In pursuit of social harmony and avoidance of open disagreement, groups will make decisions without an open exchange of ideas ○ Irony: Group “think” prevents thinking, prevents a realistic assesment of options Social Relations 138: What is prejudice? What are its social and emotional roots? ● Prejudice: an unjustified (usually negative) attitude toward a group (and its members) ○ Beliefs, emotions, predisposition to act ● Social inequality ○ When some groups have fewer resources and opportunities than others ○ May result in prejudice ○ May be used to justify people as deserving their current position ● Emotional Roots of Prejudice ○ Scapegoat Theory: The observation that, when bad things happen, prejudice offers an outlet for anger by finding someone to blame ○ Experiements show a link to fear → temporary frustration 139: What are the cognitive roots of prejudice? ● Forming Categories: the otherrace effect ● The power of vivid cases: availibility heuristic ignores statstics ● “Just World” belief: People must deserve what they get fed by hindsight bias, cognative dissonance 1310: How does psychology’s definition aggression differ from everyday usage? What biological factors make us more prone to hurt one another? ● Aggression ○ Behavior with the intent of harming another person ○ Can be phsyical, verbal, relational, planned or reactive, driven by hostile rage ● The biology of aggression ○ There is not one genetically universal style or amount of aggressiveness in human behavior ○ Biological factors which may explain variation in levels of aggression ■ Genetic factors (heredity) ■ Neural factors (brain activity) ■ Biochemistry (hormones and alcohol) 1311: What psychological and socialcultural factors may trigger aggressive behavior? ● Violence increases during hot years, days ● Aversive: pain, heat, crowding, foul odors 1312: Why do we befriend or fall in love with some people but not with others? ● Proximity/Exposure and Attraction ○ Encounters once depended on proximity, working or living near the other person, but the key factor here is exposure. ● The Mere Exposure Effect: ○ Merely seeing someone’s face and name makes them more likeable . Your are more likely to develop attraction to someone you’ve seen a lot. ○ This effect probably helped our ancestors survive: What was familiar was more trustworthy, safe. ○ In the modern age, thanks to mirrors and photos, the face we are most familiar with is our own; so we are now attracted to people that look like us. 1313: How does romantic love typically change as time passes? ● Attraction ● Passionate love ● Compassionate love ● Equity/ SelfDisclosure ● Positive interaction, support 1314: When are people most–and least–likely to help? ● Altruism ○ is unselfish regard for the wellbeing of others ● We are most likely to help when we (a) notice an incident, (b) interpret it as an emergency, and(c) assume responsibility for helping. ● Other factors, including our mood and our similarity to the victim, also affect our willingness to help. ● Bystander effect ○ We are least likely to help if other bystanders are present 1315: How do social exchange theory and social norms explain helping behavior? ● Social exchange theory ○ the view that we help others because it is in our own selfinterest; in this view, the goal of social behavior is maximizing personal benefits and minimizing costs. ● Others believe that helping results from socialization, in which we are taught guidelines for expected behaviors in social situations, such as the reciprocity norm and the socialresponsibility norm. 1317: How can we transform feelings of prejudice, aggression, and conflict into attitudes that promote peace? ● Peace can result when individuals or groups work together to achieve superordinate (shared) goals. Research indicates that four processes–contact, cooperation, communication, and conciliation–help promote peace.
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