Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide GEOG 200
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 200 at James Madison University taught by Jonathan Walker in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Final Study Guide I. Central Asia A. Afghanistan 1. Harboring camps to train terrorist (Al Quada) 2. US has been in Afghanistan 2001-present 3. History a. USSR in Afghanistan – invaded in 1979 b. 1979-1989 (retreated in 1989) c. Proxy war USSR and USA (arms to “mujahedeen” d. Stinger: anti-aircraft missiles e. Successfully shot down USSR aircraft f. Russia’s Vietnam – unwinnable war g. Guerrilla tactics beat USSR army h. 1995 – rise of the Taliban (fundamentalist organization) i. Extremist ii. Closed girl schools iii. Erase all forms of worship that were not Islam iv. Taliban rose to power v. Camps set up to train terror vi. Post 9/11 USA came to realize terrorist were trained in Afghanistan – US invasion in Afghanistan B. Tibet 1. Part of China (PRC – people’s republic of China) 2. Was autonomous prior to 1950 3. Buddhist a. Many temples b. Non-violence 4. Was essentially a Theocracy (or religious state) with the Dali lama holding political and religious authority 5. 1950 the PRC invaded to secure territory 6. 1959 large scale invasion killed 80,000 Tibetan 7. 1963 Tibetan government moved government into exile in India (Dharasalana) 8. Negotiated with the PRC but PRC has reneged 9. Tibet has been “sinazation” – process of making Tibet more Chinese a. Send Han people (majority) to Tibet to establish Chinese culture, destroy temples, institute mandarin, start Han businesses’, PRC patrols 10. Resistance has been from monks a. Very dramatic b. Self-immulation (set self on fire) 11. Hollywood support a. Richard Gere b. Brad Pitt C. Mongolia 1. Majority of people are Pastoralists: people who raise livestock for subsistence purpose. II. South Asia A. Countries Included 1. India: 2ndlargest population 2. Pakistan: 6 largest population 3. Bangladesh: 7 largest population 4. Sir Lanka 5. Nepal B. Hindi – most widely spoken language in South Asia C. Urdu – language of Muslims D. Dominated by India E. India population issues – too many people for the area 1. Not enough jobs 2. High poverty a. Sterilization (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh): way to control population - Incentives like free operation and money - ($5-10) can pay for basic needs b. Education - Jobs (females will have more value) c. Politics - Female representation (Raise status of women) d. India diaspora – distribution 1. USA (NYC metro – Iselin NJ, California – Silicon Valley, Atlanta metro - Doraville, Chicago – north side) 2. England (mother country) 3. Canada (Toronto, Vancouver) 4. Australia 5. South Africa (coolie laborer) 6. Hong Kong 7. Uganda 8. Trinidad and Tobago 9. Fiji (50% ethnic Indian, 50% Fijian) F. Rice culture G. India has an RNI of 1.5%/year 1. Adding 15 million every year (2x NYC) H. Monsoons – seasonal shift in winds 1. Winter monsoon – dry and hot can get up to 120 degrees 2. Summer monsoon – water on to land, cooler and wet (rain and humidity) I. Outsourcing employment: money coming from outside 1. Dell, Amex, etc. 2. Customer service, Tech support 3. Reduces cots for US companies 4. Reduces job for Americans 5. Indian Tech Support a. Lower wages b. No benefits c. No social security tax d. No unemployment tax 6. English with an accent 7. Tech savvy 8. In India these are sought after jobs a. Available b. Inside – protected, air condition c. Worker housing d. Higher pay J. Indian emigration 1. Both men and women for marriage 2. Indian Hindu vs Muslin conflict 3. British empire 4. British East India Company a. Deals with maharaja (a local king subject to British advisors) b. Private organization that acted as an arm of the British government 5. British colonial possession 6. 1947 Partition of India a. Transition from British to independence b. Majority Hindu in the middle c. Majority Muslim surrounding K. Conflict zone 1. Jammer and Kashmir 2. Pakistan/India border – disputed territory, potential hot spot 3. Escalation of terrorism L. Caste system 1. 4 main castes 2. Top: Brahman a. Priestly b. Vegetarian c. Reverence for mother cow d. Lighter skinned 3. Bottom: Dalits (untouchables) a. Dirty b. Dangerous c. Demeaning jobs (sewage, trash, burying) 4. Only for Hindus M. Hinduism 1. Polytheistic 2. Giresh, Shiva 3. Reincarnation of being/soul Moksha 4. Deeds Karma (good and bad) 5. Sikhism: splinter religion from Hindu a. Deter caste system b. India origins c. Holiest site: Golden Temple in Amritsar d. Punjab state e. Sikh majority population f. Men wear turbans (head wraps) g. All members carry ceremonial dagger N. Sir Lanka 1. Tea/black tea (connection with English) 2. Buddhist majority – 81% 3. Hindu minority 4. Historical prejudice against Hindu 5. Tamil (Hindu ethnic group fought long and terrible for equality, 30 year civil war, “Tamil Tigers” – rebel army, featured boy and girl child soldiers, starvation fight or die, war ended with Sinhalese (Buddhist) crushed Tigers (genocide) O. Megacities 1. Delhi, India 2. Mumbai, India 3. Kolkata, India 4. Karaeli, Pakistan 5. Dhaka, Bangladesh III. Southeast Asia A. Diversity (food, language, religion – indigenous, clothing, architecture, flora –plants, fauna – animals, water buffalo, rhino) B. Animism – religion that worships nature sprits and their ancestors. (Tribal people in highlands) C. Lingua franca – common trade language used to help communicate throughout southeast Asia D. Domino theory – if Vietnam fell to communists, then other countries would follow E. Massive loss of natural habitat 1. Population growth and demand 2. Tropical timber: mahogany dense, resists rot F. Environmental issues 1. Export of whole longs – illegal in most places but Indonesia 2. Bomeo – deforestation, poaching of logs, forest clearing and burning a. Tropical soils are poor b. Burn vegetation nutrients into soil c. Massive amounts of smoke Singapore d. Origin of smoke in Sumatra e. Southeast Asia’s haze 3. Population growth/subsistence (growing for self) 4. Global demand/commercial (growing for sale) 5. Indonesian Transmigration: program to redistribute population from crowded islands to less crowded islands a. Ex: from Java to Sumatra b. Led to environmental disaster and conflict between new migrants and indigenous population G. Green Revolution 1. Program to end hunger 2. Post WWI experienced population boom hunger 3. Increase stable grains (rice) a. Hybrid seeds (high yield varieties) more rice per hectare b. Fertilizers (chemical) c. Chemical pesticides/biocides d. Irrigation 4. Negative: expensive, commercial over SE Asia H. Rural/urban migration 1. Move for job opportunity (cleaning maid, low paying jobs) 2. Squatter housing/settlements (self built housing) a. No indoor plumbing b. No running water c. Made out of wood, cardboards, sheet metal, plastic or tarps d. Bustee – squatter settlement in India e. Garbage picking for food and materials I. Khmer Rouge – “Red Cambodians”, the left-wing insurgent group that overthrew the royal Cambodian government in 1975 and subsequently created one of the most brutal political systems the world as ever seen J. Megacities 1. Manila, Philippines 2. Bangkok, Thailand 3. Jakarta, Indonesia K. Tourism 1. Thailand #1 destination in SE Asia a. Beaches b. History and Architecture c. Temples d. Sukhothai (former Kingdom) e. Ride an elephant f. Food (shrimp) g. Drugs (Marijuana) 1. Golden Triangle – Laos, Burma, Thailand 2. Heroin 3. Hashish 4. Sahu – Methamphetamine h. Sex - #1 destination for sex tourism 1. Older white men from US, Australia, Europe, Swiss/Germany 2. Young women 3. <18 children – rural Thailand, China, Myanmar 4. Pedophile destination 5. Young boys i. Medical 1. Plastic surgery 2. Gender reassignment surgery IV. East Asia A. Countries 1. Taiwan 2. North Korea 3. South Korea 4. Japan 5. Mongolia 6. Population B. Population 1. China has #1 population in the world but projected not to be (1.4 billion people) 2. One child policy in urban areas/ 2 in rural i. Disincentives – fines, jail, lack of access to higher education ii. Abortions – sex selective abortions iii. Biased towards boys iv. 120/100 boys to girls in China 3. Competition to find a female i. Raise the status of women 4. Marriage is often a matter of security 5. Japan/Taiwan/South Korea post WWI baby booms i. Ended by abortion to curb population growth C. PRC is now East Asia’s “Big Dog” 1. Economic prowess 2. Within its boundaries – China makes almost everything for almost everyone 3. Companies are USA, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan 4. Less expensive production costs 5. Profit margins are enormous 6. Sony (Japan) 7. Samsung (SK) 8. LG 9. Acer 10. Asus 11. Fakes and intellectual property impingement i. Movies ii. Software 12. Autonomous regions – provinces that have been granted a certain degree of freedom from centralized authority, due to the fact that they contain large amounts of non-Han Chinese people. 13. Ideographic writing – each symbol represents an idea rather than a sound. Used in Chinese 14. Kanji – borrowed Chinese characters by Japanese D. Chinese Market 1. About potential because of population 2. Wealth of demand i. Automobiles very high (best selling Volkswagen/Toyota) ii. American nameplate Buick best seller iii. GM sells more vehicles in China than USA 3. Special administrative region – Hong Kong. A region in the country that temporarily maintains its own laws and own system of government. E. Industrialization impact on environment 1. Poor regulation of laws 2. Air pollution – smog (coal burning, sulfur, mercury) 3. Water pollution – industrial waste products (acids, heavy metals) 4. Many people still rely on fishing agriculture i. Haul River 5. Shenzhen, China (near Hong Kong) i. 1970 – 5,000 people ii. 2000 – 1,000,000 people iii. Special economic zone – built up manufacturing in which investment was welcome and state interference was minimal 6. Shanghai i. Supports modernization in China (skylines) 7. Beijing i. New airport ii. Opera house iii. Horrid air pollution iv. Poor visibility 8. Rust belt – zone of decaying factories (Inner and Northern China) F. Outside China 1. Investments everywhere i. South Amar ii. Africa iii. USA (USA owes China lots of money) G. Megacities 1. Tokyo, Japan 2. Beijing, PRC 3. Seral, South Korea 4. Shanghai, PRC 5. Osaka Kobe, Japan 6. Superconurbantion (megalopolis) – Japanese cities form together P. End of Japan Inc. 1. Japanese factories producing abroad 2. Ex: Toyota in Kentucky, Honda in Ohio 3. 0% economic growth in > 20 years 4. Pollution exporting – because of Japanese strict environmental laws and high production costs, Japanese companies move their dirty factories outside of japan Q. Electronics in China 1. EDI: foreign direct investment from all East Asian countries R. PRC is the worlds largest holder of foreign exchange reserves 1. Money earned from exports S. Today’s global capitalism is in crisis 1. Interest rates – “price” of money 2. Interest rates declining glut of capital ($) 3. PRC money = influence 4. PRC demands recognition as 1 China 5. Taiwan vs PRC (1949 – present) a. Taiwan is “rogue” province b. 95% public says Taiwan should be taken by force c. Recognized by United Nations until 1971 d. Recognized by US until 1979 - Taiwan and US are allies – US sells Taiwan defense weapons e. Because PRC demand, Taiwan is isolated f. Not in UN g. Only recognized by 22 world states (many third world countries) h. Taiwan stays viable by “buying” friendship i. In return “friends” bring forth a vote for Taiwan in UN j. Military security vii. 1979 US – Taiwan Relations Act: if Taiwan is attacked the US must respond viii. 1996 Crisis – China sent missiles right past Taiwan 4. North Korea and South Korea a. 1953 armistice (seek fire) b. DMZ 38 degree parallel – world’s most heavily monitored boarder c. Korean diaspora – brought hundreds of thousands of people to the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippians d. Urban primacy – South Korea. A disproportionally large city dominates the urban system and is the center of economic, political, and cultural life.
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