Anatomy Exam 1
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 290 at James Madison University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Study Guide – Test 1 (Trunk, Nervous System, Thoracic Cavity) I. Why Anatomy? A. Evolution (phylogeny) 1. A phylogeny is a “family tree”. Most modern phylogenies are based on molecular (genetic) data. 2. Chordate characteristics: - Dorsal hollow nerve cord (spinal cord) - Notocord: flexible rod derived from mesoderm (embryonic tissue) and forms the central axis of the vertebrate body. The nucleus pulposus is remnant of the notocord. - Pharyngeal Slits: openings to what would be gill chambers if you were an organism with gills. Became structures in the human head (inner ear) 3. Vertebrate characteristics - vertebrae B. Development (ontogeny) 1. vertebrates are segmental animals 2. They exhibit serial repetition of structures along the longitudinal axis of the body. 3. Serial Homology/segmentation: Homology: structures which arise form the same origin. Segmentation: division of the body into specific units. 4. Embryonic somites: A somite is simply a block of mesodermal tissue. Somites become vertebrae, ribs, skin, and some muscles. Nerves are not derived form somites, but from their own embryonic tissue. C. Function 1. origin/insertion 2. muscle fiber orientation 3. joints crossed II. Anatomical Terminology A. Anatomical position: everything is in reference to this position. B. Anatomical Directions: 1. Anterior – front 2. Posterior – back 3. Superior – towards head 4. Inferior – towards feet 5. Medial – towards midline 6. Lateral – outward 7. Superficial – toward skin 8. Deep – towards insdies 9. Proximal – closer 10. Distal – away from C. Actions: 1. flexion/extension 2. abduction/adduction 3. rotation 4. pronation/supination 5. inversion/eversion 6. plantar flexion/dorsiflexion 7. circumduction 8. opposition 9. Actions occur around a joint 10. Actions are caused by muscles 11. Muscles can only do one thing….contract. D. Planes and Divisions 1. Sagittal: right down the middle - Median Sagittal - Parasagittal: anything off the midline 2. Coronal/frontal: cuts front from back 3. Transverse: horizontal 4. Longitudinal III. Organization of the Body A. Cells (and organelles) B. Tissues C. Organs D. Organ Systems 1. Skeletal 2. Muscular 3. Nervous 4. Reproductive 5. Endocrine 6. Circulatory/lymphatic 7. Respiratory 8. Digestive E. Skeletal Systems 1. Axial - skull and vertebral column 2. Appendicular - limbs and girdles F. Joints: 1. Fibrous joints: held together by ligaments. Least mobile of all joints - Sutures: joints in your skull - Syndesmoses: holds two bones together - Gomphoses: holds teeth together 2. Cartilaginous joints - Synchondrosis: made of hyaline cartilage and may be temporary or permanent joints. Ex: growth plates - Symphyses: made of pads of fibrocartilage and are permanent joints only in the midline of your body. 3. Synovial Joints: most common and most mobile - articular cartilage - synovial membrane - synovial fluid - joint capsule - ligaments: bind bone to bone - Tendons: bind muscle to bone IV. Trunk Osteology A. Individual Vertebrae Spinous Process: muslces and ligaments attach to this Transverse Superior articular process facet Costal Facet: rib meets the vertebrae and articulates with Vertebral foramen: Spinal cord goes through it. this Vertebral Body B. Vertebral Arch Superior View Lamina Pedicle Superior View V. Axial Skeleton A. Vertebral Curvatures 1. Lordosis: anterior facing curve 2. Kyphosis: posterior facing curve 3. Curvatures act as a spring when you jump 4. Primary curvature: C-shape at birth 5. Secondary: Cervical (develops as the baby crawls) Lumbar (develops as the baby starts to walk) B. Abnormal Vertebral Curvature 1. Hyperkyphosis: back is straighter than normal 2. Hyperlordosis: back bends inwards more than normal 3. Scoliosis: lateral curvature C. Vertebral Support Systems 1. Intervertebral disks (symphysis; cartilaginous joint) - 25% of height of vetebral column - None between C1(atlas)- C2(axis) or below S1 D. Ligaments of the vertebral Column 1. Syndesmoses (fiberous joint) 2. Ligaments are important to joints because they restrict the joint from moving too far. (they stabilize the joint) VI. Thoracic Cavity A. Function: Protection - heart - lungs - esophagus - distal trachea - major arteries/veins B. Sternum and Ribs 1. Sternum: 2. Ribs: 1. True ribs: (1-7) connect directly to costal facets on transverse processes (posteriorly) and to the sternum (anteriorly) by costal cartilage 2. False ribs: (8-10) connect to sternum anteriorly by rib 7’s costal cartilage 3. Floating ribs: (11-12) don’t connect to the sternum 4. Supernumerary ribs: extra ribs - cervical - lumbar 3. Joints: 1. Ribs and Vertebrae = synovial (gliding) 2. 2 points of contact: body and transverse process of the vertebrae 3. Sternum and costal cartilage (sternocostal) - 1 = synchondrosis (cartilaginous joint) - 2-7 = synovial (gliding) 4. Ribs and Costal Cartilage (costochondral) = synchondroses (cartilaginous joint) 5. Dislocations 6. Separations VII. Appendicular Skeleton A. Sacrum: L4 L5 Sacrum S1-5 B. Pelvic bones (os coxae): fusion of three bones lateral view ilium pub ischiu is m C. Osteological features of pelvis: (know the red boxes) 1. Crest = large ridge 2. Spine = a point projecting from a bone 3. Ramus = a “branch” or arm of a bone 4. Tubercle = rough “bump” on a bone 5. Tuberosity = a large tubercle 6. Foramen = hole in a bone for nerves/arteries/veins to pass through 7. Auricle = ear D. Pelvic Ligaments: Posterior View Sacroiliac Ligaments (A&P): Sacrum illium Sacrospinous Ligament: sacrum Ischial spine Sacrotuberous Public Ligament: sacrum Symphysis: ischial tuberosity connects pubic tubercles Anterior View Sacroiliac ligament: Sacrum Ilium Inguinal Ligament: anterior superior iliac Pubic Symphysis VIII. Trunk Muscles A. Muscle Tissue Types 1. Muscles can only contract 2. Skeletal: striated, voluntary (you choose when to contract them) - origin = stationary - insertion = mobile - belly = muscle mass - INSERTION moves TOWARDS the ORIGIN - Tendons connect muscle to bones 3. Smooth: lack striations: involuntary (found in all of your arteries and organs. Once you start it, you can’t stop it. Ex: swallowing 4. Cardiac: striated, branched, involuntary B. Muscle function 1. Heat 2. Stability 3. Movement 4. Control of body openings C. Muscle Architecture 1. Parallel 2. Pennate 3. Circular 4. Triangular 5. Fiber orientation reflects where the muscle moves D. Muscles of the Trunk 1. Two categories: epaxial and hypaxial 2. Epaxial muscles: back (extensors) innervated by dorsal rami - Splenius: on top of semispinalis - Iliocostalis - Longissimus Erector Spinae (I love - Spinalis sex) - Semispinalis: - Multifidus: connects spinous process to transverse process. Helping with roation - Unilateral: one side of the muscles are contracted - Bilateral: both sides contract 3. Hypaxial muscles: front (flexors) innervated by ventral rami a. Layers/groups - External (hands in pockets) - Internal (praying hands) - Transverse (horizontal) - cranial-caudal (rectus) (up and down) b. Abdominal Muscles (anterior) - Function: compress and support abdominal viscera, flex and rotate trunk - External oblique (insertion= linea alba) - Internal obliques (insertion= linea alba) - Transversus abdominis (insertion= linea alba) - Rectus abdominis (abs) c. Intersections, Tendons, and Ligaments - tendinous intersections (3 or 4) in rectus abdominis - Rectus sheath: fibrous connection (white top covers rectus abdominis) - Linea alba: the midline of the rectus sheath - Inguinal Ligament: forms the “V” d. Thoracic muscles (hypaxial muscles) - external intercostal: elevates ribs during inspiration (do not make it to sternum) - internal intercostal: depresses ribs during expiration (ex: blowing out a candle) - Sternalis: runs parallel to your sternum e. Pelvic Body Wall (hypaxial muslces) - Coccygeus muscle: causes flexion of the coccyx - Levator ani muscle: lifts the rectum around stool to compress it out IX. Nervous System A. Central Nervous System 1. Brain 2. Spinal Cord B. Peripheral Nervous System 1. Cranial Nerves 2. Spinal Nerves C. General Characteristics 1. Dendrite receives information 2. Cell body processes the information. (nucleus) 3. Axon sends the information 4. Myelin Sheath speeds up neural impulses 5. Brain matter: unmylenated neurons 6. White matter: mylenated neurons 7. Gray matter: unmylenated neurons D. CNS Structure 1. 3 meninges a. Dura mater: tough mother - outer most membrane, super thick - in between the bone and brain b. Arachnoid mater= cobweb mother - cobweb of tissue that forms second layer - loosely connected to dura mater (hands together) c. Pia mater = delicate mother - intimately connected to the brain and spinal cord - cannot separate it from the brain - Arachnoid mater and Pia mater create a realized space (hands apart) d. Subarachnoid mater: the space between these layers where CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) is located – produced in the brain and circulates through spinal cord e. Number of Spinal Nerves 1. 8 pairs of cervical spinal nerves (first pair come out from the bottom of the brain and the atlas) 2. 12 pairs of thoracic spinal nerves 3. 5 pairs of lumbar spinal nerves 4. 5 pairs of sacral spinal nerves 5. 1 pair of coccygeal spinal nerves E. CNS External Spinal Cord Anatomy Conus Medularis: The caudal end of the spinal cord Cauda Equina: Caudal collection of spinal roots Filum Terminale – this is an extension of pia mater that serves to anchor the spinal cord within the canal. It does pick some arachnoid and dura mater as it extends through the sacrum to anchor the spinal cord to the coccyx. F. Internal Spinal Cord Anatomy 1. Dorsal horns - incoming sensory neurons - Information comes in through the dorsal horns, processed through lateral horns, and then sent out through ventral horns 2. Ventral horns - outgoing motor neurons - motor ganglia (ganglion: a collection of cell bodies) 3. Lateral horns - soma (cell bodies) of motor neurons 4. Central Canal - CSF G. General Characteristics 1. Sensory Neurons: nerve impulse travels from receptors toward the CNS 2. Motor neurons: nerve impulses travel away from the CNS to target organs H. Spinal Nerves: Peripheral Nervous System Dorsal root ganglion = Sensory = motor Ramus= branch Rootlets combine to form roots. Roots combine to form spinal nerves. Spinal nerves branch to form rami. Spinal nerves are mixed. (both motor and sensory) Dorsal rami are mixed Ventral rami are mixed. I. Peripheral Nervous System PN S Somatic Visceral Sensory Motor Sensory Motor Parasympathetic Sympatheti c J. Skin 1. Dermatomes: section of skin innervated by a single nerve. - Formed by the sensory nerve branches of dorsal and ventral rami - Ventral rami may have both lateral and anterior branches - Ventral rami may have both lateral and posterior branches - Lateral cutaneous nerves - Anterior cutaneous nerves X. Thoracic Cavity A. Celom: fluid-filled body cavity. Not segmental Serous membrane= Serous fluid Celomic Cavity Serous fluid LUNG or Celomic Cavity Visceral serosa Parietal serosa Pericardial cavity Thorax pleural pleural cavity cavity diaphragm peritoneal Abdomen & Pelvis c avity B. Thoracic inlet 1. (T1, 1 ribs, manubrium) 2. Respiratory 3. Digestive 4. AVN C. Diaphragm: innervated by phrenic nerves 1. Vena Caval foramen 2. Esophageal hiatus 3. Aortic hiatus 4. Phrenic nerves D. 2 pleural cavities E. 1 mediastinum 1. Heart and great vessels 2. Trachea and primary bronchi 3. Esophagus F. Thorax I: Respiratory System 1. Function - gas exchange - vocalization - smell - control of pH 2. Divisions - upper - lower G. Conducting System 1. Trachea - tracheal rings - trachealis muscle - Cilliated epithelium (mucocilliary escalator) 2. Carina 3. 1 degree = main bronchi 4. 2 degree = lobar bronchi 5. 3 degree = segmental bronchi 6. Bronchioles - smooth muscle - non-ciliated (generally) - machrophages 7. Alveoli - gas exchange - capillary basket H. Pleura and Lungs 1. Visceral pleura: covers the surface of the lungs 2. Parietal pleura: attached to the surface of the internal thoracic wall 3. Pleural cavity: between the two membranes and is filled with serous fluid 4. Lungs - Lobes - Fissures - - Mediastinal surfaces - “root” - Pulmonary A/V - Trachea 5. Segmentation - autonomous segments - tertiary bronchi - clinical and surgical importance I. Clinical - Pleurisy: inflammation of pleura, may or may not include the build up of fluid between pleura - Pneumothorax Air, blood, fluid in pleural - Hemothorax cavity resulting in lung - Hydrothorax collapse J. Breathing 1. Inhalation - Diaphragm down, ribs elevated - Pressure decrease - Air rushes in 2. Exhalation - diaphragm up, ribs depressed - pressure increase - air forced out XI. Heart A. Pericardium 1. “Peri” = around 2. Pericardia a. Fibrous (outer) b. Parietal Serous (inner) 3. Visceral serous pericardium (epicardium) 4. Pericardial Cavity 5. Cardiac tamponade B. Chambers 1. Atria: connected as a fetus a. Pectinate muscle b. Auricles 2. Ventricles a. Trabeculae carne b. Ventricles are separated by a wall – interventricular septum 3. Sepata a. Interatrial: between atria b. Interventricular: between two ventricles c. Interventricular sulcus (indent) on the outside of the heart will help decipher two ventricles. Cardiac veins lay in ditch C. Atrioventricular Valves 1. Bicuspid: left atrium to left ventricle 2. Tricuspid: right atrium to right ventricle 3. Chordae tendinae: connect valves to papillary muscles 4. Papillary muscles: contract during ventricle contraction D. Semilunar valves: if open then you have ventricle contraction 1. Pulmonary Semilunar valve: blood passes through this before entering pulmonary trunk and then arteries. 2. Aortic Semilunar valve: blood passes through this before entering the ascending aorta and arch of the aorta 3. Non-muscular E. The Heart and Circulation 1. Pulmonary a. Gas exchange b. Oxygenates blood 2. Systemic a. To and from the body b. Lungs c. Heart F. Blood Supply (Coronary) 1. Cardiac veins drain into the coronary sinus 2. Coronary sinus collects deoxygenated blood from the heart and drains it into the right atrium XII. Lymphatic System A. Interstitial fluid – returned to the heart B. Lymph nodes – filtration C. Lymphatic Ducts 1. Right lymphatic duct empties at junction of right internal jugular and right subclavian veins 2. Left lymphatic duct (thoracic duct) – empties into junction of left internal jugular and left subclavian veins 3. Cisterna Chyli – most inferior part of thoracic duct D. Foramen ovale = fossa ovalis 1. Interatrial flow E. Ductus arteriosus = ligmentum arteriosus 1. Descending aorta and pulmonary trunk 2. Closes up at birth and is known as the ligmentum arteriosus in an adult F. Clinical 1. Myocardial Infraction- tissue dies 2. Coronary by-pass surgery: replacing arteries when blockage occurs due to plaque 3. Angioplasty/Stents- blockage but they haven’t had a heart attack so they insert a stent. Inflate the balloon and it inserts a mesh to keep the artery open.
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