Anatomy Test 2
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 290 at James Madison University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
STUDY GUIDE: TEST 2 (ABDOMEN, PELVIS, PERINEUM) I. Abdominal Organs 1. Non-segmental – not derived from somites 2. Gut Tube a. An organ system that extends from mouth to anus and from this embryonic structures are derived a variety of organs. b. Three divisions that are identified by blood supply: celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery, and inferior mesenteric artery. c. Foregut: trachea, bronchial tree, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, pancreas, upper duodenum. d. Midgut: lower duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, and proximately 2/3 of transverse colon. e. Hindgut: distal 1/3 of transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, upper anal canal, urogenital sinus. f. The gut tube protrudes out of the coelom cavity in the uterus and then gets pulled back inside when fully developed. g. Respiratory system comes from this as well. 3. The gut tube turns into Alimentary Canal: a single elongate, smooth muscular tube (with sphincters) running from the mouth to anus a. The alimentary canal has sphincters running through it. Sphincters are circular muscles that open and close, dilate and expand. b. Functions: - Ingestion: take stuff in - Digestion: break it down - Absorption: do something with it - Compaction: water is drawn out of the food and you’re left with things that can’t be digested (large intestine) - Defecation: get rid of it 4. Esophagus a. Skeletal muscle in upper 1/3. (voluntary muscle) b. Skeletal and smooth muscle in lower 2/3. (voluntary and involuntary) c. Peristalsis: wave-like muscular contractions d. Deglutition: swallowing 5. Stomach a. Food storage, mechanical and chemical digestion b. Curvatures – greater and lesser c. Cardiac sphincter – sits close to your heart. Opens to allow food into your stomach and closes to keep food from going back up. - Issue with this is the reason for heart burn d. Fundus – top part e. Body – middle f. Pylorus – bottom g. Pyloric sphincter – regulates what leaves the stomach h. Gastric Rugae for expansion – allow for expansion and more surface area 6. Small Intestine a. Chemical digestion and nutrient absorption b. Large surface area for expansion c. Duodenum – first part d. Jejunum – second part e. Ileum – last part f. Ileocecal valve – goes from the ileum to the cecum 7. Large Intestine a. Water reabsorption, compaction, defecation b. Cecum – first part c. Vermiform Appendix – worm like. - When your appendix enlarges this is what you take out d. Ascending colon – up your right side e. Transverse colon – straight across f. Descending colon – down your left side g. Sigmoid colon – “g” shape at the end h. Rectum – storage for stool 8. Liver a. 2 main lobes (left and right) b. Produces and secretes bile for digestion c. Stabilizes blood sugar levels d. Filtration and detoxification 9. Gallbladder a. Bile storage and concentration b. Releases bile so food can be digested c. Bile helps digest lipids d. Gallstones – when the salt precipitates out 10. Pancreas a. Endocrine gland – ductless gland it secrets its hormones directly into the system. (insulin and glucagon) b. Exocrine gland – glands with ducts secretes its hormones through a duct. (digestive enzymes) c. Produces and secretes these hormones and digestive enzymes. 11. Biliary Tree a. Pathway that starts at your liver and moves to your pancreas and forms with your pancreatic duct. 12. Spleen a. NOT part of the GI system but shares blood supply with the foregut structures b. Lymph organ c. Develops with liver and stomach d. Size of your fist and located on your left side e. Has an artery that goes to it the size of your pinky 13. Kidneys a. Urinary system b. Retroperitoneal c. Cleans and filters blood d. Produces urine e. Regulates pH, Ion and water balance f. Helps regulate homeostasis in your body g. NOT part of the digestive system but shares blood supply 14. Suprarenal Glands a. Endocrine gland b. Secrete hormones - Cortisol – stress hormone - Aldosterone – helps regulate blood pressure - Adrenaline (epinephrine) – fight/flight hormone, helps body react to stress - Sex hormones are also produced here but in less substantial quantities than the gonads c. Not involved in urine production d. Do not have ducts e. Not apart of kidneys but share blood supply 15. Mesentery a. Early in development the abdominal viscera all lie in the mid-line of the peritoneal cavity. Their surface is covered by visceral peritoneum (VP) and where the two layers of VP come together, it forms a dorsal mesentery that suspends the gut tube within the cavity. b. On the liver and stomach there is also a ventral mesentery that attaches these organs to the ventral body wall c. Mesentery is still parietal lining. Suspends organs from within the body cavity. d. Parts of the small and large intestines lose their dorsal mesentery and become retroperitoneal. e. Retroperitoneal – not completely surrounded by peritoneum. Lose the dorsal mesentery. 16. Linings and Membranes a. Adult Mesenteries b. Ventral (foregut) - Falciform Ligament – lies on liver - Lesser omentum – connects to lesser curvature c. Dorsal (fore/hindgut) - Mesentary proper – stomach - Transverse mesocolon – runs along transverse colon - Sigmoid mesocolon – located on sigmoid colon - Greater omentum – covers entire abdomen II. Abdominal Blood Supply 1. Paired arteries and veins go to/from structures derived from somites. 2. Unpaired arteries and veins go to/from non-segmental structures associated with the gut tube. 3. Paired arteries a. Renal arteries b. Lumbar arteries c. Gonadal arteries 4. Paired Veins a. Inferior Vena Cava b. Gonadal Veins c. Right Common Iliac Veins d. Left Renal Veins 5. Unpaired Arteries a. Celiac Trunk – supplies foregut with blood b. Superior Mesenteric – supplies midgut with blood c. Inferior Mesenteric – supplies hindgut with blood 6. Celiac Trunk a. Cystic Artery b. Hepatic arteries c. Hepatic proper artery d. Right gastric artery e. Gastroduodenal artery f. Left gastric artery g. Splenic artery h. Left gastroepiploic artery i. Common hepatic artery j. Right gastroepiploic 7. Hepatic Portal System a. All the blood filters through the liver to the inferior vena cava and to the heart. left Right III. The Nervous System (Visceral Innervations) 1. The Nervous System a. Central Nervous system - Brain - Spinal Cord b. Peripheral Nervous system - Cranial nerves - Spinal nerves c. General Characteristics - Dendrite – receives information - Axon – sends information - Soma – Nucleus of cell bodies 2. Peripheral Nervous System a. Somatic - Sensory - Motor - Soma in ventral horn - Skeletal muscle innervation - Voluntary control – you choose to move it - Skin innervation b. Visceral - Automatic - Smooth and cardiac muscles - Generally unaware of sensory input - Glandular innervation - Involuntary control - Visceral Motor Pathway requires two motor neurons Preganglionic Postganglionic neuron neuron Target organ CNS Smooth ganglio Lateral horn n muscle, and brain cardiac muscle or glands d. Sympathetic - Fight or flight response - Preganglionic neurons originate in T1-L2 vertebrae - Ganglia are located in the thoracic spinal region - Sympathetic innervation Trunk and Body Wall o Origin: T1-T12 o Synapse: Symp. trunk Thoracic Viscera o Origin: T1-T5 o Synapse: Sympathetic Trunk Abdominal and Pelvic Viscera (stomach to anus) o Origin: T5-L2 o Synapse: prevertebral glanglia e. Parasympathetic - Rest and digest response - Preganglionic neurons originate in brain and S2-S4 - Ganglia are located in, on, or near effectors Thoracic viscera o None Abdominal and pelvic viscera o Stomach-L. colic flex. o Origin: vagus nerve Descending Colon – anus o Origin: S2-S4 spinal nerve IV. Pelvis and Perineum 1. Perineum: region inferior to pelvic diaphragm a. Structures - Transverse perineal muscle (hypaxial skeletal muscle) - External anal and urethral sphincter (hypaxial skeletal muscle) - External genitalia b. Functions: - Anchors and moves external genitalia and anus c. Divided into two triangles - Urogenital – urinary system and reproductive system - Anal – where the anus is located Male: External Transverse Perineus urethral m. sphincter Central External anal sphincter m. Female Urethra Transverse Perineus Vagina m. Centr Anus al Tendo External Urethral sphincter m. 2. Pelvic Gut tube a. Rectum – used for storage of stool External b. Anus – two sphincter muscles anal - External anal sphincter (skeletal muscle, sphincter m voluntary) - Internal anal sphincter (smooth muscle, involuntary) 3. Female Pelvic Urinary Organs a. Ureters – carry urine form the kidneys to the bladder b. Urinary Bladder – smooth muscle (visceral) c. Urethra – connects bladder to outside of body. Bacteria easily travels through this, then into bladder, to the ureteric orifices, to the ureters, and into the kidneys to cause infection. d. Ureteric orifice – end of the ureters. Empty into bladder e. Internal urethral sphincter – smooth muscle (involuntary) f. External urethral sphincter – skeletal (voluntary) g. External urethral orifice 4. Male Pelvic Urinary Organs a. Ureters b. Urinary Bladder c. Urethra d. Prostatic urethra – within the prostate gland e. Membranous urethra – in the membrane of the transverse perineus f. Spongy urethra – in the penis V. Pelvis and Perineum II 1. Reproductive Organs a. Male: produce sperm and introduce these into female organs b. Female: produce eggs, receive sperm, harbor fetus, give birth, nourish offspring c. Primary organs: produce gametes d. Secondary organs: required for reproduction e. Secondary Sexual characteristics: distinguish sexes 2. Pelvic Viscera: female reproductive structures a. Ovaries - Production of ova - Production and secretion of estrogen and progesterone - Suspended by ligaments from uterine body and abdominal wall - Not enclosed in peritoneum b. Uterine Tube - Conducts ovum to uterus - Fimbriae: catch egg when released from ovary and pulls it into uterine tube - Infundibulum: beginning - Ampula: middle - Isthmus: end c. Uterus - Three body layers: perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium. - Endometrium is the inside wall that sheds when women have their menstrual cycle. - Fundus – top of uterus - Body - Lateral Fornix – side of cervix - Cervix – opening to vaginal canal - External os - Round ligament Perimetrium d. Vagina - Birth canal - Receptacle for penis - Excretory passage for menstrual flow - Fornix – around cervix - Vaginal rugae – male stimulation - Hymen – covers vaginal orifice 3. Pelvic Viscera: Male Reproductive Organs a. Testes (abdominal organ) - Spermatogenesis - Testosterone production/secretion - Epididymis: sperm maturation, storage, reabsorption - Scrotum: muscular sac (Dartos and Cremaster muscles/extended internal oblique) - Raised and lowered according to temperature b. Ductus (vas) deferens - Ejaculatory muscle move sperm - Spermatic cord is composed of testicular nerves, arteries, and veins, and cremaster muscle - Vasectomy: mechanical way of preventing sperm from exiting. Cut the vas defrenes and tie the two ends. Still producing sperm. Still ejaculate but lacks sperm. c. Seminal Vesicles - Seminal vesicle and vas deferens form the ejaculatory duct - Produce sperm nourishing solution d. Prostate - Produces alkaline fluid – neutralizes acidic vaginal environment f. Bulbourethral Glands - Pre-ejaculatory fluid - Neutralizes urethral pH - Lubrication of urethra - Within the transverse perineal muscle 4. Pelvic and Perineal Blood Supply a. Left internal iliac artery/vein b. Internal pudendal artery (goes to penis or clitoris) c. Arteries and nerves pass through the lesser sciatic and greater sciatic foramen d. Ischiarecta fossa is the space between the levator ani and transverse perineal muscle. Internal pudendal artery and vein run through this space 5. Innervation of Pelvic Viscera a. Visceral organs (smooth muscle) rectum, anus, bladder b. Viseromotor innervation c. Parasympathetic - Contracts rectum = defecation - Contracts bladder = micturation e. Sympathetic - Contracts internal anal sphincter = prevents defecation - Contracts internal urethral sphincter = prevents micturition 6. Perineum and External Genitalia: Male a. Composed of several masses of erectile tissue b. Erectile tissues are surrounded by hypaxial muscles c. Attached to the transverse perineal muscles and adjacent body pelvis d. Erectile tissues are homologous in males and females e. Hypaxial muscles of the perineum - Transverse perineus - External urethral sphincter - External anal sphincter - Innervated by ventral rami from the sacrum 7. Penis a. Body - Corpus Spongiosum- holds the spongy urethra. Glands of the penis at the end of it, blub of the penis at the beginning. - Corpus Cavernosum – holds the deep arteries. Lateral branches are the crus of the penis. b. Glans - Sensory nerves from the pudendal nerves - Located at the head of the penis c. Erectile tissues - Covered by hypaxial muscle. - Muscle pushes blood out toward head of penis - Prevents drainage d. Hypaxial Muscles Surrounding Tissue - Ischiocavernosus muscle – sits approximate to the ischium, covers the corpus cavernosum - Bulbospongiosus muscle – covers the bulb of the corpus spongiosum e. Erection - Parasympathetic - Nerve fibers cause vasodilation - Hypaxial muscles are contracting and dorsal vein gets compressed and the drainage is prevented. - Blood fills erectile tissue and causes penis to enlarge g. Blood Supply - Vasodilation = erection - Compression of veins maintains erection - Deep arteries located in corpus cavernosum - Dorsal arteries and veins. 8. External Genitalia: Female a. Erectile Tissue ***Same As Male*** b. Glans of Clitoris (corpus spongiosum medial) c. Crus of Clitoris (corpus cavernosum lateral) d. Hypaxial muscles surrounding erectile tissue - Bulbospongiosus - Ischiocavernosus - Do not affect the urethra like in the male, but they do push blood to the clitoris 9. Female – Male Genital Homologs a. Bulb of the Vestibule vs. Bulb of the penis b. Glans clitoris vs. Glans penis c. Crura of clitoris vs. Crura of penis d. Ovaries vs. Testes e. Labia majora vs. Scrotum 10. Innervation of External Genitalia a. Somatic Nerve - Pudendal nerve (S2-S4 origins) - Travels with pudendal artery - Dorsal nerve sensory innervation to glans of clitoris and penis b. Visceral motor nerves - Parasympathetic nerves to erectile tissue - vasodilators - stimulate erection - Sympathetic nerves -innervate glands and smooth muscle 11. Descent of Gonads: Ovaries and Testes a. The gubernaculum is a cord of tissue that passes through the anterior abdominal wall and connects the inferior pole of each gonad to the developing scrotum in males and developing labia majora in females b. Testes will pass through the inguinal canal behind the perineum c. Ovaries will not pass through. d. In males all that remains of the gubernaculum is a remnant of connective tissue that attaches the caudal pole of the testis to the scrotum. e. In females the remnant is the round ligament of the uterus which is the only structure passing through the inguinal canal. 12. Tunica Vaginalis a. Celomic cavity alongside each testis b. Derived from peritoneal cavity as testis passes through inguinal canal c. Present in males only 13. Spermatic Cord a. Ductus deferens b. 3 body wall layers (external obliques, internal obliques, transversus abdominus) c. Testicular artery and vein d. Genital nerve
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