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Anatomy Test 3

by: Tara

Anatomy Test 3 BIO 290

GPA 3.0

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This test will cover the Lower Limbs.
Human Anatomy (Bio 290)
Study Guide
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 290 at James Madison University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Study Guide Test 3 (Lower Limb) I. Serial Homology in Limbs (one bone, two bones, lotsa bones, digits) A. Pelvic girdle 1. Os coxae 2. Girdle holds it on to the axial skeleton. B. Femur C. Tibia D. Fibula E. Tarsals F. Metatarsals G. Phalanges H. Lower limbs are apart of the appendicular skeletal system. I. Limbs are derived from somites J. Synovial joints 1. Ends of bones have articular cartilage  synovial membrane  produces synovial fluid that lubricates the joint. 2. Outside the membrane is a fibrous joint capsule made out of ligaments. Muscles and tendons pass over the joint capsule. 3. Different types of limb joints allow different types of muscle actions. II. Limb Muscles A. Develop from somites B. Composed of hypaxial muscles C. Innervated by ventral rami of spinal nerves D. Muscle Groups 1. often have the same motor innervation 2. often share similar muscle attachments 3. often share similar muscle actions III. Anterior Compartment: Hip, Thigh, Knee A. Pelvic Girdle 1. Sacrum and Os Coxae 2. Os Coxae = ilium, ischium, and pubis B. Femur posterior view of femur Anterior View 1. Medial condyle and lateral condyle connect with tibia and fibula. Forms synovial joint. 2. Linea aspera: muscles attach here 3. Interosseous membrane: fibrous joint between tibia and fibula 4. Ankle joint is the space below the lateral malleolus and medial malleolus. C. Joints 1. Pubic Symphysis a. Cartilaginous joint 2. Sacroiliac joint a. Gliding joint (synovial) - Little motion b. Ligaments (syndesmoses) - Anterior/Posterior sacroiliac - Sacrospinous - Sacrotuberous 3. Coxal (Hip) a. Synovial: ball and socket - Labrum cartilages rim that stabilizes the joint - Transverse acetabular ligament forms the base of the joint. b. Reinforcing ligaments - Fibrous joint capsule if formed from these ligaments 4. Knee Joint a. Two articulations: - Hinge joint: femur-tibia - Gliding joint: patella-femur - Flexion/extension - Some rotation b. Menisci - Medial/Lateral meniscus - Fibrocartilage discs - Function: Match articular surfaces Shock absorbing Joint Stability D. Ligaments 1. Knee Stability a. Extracapsular - Patellar - Medial Collateral - Lateral Collateral b. Intracapsular - Anterior cruciate Weaker Prevents hyperextension Prevents anterior displacement (tibial) - Posterior Cruciate Stronger Prevents hyperflexion Prevents posterior displacement (tibial) E. Muscles of Hip and Thigh 1. Anterior Compartment a. Flexion at hip b. Extension at knee c. Abduction/adduction d. Femoral Nerve (also superior gluteal nerve) e. Iliopsoas group - Insert on lesser trochanter - Flex thigh (coxal joint) - Psoas major muscle - Iliacus muscle - Femoral nerve innervation f. Quadriceps Group - insert on tibial tuberosity (4) - Extend knee (4) - Femoral nerve innervation - Rectus Femoris muscle - Vastus lateralis muscle - Vastus medialis muscle - Vastus intermedius muscle - Sartorius muscle Femoral Nerve Innervation 2. Gluteal Compartment a. Gluteal muscles and tensor fasciae latae b. Lateral rotators of the thigh c. Pelvic origins (5) d. Femoral insertions (4) e. Superior Gluteal Nerve (Gluteus Maximus) f. Inferior Gluteal Nerve (Gluteus Medius and Minimus, TFL) g. S1-S2 ventral rami (Piriformis) h. Cross the coccygeal joint Gluteus Maximus Gluteus Medius: Gluteus Abduction, Minimus: Extension, lateral extension(P), lateral Abduction, rotation rotation(P), flexion, medial flexion(A), medial rotation(A) Gluteus Medius i. Piriformis Gluteus Minimus - Crosses the coxal joint - Lateral rotates hip - Posterior j. Tensor Facsiae Latae - Controls your iliotibial tract Gluteus - IT band inserts on the proximal lateral tibia Maximus 3. Medial Compartment: Adductor Group (5) a. Origin from pubis and ischium b. Insert on linea aspera c. Adduction of hip d. Obturator nerve innervation e. Coccyeal joint is crossed Pectineus Muscle: outer most muscle. Adduct, flex, laterally rotate thigh Adductor Longus Muscle: Adduct, flex, laterally rotate thigh Gracilis Muscle: Adduct, flex thigh, flex leg Adductor Brevis Muscle: Deep to pectineus. Adduct, flex, laterally rotate thigh. Adductor Magnus Muscle: forms adductor hiatus. Adduct thigh and extend thigh. (Adductor and 4. Posterior Compartment: Hamstring Group (3) a. Origin from ischial tuberosity b. Flex the knee and extend the hip c. Tibial nerve innervation d. Cross knee joint Biceps Femoris Muscle: lateral hamstring. (long head and short head) Semimembranosus Muscle: medial hamstring. Semitendinosus Muscle: medial hamstring IV. Leg and Foot A. Bones 1. Calcaneus 2. Cuboid 3. Navicular 4. Cuneiforms a. Medial b. Intermediate c. Lateral 5. Metatarsals (5) 6. Phalanges a. Proximal b. Medial c. Distal d. Big Toe only has Proximal and Distal phalanges Dorsal View. (superior view) B. Talocrural Joint (Ankle) 1. Function: Dorsiflexion/Plantarflexion 2. Articulation: Tibia and Fibula/Talus 3. Hinge Joint C. Ankle: Intertarsal Joints 1. Gliding joints permit inversion/eversion 2. Subtalar Joint = talus and calcaneus 3. Transverse talar Joint = talus/calcaneus and navicular/cuboid D. Ligaments of the “Ankle” 1. Lateral collateral ligaments: Lateral malleolus – talus/calcaneus a. Stabilizer b. If you’ve sprained your ankle it is most likely on lateral side 2. Deltoid ligaments: Medial malleolus – talus/calcaneus a. Less likely to rupture these ligaments E. Arches 1. Arches help distribute weight of foot 2. Keystone: holds the arch together 3. Medial Arch of foot a. Keystone: talus 4. Lateral Arch of foot a. Keystone: cuboid 5. Transverse Arch of the foot a. Keystone: intermediate cuneiform F. Anterior Compartment of Leg (extensors) 1. Insertion on dorsal foot 2. Dorsiflex foot (ankle) 3. Extend the toes (2) 4. Deep fibular nerve innervation (branch of common fibular nerve) 5. Tibialis Anterior a. Inverts foot b. Dorsiflex foot 6. Extensor Hallucis Longus a. Hallucis = big toe b. Extends big toe c. Dorsiflex foot 7. Extensor Digitorum Longus a. Tendon extends to toes b. Extends toes c. Dorsiflex foot) 8. Fibularis Tertius a. Connects to lateral side of foot b. Everts foot G. Lateral Compartment: Fibularis Group (2) 1. Origin on lateral surface of fibula 2. Pass posterior to the lateral malleolus 3. Plantarlex foot (ankle) 4. Evert foot (ankle) a. Movement of the sole of the foot laterally 5. Superficial fibular nerve innervation Lateral View H. Posterior Compartment: Calf (flexors) 1. Superficial layer (3) a. Gastrocnemius b. Soleus c. Plantaris d. Tibial nerve innervation 2. Deep Layer (3) e. Insert on plantar foot f. Plantarflex foot (ankle) g. Tibial nerve innervation h. Tibialis posterior i. Flexor digitorum longus j. Flexor hallucic longus 3. Retinaculum a. Fiber connective tissue b. Catches tendons and keeps them in place around the ankle c. Tendons pass underneath them V. AVN of the lower limb A. Nerves of the Lower Limb 1. Lumbosacral plexus origins a. Ventral rami of T12-S5 spinal nerves b. Hypaxial muscles innervations c. Focus on named nerves and compartments d. Arteries carry oxygen rich blood to viscera. Contractile e. Veins carry oxygen poor blood towards the heart. Not contractile, passive, valves help to push blood upward. f. Femoral nerve - Innervates Quad group - Passes underneath inguinal ligament to anterior compartment - External artery turns into the femoral artery when it passes the inguinal canal. - Very superficial and easy to damage g. Obturator nerve - Innervates Adductor group - Deep to adductor longus muscle 2. Sacral and Coccygeal plexus a. Superior gluteal nerve - Superior of piriformis - Gluteus medius and minimus b. Inferior gluteal nerve - Inferior to piriformis - Gluteus maximus c. Sciatic nerve - Deep to gluteus maximus muscle and hamstring muscles - Divides in popliteal fossa - Common fibular nerve Splits and forms superficial and deep fibular nerve Deep innervates anterior compartment of leg Superficial innervates lateral compartment of leg Innervates Biceps femoris short head - Tibial nerve Deep to gastrocnemius and soleus muscle Superficial to tibialis posterior muscle Innervates posterior compartment of leg Innervates Biceps femoris long head 3. Foot a. Plantar: - Medial and lateral plantar nerves - Branches of tibial nerve b. Dorsal: - Dorsal nerve - Branch of deep fibular/peroneal B. Arteries 1. External Iliac  2. Femoral  a. Deep Femoral 3. Popliteal  a. Anterior Tibial - Dorsal Pedal b. Posterior Tibial - Fibular Plantar \ C. Veins 1. Same as arteries 2. Superficial Veins a. Great Saphenous - Runs medial in the thigh b. Small Saphenous - Runs lateral on your calf 3. Clinical a. Varicose Veins - enlarged, twisted veins - Valves failure - Common in superficial veins - Painful, itchy, ulcerative - Surgical and non-surgical treatments D. Cross Section of the Leg VI. Actions of Lower Limb Muscles A. Flexion – Movement that decreases the angle between body parts at a joint(s) B. Extension – Movement that increases the angle between body parts at a joint(s) C. Lateral Flexion – Lateral movement of trunk in coronal plane D. Abduction – Lateral movement of a body part away from the midline E. Adduction – Medial movement of a body part toward the midline F. Rotation – Limb segment pivots around the longitudinal axis of limb 1. Medial – rotation of the anterior surface of a limb medially 2. Lateral – rotation of the anterior surface of a limb laterally G. Eversion – Movement of the sole of the foot laterally H. Inversion – Movement of the sole of the foot medially I. Dorsiflexion – Movement of the superior surface of foot toward the leg J. Plantar flexion – Movement of the hell off the substrate


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