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Anatomy Test 4

by: Tara

Anatomy Test 4 BIO 290

GPA 3.0

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This test will over the Upper Limbs.
Human Anatomy (Bio 290)
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 290 at James Madison University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Study Guide – Test 4 (Upper Limb) I. Upper Limb: Scapula and Humerus A. Joints 1. Ball-and-socket a. Glenohumerol (shoulder) – wide range of motion b. Ligaments: - Coracoacromial (protection) - Coracohumeral (dorsal) - Glenohumeral (anterior) - Transverse humeral (covers tendon of LH Biceps brachi) - Bursae – synovial fluid covers joints (bursitis) c. Humeroradial – rotate 2. Ellipsoid a. Fingers 3. Hinge a. Humeroulnar – Elbow (flexion and extenson) b. Ligaments: - Ulnar Collateral (medial) - Radial Collateral (lateral) - Annular (around radius) 4. Saddle a. Thumb b. Sternoclavicular joint: sternum and clavicle 5. Pivot a. Radiounlar – Radial pivots around the ulna (pronate and supinate) 6. Gliding/plane a. Carpal joints b. Acromioclavicular joint: acromion and clavicle B. Bones and Regions 1. Brachium a. Humerus 2. Antebrachium a. Ulna b. Radius 3. Hand a. Carpals b. Metacarpals c. Phalanges 4. Pectoral Girdle a. Clavicle and Scapula b. Acromion turns into your scapula c. Sternoclavicular and Acromioclavicular joints 5. Scapula a. Vertebral border b. Lateral border c. Spine d. Supraspinous fossa e. Infraspinous fossa f. Acromion process g. Coracoid process h. Glenoid fossa i. Subscapular fossa Posterior View Anterior View 6. Actions of Scapula a. Retract (Adduct) – shoulders back, slouch b. Protract (Abduct) – shoulders forward, giving hug c. Elevate – shrug shoulders up d. Depress – shoulders down, lift off of chair 7. Humerus a. Head b. Greater tubercle c. Crest of greater tubercle d. Lesser tubercle e. Crest of lesser tubercle f. Intertubercular groove g. Deltoid tuberosity h. Medial supracondylar crest i. Lateral supracondylar crest j. Medial epicondyle k. Lateral epicondyle l. Trochlea m. Coronoid fossa n. Capitulum o. Radial fossa p. Olecranon fossa Posterior View II. Muscles of Shoulder A. Pharyngeal Group (2) 1. Derived from embryonic structures (pharyngeal arch) not somites 2. Innervated by accessory nerve, cranial nerve 11 3. Trapezius a. O: Occipital bone and spinous processes of cervical and thoracic vertebrae. b. I: Spine & acromion process of scapula, lateral clavicle c. A: Superior fibers: elevate scapula. Inferior fibers: depress scapula. Middle fibers: retract scapula 4. Sternocleidomastoid a. O: Manubrium of sternum and medial clavicle b. I: Mastoid process of skull c. A: Bilateral: extend head and neck. Unilateral: laterally flex head and neck B. Serratus Group (3) 1. All innervated by Brachial plexus 2. Derived from somites 3. Levator Scapulae a. O: Transverse processes of vertebrae C1-C4 b. I: Medial border of scapula (superior to rhomboideus) c. A: Elevate scapula, extend neck when scapula fixed 4. Rhomboideus a. O: Spinous processes of vertebrae C7-T5 b. I: Medial border of scapula (dorsal to serratus anterior) c. A: Elevate and pull scapula toward midline (retract) d. Minor and Major Rhomboideus 5. Serratus Anterior a. O: Outer surfaces of ribs b. I: Medial border of scapula c. A: Pull scapula ventrally and inferiorly C. Latissimus Group (3) 1. Innervated by Brachial Plexus 2. Teres Major (Lats little helper) a. O: Lateral border of scapula b. I: Crest of lesser tubercle c. A: Extend, Adduct, and Medially rotate humerus 3. Latissimus Dorsi a. O: Spinous processes of inferior 6 thoracic vertebrae, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inferior 3 ribs b. I: Intertubercular groove c. A: Extend, Adduct, and Medially rotate humerus 4. Subscapularis a. O: Ventral surface of scapula b. I: Lesser tubercle c. A: Adduct, medially rotate humerus D. Spinatus Group 1. Innervated by Brachial Plexus 2. Supraspinatus a. O: Supraspinous fossa b. I: Superior greater tubercle c. A: Abduct humerus 3. Infraspinatus a. O: Infraspinous fossa b. I: Posterior greater tubercle c. A: Adduct and laterally rotate humerus E. Deltoid Group (2) 1. Innervated by Axillary nerve 2. Deltoideus a. O: Acromion process, spine of scapula, lateral clavicle b. I: Deltoid tuberosity c. A: Anterior fibers: flex, adduct, and medially rotate humerus. Middle fibers: abduct humerus. Posterior fibers: extend, adduct, and laterally rotate humerus 3. Teres Minor a. O: Lateral border of scapula b. I: Posterior greater tubercle c. A: Adduct and laterally rotate humerus F. Pectoral Group 1. Innervated by Brachial plexus 2. Pectoralis major a. O: Sternum, costal cartilages, and medial clavicle b. I: Crest of greater tubercle c. A: Adduct, flex, and medially rotate humerus 3. Pectoralis Minor a. O: Ribs 3-5 b. I: Coracoid process c. A: Depress and Protract scapula III. Injuries of the Shoulder B. Rotator cuff injuries 1. Rotator cuff muscles a. Supraspinatus b. Infraspinatus c. Teres Minor d. Subscapularis C. Dislocation D. Separation IV. Muscles of the Arm A. Triceps Group (1) 1. Innervated by Radial nerve 2. Triceps Brachii a. O: Long head: inferior glenoid tubercle Medial & Lateral Head: posterior surface of humerus b. I: Olecranon process c. A: Extend forearm, Extend humerus B. Brachial Group (3) 1. Innervated by Musculocutaneous nerve 2. Coracobrachialis a. O: Coracoid process b. I: Medial surface of humerus c. A: Adduct, flex, and medially rotate humerus 3. Brachialis a. O: Anterior surface of humerus b. I: Coronoid process and ulnar tuberosity c. A: Flex forearm 4. Biceps Brachii a. O: Long head: superior glenoid tubercle Short head: coracoid process b. I: Radial tuberosity c. A: Flex forearm, supinate forearm, flex humerus V. Wrist and Antebrachium A. Osteology 1. Hand a. Carpals b. Metacarpals c. Phalanges d. Thumb is referred to as pollex e. Thumb swings from the trapezium f. Capitate inline with middle digit g. Hamate articulates with 4 and 5 h. Radius articulates with the lunate and scaphoid Palmar View B. Joints of Hand and Wrist 1. Radiocarpal joint (ellipsoid) astRadius and Carpals 2. 1 carpometacarpal joint (saddle joint) a. Carpal and 5 metacarpal 3. Carpal joints (gliding) a. Between carpals 4. Metacarpophalangeal joint (ellipsoid) a. Metacarpals and phalanges 5. Interphalangeal joint (hinge) a. Between phalanges C. Ligaments 1. Radial and Ulnar Collateral 2. Palmar/Dorsal radiocarpal 3. Palmar/Dorsal radioulnar D. Connective Tissues 1. Extensor/Flexor retinacula a. Keeps tendons in place 2. Palmar aponeurosis (like the arch of foot) E. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome 1. Compression of median nerve 2. Idopathic a. No known cause 3. Paresthesia a. Numbness in digits F. Muscles 1. Brachioradialis a. O: Supracondylar crest of humerus b. I: Styloid process of radius c. A: Flexion at elbow d. Innervated by radial nerve e. Landmark between anterior and posterior compartment 2. Wrist and Finger Flexors (8) a. Innervated by Median and Ulnar nerves b. Ventral compartment c. Pronator Teres d. Flexor Carpi Radialis e. Palmaris Longus f. Flexor Carpi Ulnaris g. Flexor Digitorum Superficialis h. Flexor Digitorum Profundus i. Flexor Pollicis Longus j. Pronator Quadratus - crosses radioulnar joint (pronates forearm) k. Anterior compartment = pronator 3. Wrist and Finger Extensors (10) a. Dorsal compartment b. Innervated by radial nerve c. Extension d. Brachioradialis e. Extensor Carpi Ulnaris f. Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus g. Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis h. Extensor Digitorum i. Extensor Digiti Minimi j. Abductor Pollicis Longus k. Extensor Pollicis Brevis l. Extensor Pollicis Longus m. Extensor Indicis 5. Thenar Muscle Group a. Abductor pollicis brevis - Abducts thumb c. Flexor Pollicis Longus - Flexes thumb d. Opponens Pollicis - Medially rotates thumb bringing it into opposition with center of palm e. Adductor Pollicis - Adducts thumb toward middle digit VI. Arteries, Nerves, and Veins A. Brachial Plexus 1. Innervates the upper limb 2. Ventral rami from C5, C6, C7, C8, T1 3. Ventral rami fuse to form trunks a. Superior b. Middle c. Inferior 4. Trunks split to form divisions a. Posterior (3) b. Anterior (3) 5. Divisions fuse to form cords a. Medial b. Lateral c. Posterior 6. Cords split to form nerves a. 2 nerves arise form the posterior cord - Axillary: goes into the armpit - Radial: innervates triceps and extensors b. 3 nerves arise from the medial and lateral cords - Musculocutaneous: innervates brachial group - Median: innervates all flexors besides 2 (suicide nerve) - Ulnar: innervates 2 anterior muscles in the forearm C. Arteries 1. Subclavian artery  2. Axillary artery  3. Brachial artery  a. Runs into cubital fossa and then splits into radial artery and ulnar artery b. Radial artery runs with radial nerve c. Ulnar artery runs with the ulnar nerve B. Veins 1. Deep venous drainage of the superior limb a. Same as arteries 2. Superficial venous drainage a. Cephalic vein - lateral forearm - lateral upper arm - drains deep into axillary vein just before reaching clavicle c. Basilic vein - medial forearm - medial upper arm - drains deep into brachial vein just before reaching armpit


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