Anatomy Test 5
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 290 at James Madison University taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
Study Guide Test 5 – (Head and Neck) I. Structures of the Skull A. Bones of the Skull 1. Endochondral: starts as cartilage and then gradually mineralizes 2. Intramembranous: direct mineralization (no cartilaginous model) B. Base of your skull starts out as endochondral and the roof of the skull are intramembranous. C. Cranial Base Bones D. Ethmoid: associated with sense of smell a. Crista Galli b. Cribriform Plate i. Cranial nerve I (olfactory n) pass through holes in plate. c. Perpendicular Plate d. Lateral Masses B. Sphenoid: associated with special sense of sight a. Lesser Wing: i. Optic canal for cranial nerve II (optic n) ii. Superior orbital fissure: cranial nerves III (oculomotor n), IV (trochlear n), V1 (ophthalmic n), and VI (abducens n) pass through. b. Greater Wing i. Foramen rotundum: passageway for cranial nerve V 2maxillary n) ii. Foramen ovale: passageway for cranial nerve V 3mandibular n) c. Body d. Pterygoid Processes C. Temporal: associated with special senses of hearing and balance a. Petrous part i. Internal acoustic meatus: passageway for cranial nerves VII (facial n), VIII (vestibulocoholear n) b. Tympanic part c. Squamous part d. Styloid process i. Stylomastoid foramen: cranial nerve VII exits temporal bone through this. D. Occipital: most posterior part of cranial base a. Basilar Part i. Jugular Foramen: cranial nerves IX (glossopharyngeal n), X (vagus n), and XI (accessory n) and internal jugular vein pass through ii. Hypoglossal canal: cranial nerve XII (hypoglossal nerve) pass through b. Squamous Part E. Pharyngeal Arches a. Arch 1 i. Greater Wing of Sphenoid, and Ossicles (malleus and incus) b. Arch 2 i. Styloid process of temporal, ossicles, and hyoid bone (part of it) c. Arch 3 i. Hyoid bone (part of it) d. Arches 4-6 i. Laryngeal cartilages F. Roof and Face A. Roofing Bones i. Frontal(1) ii. Parietal(2) B. Facial bones i. Nasal(2) ii. Maxilary(2) iii. Zygomatic(2) iv. Lacrimal(2) v. Vomer(1) vi. Inferior nasal concha(2) vii. Palatine(2) viii. Mandible(1) C. Joints of the Cranium 1. Synarthroses (Fibrous Joints) i. Sutures ii. Fontanels - Posterior: closes 2-3 months - Anterolateral: closes at 6 months - Posterolateral: closes 6-18 months - Anterior: closes 1-3 years D. Temporal Mandibular Joint i. Modified hinge joint ii. Multiaxial movements iii. Articular disk iv. Ligaments - Temporomandibular - Sphenomandibular - Stylomandibular E. TMJ Syndrome i. Inflammation of the TMJ ii. Poorly understood iii. Many contributing factors - Alignment of teeth - Muscular tension - Repetitive bruxion iv. Various treatments II. Special Senses A. Olfaction A. Nasal Concha A. Superior B. Middle C. Inferior B. Cranial Nerve I (olfactory nerve) C. Nasal Septum A. Perpendicular plate of ethmoid B. Vomer C. Septal Cartilage D. Hard palate i. Maxilla ii. Palatine E. Paranasal Sinuses (fluid (air) filled space) i. Sphenoid ii. Frontal iii. All sinuses innervated by branches of CN V (trigeminal) B. Eye-Nose connection 1. Lacrimal gland (lysozyme) 2. Lacrimal Canal = canaliculus 3. Nasolacrimal duct (soft) 4. Nasolacrimal canal (body) C. Vision 1. Tunics a. Fibrous Layer i. Sclera – white of the eye that protects and shapes the eyeball. ii. Cornea – round, transparent window that allows light into the eye and serves as part of the light- bending apparatus of the eye. b. Vascular Layer i. Choroid – highly vascular, dark pigmented membrane. Dark membrane helps light from scattering around the eye. ii. Ciliary Body – continuous with the choroid anteriorly and is a thickened ring of tissue encircling the lens. Smooth muscle. (Ciliary muscle, ciliary processes, and suspensory ligaments) iii. Iris – lies between the cornea and the lens and is the colored part of the eye. Base is attached to ciliary body. Consists of two smooth muscles: sphincter muscle, and dilatory muscle, which surround the pupil. c. Neural Layer i. Retina – the deepest and most delicate tunic and is composed of two layers. ii. Optic disc – also called the blind spot because there are no photoreceptor cells located there. Optic nerve runs through this. iii. Macula lutea and Fovea centralis – center of the posterior retina is the macula, a pigmented oval within which is the fovea centralis. Fovea is the highest concentration of cone photoreceptor cells. d. Lens i. Thick transparent biconvex disc that changes shape to allow precise focusing of light on the retina. 2. Distance Vision a. Ciliary muscle relaxed b. Maximal tension on suspensory ligament c. Lens flattened D. Close up Vision A. Ciliary muscle contracting B. Less tension on suspensory ligaments C. Lens rounded E. Macular degeneration (loss of vision as we get older) F. Fluids A. Vitreous humor – formed embryonically and lasts a lifetime. i. Functions: transmitting light, supporting the posterior surface of the lens, holding the neural layer of the retina against the pigmented layer. B. Aqueous humor – made continuously and serves to supply nutrients and oxygen to the avascular lens and cornea. i. Drains from the eye via holes in the sclera. ii. Insufficient drainage of this fluid causes glaucoma. G. Muscles of the Eye a. Superior Rectus i. O: Tendinous ring attached to optic canal ii. I: Superior surface of eyeball iii. A: Turns eyeball superiorly b. Inferior Recuts i. O: Tendinous ring attached to optic canal ii. I: Inferior surface of eyeball iii. A: turns eyeball inferiorly c. Medial Rectus i. O: Tendinous ring attached to optic canal ii. I: Medial surface of eyeball iii. A: Turns eyeball medially d. Lateral Rectus i. O: Tendinous ring attached to optic canal ii. I: Lateral surface of eyeball iii. A: Turns eyeball laterally e. Superior Oblique i. O: Posterior orbit ii. I: Superior, posterolateral (via the trochlea) iii. A: Turns eyeball inferiorly and laterally f. Inferior Oblique i. O: Anteromedial floor of orbit ii. I: Inferior, posterolateral iii. A: Turns eyeball superiorly and laterally H. Eye Accessories a. Protection: i. Eyebrows ii. Eyelashes iii. Eyelids (palpabrae) b. Conjunctiva i. Anterior surface of eye and posterior surface of eyelids ii. Conjunctivitis = Pink eye D. Hearing and Balance 1. External Ear a. Auricle – a cartilaginous tube continues distally and forms the funnel-shaped auricle b. External Acoustic Meatus – the tympanic temporal extends laterally to form the tube-shaped external acoustic meatus. 2. Middle Ear a. Tympanic membrane – lateral surface of the middle ear cavity is bounded to the tympanic membrane, or eardrum. b. Auditory (Eustachian) tube – middle ear cavity retains its connection with the pharynx through a narrow auditory tube. Derived form the first pharyngeal pouch. c. Malleus Incus Stapes – form a body bridge from the tympanic membrane to the inner ear. (Derived form first arch) 3. Inner Ear a. Bony and membranous labyrinth i. Cochlea (hearing) ii. Vestibule iii. Semicircle ducts/canals (balance) iv. Bony labyrinth is filled with a fluid called perilymph b. Internal Acoustic Meatus i. Cranial nerves VII (facial n) and VIII (vestibulocochlear n) pass through here III. Brain and Cranial Nerves A. Brain Development 1. Dorsal hollow nerve cord a. Forebrain b. Midbrain c. Hindbrain B. White matter is on the inside C. Grey matter is on the outside A. Forebrain 1. Cerebrum a. Makes up most of the superior part of the brain. b. Divided into left and right hemispheres by a longitudinal fissure. c. Cerebral cortex is the very thin outer layer of the cerebrum. d. Divided into five lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital 2. Thalamus a. Composed of two egg-shaped masses that lie inferior to the corpus callosum of the cerebrum 3. Epithalamus a. Posterior to the thalamus and contains the pineal gland which produces melatonin and serotonin. 4. Hypothalamus a. Forms a ring of nuclei around the anterior thalamus. b. Pituitary gland projects inferiorly from the hypothalamus. B. Midbrain 1. Cerebral Aqueduct a. Runs through the center of the midbrain b. Cerebral spinal fluid flows through this C. Hindbrain 1. Pons 2. Medulla Oblongata 3. Cerebellum – “little brain” D. Ventricles 1. Hollow spaces within the brain 2. Filled with cerebrospinal fluid 3. Continuous with central canal 4. 4 ventricles in brain a. Lateral ventricles b. Third Ventricle c. Cerebral aqueduct d. Fourth Ventricle e. Central Canal E. Blood Vessels of the Head and Neck 1. Two pathways to get blood into the head: Vertebral artery and carotid artery. Common Carotid Subclavian A Internal Carotid Vertebral arteries Basilar A Capillaries of Circle of Willis and Cerebral arteries Capillaries of cerebrum 2. Draining Blood from the brain Superior Sagittal Inferior Sagittal Sinus Sinus Straight Sinus Transverse Sinus Sigmoid Sinus Internal Jugular Vein Brachiocephalic Vein F. Meninges 1. Dura Mater a. Outermost, loose-fitting i. Falx Cerebri – between right and left hemispheres of cerebrum ii. Falx Cerebelli – between right and left hemispheres of cerebellum iii. Tentorium Cerebelli – between cerebrum and cerebellum 2. Arachnoid mater a. Loose-fitting membrane that is deep to the dura mater b. Lies over a subarachnoid space, which is filled with cerebrospinal fluid. 3. Pia mater a. Delicate, well-vascularized membrane that clings tightly to the brain’s convolutions. G. Cranial Nerves 1. 12 pairs 2. Numbered in order A to P 3. 3 groups a. Atypical (2) b. Ventral root nerves (4) c. Dorsal root nerves (6) 4. Dorsal and ventral roots DO NOT fuse 5. Atypical a. CN I: olfactory nerve (smell) b. CN II: optic nerve (sight) c. Atypical because they are extensions of the forebrain 6. Ventral Root a. Innervate skeletal muscles derived from somites of the head (somatomotor) b. Extrinsic eye muscles c. Muscles of the tongue d. CN III: Oculomotor nerve (mm of eye, pupil, and ciliary body) e. CN IV: Trochlear nerve (Superior oblique) f. CN VI: Abducens nerve (lateral rectus) g. CN XII: Hypoglossal nerve (tongue) 7. Dorsal Root a. Sensory and Motor b. Four types of sensory innervation i. General body sensory (somatosensory) ii. General gut tube sensory (viscerosensory) iii. Special body sensory (hearing) iv. Special gut tube sensory (taste) c. Types of motor innervation i. Pharyngeal arch muscles (branchial motor), (skeletal muscle [not derived from somites]) ii. Parasympathetic autonomic (visceromtor), (smooth and cardiac muscle, glands) d. CN V: Trigeminal i. Ophthalmic V1 ii. Maxillary V2 iii. Mandibular V3 iv. V1-V3: sensory to head v. V3: branchial motor to muscle involved in chewing e. CN VII: Facial i. Special sensory: taste from anterior 2/3 of tongue ii. Branchial motor: muscles of face iii. Visceromotor: lacrimal and salivary glands f. CN VIII: Vestibulocochlear i. Special sensory: hearing (cochlear branch) ii. Special sensory: Balance and equilibrium (vestibular branch) g. CN IX: Glossopharyngeal i. Special sensory: taste posterior 1/3 of tongue ii. Somatosesnory: external ear, pharynx, middle ear iii. Branchial motor: stylopharyngeus muscle iv. Viscermotor: parotid gland h. CN X: Vagus i. Special sensory: a few taste buds on epiglottis and palate ii. Branchial motor: soft palate, pharynx, larynx iii. Visceromotor: most of gut tube i. CN XI: Accessory i. Branchial motor: trapezius and sternocleidomastoid IV. Pharyngeal Arches and Their Derivatives: I and II A. Pharyngeal Arches 1. Pouch: slit between arches a. Glands b. Other (eg. Eustachian tube) 2. Arch gives rise to: a. Arch cartilage or bone (endochondral) b. Arch muscle (skeletal) c. Arch nerve (dorsal roots) d. Arch blood vessel B. Pharyngeal Arch I: Mandibular Arch/Trigeminal Arch 1. Pouch derivatives a. Auditory (Eustachian tube) b. Middle ear cavity c. Tympanic membrane d. External acoustic meatus 2. Nerves a. Trigeminal (CN V) i. Sensory and Motor to face (chewing/biting) ii. V1: ophthalmic: sensory - Upper eyelid - Eyebrows - Forehead - Scalp - Eye iii. V2: maxillary: sensory - Somatosensory: midface - Viscerosensory: Nose, palate, sinuses iv. V3: mandibular: sensory and motor - Somatosensory: jaw - Viscerosesnory: cheeks, lower teeth, floor of mouth, anterior 2/3’s of tongue - Branchiomotor: arch 1 muscles B. Muscles a. Skeletal, Voluntary muscles b. Not derived form somites c. Receive motor innervation from dorsal root cranial nerves d. Tensor Tympani i. O: auditory tube ii. I: malleus iii. A: pulls malleus toward incus iv. “Shock absorber” e. Masseter i. O: inferior border of zygomatic arch ii. I: lateral surface of mandible at angle iii. A: elevates and protrudes mandible f. Temporalis i. O: Temporal fossa ii. I: Coronoid process of mandible iii. A: Elevates and retrudes mandible g. Lateral Pterygoid i. O: greater wing and pterygoid process of sphenoid ii. I: Mandibular condyle and tempormandibular joint iii. A: Bilateral: protrudes mandible Unilateral: side-to-side movement of mandible h. Medial Pterygoid i. O: Maxilla, palatine, and pterygoid process of sphenoid ii. I: Medial surface of mandible at angle iii. A: Bilateral: elevates mandible Unilateral: side-to-side movement of mandible i. Anterior Belly of Digastric i. O: Inferior margin of mandible near symphysis ii. I: Hyoid bone via connective tissue loop iii. A: Elevates and steadies hyoid j. Mylohyoid i. O: Medial surface of mandible from symphysis to molar teeth ii. I: Hyoid bone and midline raphe iii. A: Elevates floor of mouth and hyoid B. Pharyngeal Arch II: Hyoid Arch/Facial Arch 1. Derivatives a. Styloid process b. Stapes c. Hyoid bone d. Lesser horns e. Greater horns 2. Pouch derivatives a. Palatine tonsils (lymphatic tissue) b. Lining of anterior 2/3rds of tongue (skin) 3. Nerves a. Facial: CN VII b. Internal auditory canal 4. Muscles a. Stapedius i. O: Posterior wall of middle ear cavity ii. I: Stapes iii. A: Pulls stapes toward the incus b. Frontalis i. O: Galea aponeurotica ii. I: Skin of eyebrows iii. A: elevates eyebrows c. Occipitalis i. O: Occipital bone ii. I: Galea aponeurotica iii. A: Pulls scalp posteriorly d. Orbicularis Oculi i. O: Frontal and maxillary bones ii. I: Skin around Eye iii. A: Closes eyelids e. Orbicularis Oris i. O: Mandible, maxillae and skin around mouth ii. I: Encircles mouth inserting into skin of lips iii. A: Closes and protrudes lips f. Zygomaticus i. O: Zygomatic bone ii. I: Orbicularis oris iii. A: Elevates corners of mouth g. Buccinator i. O: External surfaces of mandible and maxilla ii. I: Orbicularis oris iii. A: Compresses cheek h. Platysma i. O: Fascia of superior thorax ii. I: Inferior lip, corners of mouth, and mandible iii. A: Depresses mandible and corners of mouth i. Stylohyoid i. O: Styloid process ii. I: Hyoid bone iii. A: Elevates and retracts hyoid j. Posterior belly digastric i. O: Mastoid process ii. I: Hyoid bone via connective tissue loop iii. A: Depresses mandible; with anterior digastric elevates and steadies hyoid during swallowing. C. Pharyngeal Arch III: Glossopharyngeal Nerve (CN IX) 1. Pouches a. Thymus Gland b. Inferior parathyroid gland c. Lining of Posterior 1/3 of the tongue 2. Nerve a. Glossopharyngeal (CN IX) i. Sensory and motor 3. Muscles a. Stylopharyngeus i. O: Styloid process ii. I: Posterior and superior borders of thyroid cartilage iii. A: Elevates pharynx and larynx during swallowing and speaking D. Pharyngeal Arch IV-VI: Vagus n (CN X) and Accessory n (CN XI) 1. Derived Structures a. Pharynx (posterior) i. Throat (arch 4-6 muscle) ii. Air and food passageway iii. Nasopharynx (auditory tube) iv. Oropharynx (tonsils) v. Laryngopharynx (epiglottis to cricoid cartilage) b. Larynx (anterior) i. Voicebox (arch 4-6 cartilage and muscle) ii. Air passageway to trachea and lungs iii. Prevents food from entering trachea and lungs iv. Epiglottis v. Thyroid – produces and stores hormones that regulate metabolism, heart rate, body temp, development, and etc. vi. Cricoid vii. Corniculate viii. Arytenoid 2. Pouch derivatives a. Thyroid gland b. Superior parathyroid glands c. Lining of posterior 1/3 of the tongue 3. Nerves a. Vagus N (CN X) i. Sensory and motor b. Accessory N (CN XI) i. Motor 4. Muscles a. Circothyroid i. O: Anterolateral cricoid cartilage ii. I: Inferior margin of thyroid cartilages iii. A: Stretches/tenses vocal fold b. Thyroarytenoid i. O: Posterior surface of thyroid cartilage ii. I: Arytenoid cartilages iii. A: Relaxes vocal fold c. Superior Constrictor i. O: Pteryoid processes and posterior mandible ii. I: Median raphe of pharynx iii. A: Constrict wall of pharynx during swallowing d. Middle Constrictor i. O: Stylohyoid ligament, and hyoid ii. I: Median raphe of pharynx iii. A: Constrict wall of pharynx during swallowing e. Inferior Constrictor i. O: Thyroid and cricoid cartilages ii. I: Median raphe of pharynx iii. A: Constrict wall of pharynx during swallowing 5. Tongue a. Taste i. Arches 1,2,3,4 ii. CN V3, VII, IX, X b. Food manipulation c. Speech d. Muscles i. Extrinsic (move tongue) - Styloglossus - Hyoglossus - Genioglossus ii. Intrinsic (change shape of tongue) - Intrinsic tongue muscle iii. Innervated by Hypoglossal nerve (CN XII) iv. Not pharyngeal arch muscles v. Derived from somites V. The Nonpharyngeal Neck A. Hypaxial Muscles of the Neck 1. Ventral Rami of Spinal nerves a. Rectus muscles i. Sternothyroid ii. Thyrohyoid iii. Sternohyoid iv. Omohyoid b. Scalene muscles i. Anterior Scalene ii. Middle Scalene iii. Posterior Scalene iv. Levator Scapulae c. Prevertebral muscles i. Flexion of head and neck B. Epaxial muscles of neck a. Dorsal rami of spinal nerves b. Splenius c. Semispinalis C. Arteries 1. Branches of the Aortic Arch a. Common carotid b. Subclavian c. Brachiocephalic 2. Four Branches of the Subclavian a. Vertebral b. Thyrocervical c. Costocervical 3. Branches of the External Carotid a. Superior thyroid artery b. Lingual Artery c. Facial Artery d. Occipital Artery e. Posterior Auricular Artery f. Maxillary Artery g. Superficial Temporal Artery D. Veins 1. Dural Sinuses a. Collect blood from intracranial arteries B. Retromandibular Veins collects blood from: a. Superficial temporal vein b. Maxillary vein C. Internal Jugular Vein collects blood from: a. Common Facial Vein b. Superior Thyroid Vein D. External Jugular Vein collects blood from: a. Occipital Vein E. Subclavian Vein collects blood from: a. External Jugular Vein b. Internal Jugular Vein 2. Brachiocephalic Vein collects blood from a. Subclavian Vein b. Then leads to heart via Superior Vena Cava
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